Comparative Toxicities of Hydrastis Canadensis L., Berberis aristata DC.and Achillea millefolium L.Against Brine Shrimps (Artemia salina) Using Dosage Mortality Curve: A Probit Approach
Mahwish Ahmed Karim, Ghazala H. Rizwani, Afaq Ahmed Sidddiqui and Muhammad Farhanullah Khan
Abstract: Hydrastis canadensis, Berberis aristata DC. and Achillea millefolium were compared for their toxicities against brine shrimps (Artemia salina). After applying statistical method of probits to the experimental data, H. canadensis was found to be the most toxic with the LC50of 3.236 mg/ml, while, B. aristata showed moderate toxic potential showing that of 60.264 mg/ml and A. millefolium manifested the highest value, that is, 41297.5 mg/ml.
Keywords: Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberis aristata DC. and Achillea millefolium L., invitrotoxicity assay, Artemiasalina, Probit, LC50.
Analysis of Nutritional Components of Horse Radish Tree Flowers (Moringa oleifera) Wildly Grown in Sindh Province
Pages 213-220Creative Commons License
Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Benish Nawaz Mirani, Shafi Muhammad Nizamani, Aijaz Hussain Soomro and Aasia Akbar Panhwar
Published: 10 May 2017
Abstract: The present research study was aimed at determining the proximate and mineral composition of horse radish tree flowers by utilizing standard methodologies. The mean moisture content in fresh, thermally dehydrated, curry, shade dried and boiled fresh /processed samples of horse radish tree flowers was 80.98, 5.40, 68.07, 5.84 and 86.26%, respectively. The vegetable had the highest pH, carbohydrates, total solids, nitrogen free extracts and calorific values in thermally dried samples and crude fiber, ash and protein values were higher in shade dried samples. Whereas, fat and total fatty acids were found higher in curry samples. There was a significant presence of dietary essential micro-nutrients. It was therefore revealed that horse radish tree flowers(Moringa oleifera) when consumed in curry form could also be a good source of nutrients. The inclusion of horse radish tree flowers into the diet could potentially address some of the challenges, such as health benefits, food security and increase life expectancy in Sindh, Pakistan.
Keywords: Nontraditional vegetable, horse radish tree flowers(Moringa oleifera), proximate and minerals.
Removal of Pesticide Residues from Tomato and its Products
Aasia Akbar Panhwar, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Aijaz Hussain Soomro and Ghulam Hussain Abro
Published: 29 December 2014
Abstract: Plant protection agents (more commonly known as pesticides) are widely used in agriculture to increase the yield, improve the quality and extend the storage life of food crops. The study was carried out in order to determine the effectiveness of various traditional processing treatments on reducing the residual load of pesticides from tomato and its products. Results showed that lipid soluble pesticides residues were reduced most effectively in sun-drying (90-97%) followed by frying (91-99%) and thermal dehydration (89-90%). The data further indicated that profenofos residues dislodged more effectively than bifenthrin and endosulfan. The least reduction was noticed in endosulfan residues. Similarly in case of water soluble pesticides, the effect of sun-drying, frying and thermal dehydration on reduction of pesticide residues were within the range of 94-97%, 92-96% and 91-96%, respectively. Maximum reduction was found in emamectin benzoate residues followed by imidacloprid and diafenthiuron.
Keywords: Tomato, vegetables, pesticide residues, washing, cooking.
Bacterial Load and Antimicrobial Profile ofEscherichia coliandListeria spp. Isolates from Muscle Tissues of Slaughtered Cattle at a Major Abattoir in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria
Victoria O. Adetunji, Hezekiah K. Adesokan, Charity A. Agada and Tajudeen O. Isola
Published: 11 July 2014
Abstract: Meat is prone to contamination by pathogenic organisms during slaughter and processing due to unhygienic practices in Nigeria. In recent times, there has been an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant foodborne pathogens due to increased drug misuse in livestock industry. We assessed the level of microbial contamination of fresh muscle tissues from cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan immediately after slaughter and also determined the antibiogram of Escherichia coli and Listeria spp isolates from the muscle tissues. These were done using standard plate and Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion techniques for bacteriological assay and antibiotic sensitivity testing, respectively. We found that the muscle tissues from the slaughtered cattle were highly contaminated, with the Total Aerobic (6.59±0.94 log cfu/g), coliform (6.43±0.67 log cfu/g) and Listeria (6.96±0.32 log cfu/g) counts being higher than the acceptable international standards. Isolated E. coli and Listeria spp demonstrated 100% resistance to all tested antibiotics. We thus recommend further studies to be carried out on the molecular characteristics of antibiotic resistant genes responsible for transferability of bacterial resistance among foodborne pathogens in Nigeria.
Keywords: Beef, microbial contamination, E. coli, Listeria spp, antibiotic resistance.
