Removal of Pesticide Residues from Tomato and its Products
Aasia Akbar Panhwar, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Aijaz Hussain Soomro and Ghulam Hussain Abro
Published: 29 December 2014
Abstract: Plant protection agents (more commonly known as pesticides) are widely used in agriculture to increase the yield, improve the quality and extend the storage life of food crops. The study was carried out in order to determine the effectiveness of various traditional processing treatments on reducing the residual load of pesticides from tomato and its products. Results showed that lipid soluble pesticides residues were reduced most effectively in sun-drying (90-97%) followed by frying (91-99%) and thermal dehydration (89-90%). The data further indicated that profenofos residues dislodged more effectively than bifenthrin and endosulfan. The least reduction was noticed in endosulfan residues. Similarly in case of water soluble pesticides, the effect of sun-drying, frying and thermal dehydration on reduction of pesticide residues were within the range of 94-97%, 92-96% and 91-96%, respectively. Maximum reduction was found in emamectin benzoate residues followed by imidacloprid and diafenthiuron.
Keywords: Tomato, vegetables, pesticide residues, washing, cooking.
Bacterial Load and Antimicrobial Profile ofEscherichia coliandListeria spp. Isolates from Muscle Tissues of Slaughtered Cattle at a Major Abattoir in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria
Victoria O. Adetunji, Hezekiah K. Adesokan, Charity A. Agada and Tajudeen O. Isola
Published: 11 July 2014
Abstract: Meat is prone to contamination by pathogenic organisms during slaughter and processing due to unhygienic practices in Nigeria. In recent times, there has been an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant foodborne pathogens due to increased drug misuse in livestock industry. We assessed the level of microbial contamination of fresh muscle tissues from cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan immediately after slaughter and also determined the antibiogram of Escherichia coli and Listeria spp isolates from the muscle tissues. These were done using standard plate and Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion techniques for bacteriological assay and antibiotic sensitivity testing, respectively. We found that the muscle tissues from the slaughtered cattle were highly contaminated, with the Total Aerobic (6.59±0.94 log cfu/g), coliform (6.43±0.67 log cfu/g) and Listeria (6.96±0.32 log cfu/g) counts being higher than the acceptable international standards. Isolated E. coli and Listeria spp demonstrated 100% resistance to all tested antibiotics. We thus recommend further studies to be carried out on the molecular characteristics of antibiotic resistant genes responsible for transferability of bacterial resistance among foodborne pathogens in Nigeria.
Keywords: Beef, microbial contamination, E. coli, Listeria spp, antibiotic resistance.
Influence of Rootstocks (Gisela 5, Gisela 6, MaxMa, SL 64) on Performance of ‘0900 Ziraat’ Sweet Cherry
Erdal Ağlar and Kenan Yıldız
Published: 12 March 2014
Abstract: This study was carried out in order to determine the effect of rootstocks (Gisela 5, Gisela 6, MaxMa 14 and SL 64) on performance of sweet cherry cultivar ‘0 900 Ziraat’ during 2010-2013 years. The trail in randomized block design was established as to factorial design. Each graft combination included 20 trees. The trees was trained as Spanish Bush training system. At the end of study, effect of rootstocks on vegetative growth was found significant. It has been determined that the trees grafted on SL 64 and MaxMa 14 rootstocks were more vigorous than the those grafted on Gisela 5 and Gisela 6. The rootstocks formed significant differences at the precocity. While the first blooming on the trees grafted on Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks occurred at the second year after planting, the first blooming on the trees on MaxMa 14 and SL 64 rootstocks occurred at fourth year after planting. It has been determined that occur significant differences on yield per tree and yield efficiency among rootstocks. In terms of yield per tree and yield efficiency, While the lowest value was in SL 64 rootstock, the highest value was recorded in Gisela 5, and it has been determined that the differences between three rootstocks (Gisela 5, Gisela 6 and MaxMa 14) were not significant. While fruits weight varied according to the rootstock used in study, the trees grafted on Gisela 5 had the smallest fruit. Accompanied with differences between MaxMa 14 and SL 64 rootstocks were not significant, the biggest fruits were produced on trees grafted on SL 64 rootstock. As a result of the statistical analysis, it has determined that the rootstocks that used in trial did not create significant differences on soluble solids content (SSC) value. One of the most significant diagnosis was 6 % mortality rate that occurred on trees grafted Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks.
Keywords: Rootstock, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, MaxMa, SL 64, Prunus avium, 0900 Ziraat.