Influence of Rootstocks (Gisela 5, Gisela 6, MaxMa, SL 64) on Performance of ‘0900 Ziraat’ Sweet Cherry
Erdal Ağlar and Kenan Yıldız
Published: 12 March 2014
Abstract: This study was carried out in order to determine the effect of rootstocks (Gisela 5, Gisela 6, MaxMa 14 and SL 64) on performance of sweet cherry cultivar ‘0 900 Ziraat’ during 2010-2013 years. The trail in randomized block design was established as to factorial design. Each graft combination included 20 trees. The trees was trained as Spanish Bush training system. At the end of study, effect of rootstocks on vegetative growth was found significant. It has been determined that the trees grafted on SL 64 and MaxMa 14 rootstocks were more vigorous than the those grafted on Gisela 5 and Gisela 6. The rootstocks formed significant differences at the precocity. While the first blooming on the trees grafted on Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks occurred at the second year after planting, the first blooming on the trees on MaxMa 14 and SL 64 rootstocks occurred at fourth year after planting. It has been determined that occur significant differences on yield per tree and yield efficiency among rootstocks. In terms of yield per tree and yield efficiency, While the lowest value was in SL 64 rootstock, the highest value was recorded in Gisela 5, and it has been determined that the differences between three rootstocks (Gisela 5, Gisela 6 and MaxMa 14) were not significant. While fruits weight varied according to the rootstock used in study, the trees grafted on Gisela 5 had the smallest fruit. Accompanied with differences between MaxMa 14 and SL 64 rootstocks were not significant, the biggest fruits were produced on trees grafted on SL 64 rootstock. As a result of the statistical analysis, it has determined that the rootstocks that used in trial did not create significant differences on soluble solids content (SSC) value. One of the most significant diagnosis was 6 % mortality rate that occurred on trees grafted Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks.
Keywords: Rootstock, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, MaxMa, SL 64, Prunus avium, 0900 Ziraat.
Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Three Districts of Sindh in Pakistan
Pages 611-615Creative Commons License
Farah Sharif, Imtiaz Ahmad and Rafia Rehana Ghazi
Published: 24 November 2017
Abstract: This study was conducted to record cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human beings from three districts i.e., Dadu, Hyderabad and Jamshoro in Sindh, Pakistan. A total number of 102 subjects of different age and sex groups were put under investigation. Ninety four (92.157%) were found positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis. The highest leishmaniasis infection (41%) was recorded in 21-30 years’ age group. The prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in males, (56%) than in females, (44%). The active lesion was more frequent on face (35%), on legs (26%) and on hands (25%) than other exposed parts of the body. Forty five percent of cutaneous leishmaniasis case were recorded in Dadu, 35 percent in Hyderabad, and 20 percent in Jamshoro.
Keywords: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Human infection, Hyderabad, Jamshoro and Dadu, Sindh.
Loaf Characteristics and Sensory Properties of whole Wheat Bread Fortified with Sorghum and Rice Flour
Pages 606-610Creative Commons License
Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi, Nida Shaikh, Asadullah Marri, Aijaz Hussain Soomro and Shahzor Gul Khaskheli
Published: 20 November 2017
Abstract: Bread is a common staple food in developing countries and also in many other regions of the world. The loaf characteristic and sensory attributes of bread samples prepared by using different composite flours in which ratio of whole wheat flour, sorghum flour and rice flour kept as 100:0:0 (F1), 80:10:10 (F2) and 60:20:20 (F3) was evaluated. The composite flours F1, F2 and F3 were subsequently used for making bread samples i.e. whole wheat bread (WWB), sorghum rice bread-1 (SRB-1) and sorghum rice bread-2 (SRB-2), respectively. The results indicated that significantly higher loaf weight (g) was recorded in SRB-2 followed by SRB-1 and WWB. Significantly higher bread height (cm) was noticed in SRB-1 followed by WWB and SRB-2. The bread sample WWB was found to have significantly higher volume and specific volume followed by SRB-1 and SRB-2. It was also revealed that significantly higher average score for bread crust color was perceived by WWB. However, bread sample SRB-1 perceived significantly higher score (P<0.05) for crumb color, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability. It is concluded from present study that fortification of bread with different proportions of rice and sorghum flour was found to improve sensory attributes of the bread samples rather than loaf characteristics.
Keywords: Bread, whole wheat flour, sorghum flour, rice flour and sensory attributes.
Impact of Logarithmic Transformation on the Restoration of Normality in Bioequivalence Data
Pages 597-605Creative Commons License
Naila Khatoon Phullan, Mehrunisa Memon, Javaid Ahmed Shah, Muhammad Yousuf Memon, Tanveer Ali Sial, Naheed Akhtar Talpur and Ghulam Mujtaba Khushk
Published: 16 November 2017
Abstract: The Logarithmic Transformation is widely used to address the skewness and assumes the normality assumption of the bioequivalence data but this may not be true in all cases unless the underlying assumption is taken into account and verified that the randomly generated data is normally distributed in the BE studies. Instead of restoring the normality in the data, the Log-Transformation may introduce new problems like inducing skewness with an increase in variability, which are even more difficult to deal with, then the original problem of non-normal distribution of data. Pharmacokinetic parameters, derived from the real biodata of the bioequivalence study of Glimepiride 4mg tablet was statistically analyzed, with and without, Log-Transformation through ANOVA and the two were compared for normality assumption through the standard testing for normality like Shapiro-Wilk and Q-Q Plots. The comparison of the conclusive results from both approaches, linear and log-transformed data, does not conclude any significant difference. A further investigation is required to strengthen this notion and to identify the circumstances and situations where the deterministic parameters are ascertained to select a suitable model for the data analysis and conclusion. The alternative analytic methods that eliminate the need of transforming non-normal data distributions prior to analysis, like Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney two one-sided test which has been recommended by Hauschke et al., Hodges-Lehmann estimator or the other newer analytic distribution-free methods, that are not dependent on the distribution of data like the generalized estimating equations (GEE) are recommended.
Keywords: Bioequivalence, Log-transformation, Normality, Normal Distribution, Log-Normal Distribution, Skewness, Confidence Interval, Hypothesis testing, Outliers
Estimation of Exopolysaccharides (EPS) Producing Ability of Cr (VI) Resistant Bacterial Strains from Tannery Effluent
Pages 589-596Creative Commons License
Rida Batool, Usama Marghoob and Asma Kalsoom
Published: 16 November 2017
Abstract: Chromium is a known heavy metal and recognized as a carcinogen to the biological systems. Previously isolated Cr (VI) resistant Exiguobacterium UE1 and UE4 were used in this study. These strains were analysed for exopolysaccharides (EPS) production for the remediation of Cr (VI) contaminated soils. Both the strains could tolerate about 250µg/ml of Cr (VI) stress. Strain UE1 showed 100% Cr (VI) removal whereas UE4 reduced 99.2% at an initial concentration of K2CrO4 100µgml-1. Optimum growth was observed at 37ºC and pH 7 for both strains. Strains exhibited significant EPS production under Cr (VI) stress and non-stress conditions. However, UE1 showed increased production of released as well as loosely bound EPS (0.36g/100ml and 0.152g/100ml respectively) under Cr (VI) supplemented condition. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) technique confirmed the presence of sugars in EPS samples after hydrolysis. Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed the involvement of various functional groups such as hydroxyl group and aromatic compounds in the binding of Cr (VI) ions to the EPS. These findings suggest that strains UE1 and UE4 isolated from local tanneries of Pakistan can be used for remediation of Cr (VI) pollutes soils.
Keywords: Chromium reduction, exopolysaccharides, protein estimation, tanning industries, bioremediation, heavy metals, FTIR and TLC etc
Response of Various Nitrogen Levels on the Growth and Yield Performance of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.)
Pages 583-588Creative Commons License
Qadir Bux Baloch, Altaf Hussain, Niaz Ahmed Wahocho, Nasir Ali Baloch, Safdar Ali Wahocho, Arshad Ali Kaleri, Rameez Raja Kaleri and Abdul Qadir Gola
Published: 16 November 2017
Abstract: Nitrogen (N) fertilization at optimum quantity to cultivated plants is essential for sustainable crop productivity. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of nitrogen fertilizers on the growth and yield traits of tomato during 2016, at the experimental field of Orchard, Department of Horticulture, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. Six nitrogen treatment doses were tested (T1 =control (untreated), T2 = 30 N kg ha-1, T3 = 60 N kg ha-1, T4 = 90 N kg ha-1, T5 = 120 N kg ha-1 and T6 = 150 N kg ha-1.). The data were recorded on the number of branches plant-1, days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of fruits plant-1, weight of single fruit (g), yield plot-1 and yield ha-1 (tons). The results demonstrated that N fertilization showed significant influence on both vegetative and reproductive traits of tomato. On the contrary, plants which were not fertilized with N displayed minimum values for all investigated traits. The highest N level (150 kg ha-1) showed maximum number of branches (5.51) plant-1, minimum day to flowering (42.43) less days to fruiting (46.00), more fruits plant-1 (31.00) maximum weight of single fruit (46.50 g) and highest fruit yield plot-1 (21.01 kg) and per hectare (14008 tons), respectively. It was concluded that the crop growth and productivity was significantly influenced by various levels of nitrogen. However, 150 N kg ha-1 as compared to 120 N and other concentrations considerably displayed better performance in terms of vegetative and reproductive traits of tomato. Hence for optimum growth and economically higher yield, the tomato crop may be fertilized with 150 N kg ha-1.
Keywords: Nitrogen, Growth, Yield, Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).