Screening, Production and Optimization of L-Asparaginase From Soil Bacteria Isolated in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria
Sherifah M. Wakil and Adesewa A. Adelegan
Published: 21 January 2015
Abstract: L-Asparaginase producing bacteria were isolated from soil samples under optimum conditions using submerged fermentation. Their abilities to produce asparaginase at different pH, temperature, incubation temperature, utilization of different carbon and nitrogen sources as well as their specific conditions for optimal activity were also investigated. Streptococcus spp. D1, Bacillus polymyxa and Streptococcus spp. D2 showed optimum asparaginase production at pH 8 with activities of 11.6 U/ml, 8.8 U/ml and 7.9 U/ml respectively. The pH 7 was observed as optimum pH for Bacillus firmus (8.8 U/ml) while optimum pH 6 was observed for Bacillus circulans and Paenibacillus validus. Maximum L-asparaginase productivity was attained at a temperature of 45°Cby Bacillus firmus, Streptococcus sp. D1 and Bacillus circulans with activity of 4.6 U/ml, 5.6 U/ml and 3.8 U/ml respectively while 35°C incubation temperature was optimum for Paenibacillus validus and Bacillus polymyxa with enzyme activity of 6.2 U/ml and 6.1 U/ml respectively. Mannitol supported the maximum asparaginase production of Bacillus circulans, Streptococcus sp. D2 and Bacillus polymyxa while maltose was observed as the best carbon source for Streptococcus sp. D1 and Bacillus firmus; and sucrose for Paenibacillus validus. The optimum nitrogen source was casein for Bacillus circulans (7.57 U/ml) and Streptococcus spp. D1 (6.19 U/ml), Yeast extract for Bacillus polymyxa (7.037 U/ml)and Bacillus firmus(5.368 U/ml) while NaNO3 supported optimum L-asparaginase production for Streptococcus sp. D2 (6.006 U/ml) and Paenibacillus validus (4.754 U/ml). At optimum conditions, Bacillus polymyxa had the highest (4.835 U/ml) while Bacillus circulans had the least (2.981 U/ml) asparaginase activity. In all, the bacterial isolates prefers slightly alkaline to alkaline medium (pH 6-8) for optimum asparaginase production.
Keywords: Submerge fermentation, L-asparaginase, enzyme activity, optimum condition.
Feeding Potential of Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) Against Sucking Insect Pests
Aslam Bukero, Maqsood Anwar Rustamani, Ghulam Hussain Abro and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi
Published: 26 December 2014
Abstract: This laboratory experiment was conducted to find out the feeding performance and larval development of Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricuis) on Aphis gossypii (Glov.), Bemisia tabaci (Ginn.) and Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Distant) at 26 ± 2ºC temperature and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. The result indicated that the 3rd and 4th instar larvae of the beetle consumed 76.20 ± 3.44 and 79.7 ± 0.77 nymphs of A. gossypii /day followed by (23.0 ± 0.77) and (23.4 ± 0.75) nymphs of B. tabaci and (19.73 ± 1.17) and (21.55 ± 0.77) nymphs of A. b. biguttula, respectively as compared to 1st and 2nd instar larvae. Adult female consumed maximum (101.0 ± 0.55) nymphs of A. gossypii /day followed by (26.90 ± 0.27) nymphs of B. tabaci and (22.16 ± 0.20) nymphsof A. b. biguttula as compared to male. The result further revealed that the 4th instar larva consumed highest number 159.4 ± 7.35 of A. gossypii nymphs during its life span followed by (93.8 ± 3.02) and (86.2 ± 3.09) nymphs of B. tabaci and A. b. biguttula, respectively. Similarly, the adult female devoured highest number of nymphs (3040.2 ± 26.4) of A. gossypii followed by B. tabaci (807.0±8.1) and A. b. biguttula (664.98±6.0) during its life span as compare to male. The shortest life span was recorded on A. gossypiias compared to A. b. biguttula and B. tabaci, There was highly significant difference in consumption rate and development period of larvae and adult beetles on different prey species (P<0.05).
Keywords: Feeding efficiency, developmental period, Menochilus sexmaculatus, Aphis gossypii, Bemisia tabaci, Amrasca biguttula biguttula.
Continuous Ethanol Fermentation in Immersed, Cross-Flow Microfiltration Membrane Bioreactor with Cell Retention
Olga Radočaj and Levente L. Diosady
Published: 26 December 2014
Abstract: The key objective of this study was to devise a continuous ZeeWeed® membrane-based, immersed, microfiltration (MF) laboratory scale fermentation system for ethanol production with cell retention to achieve effective ethanol productivity, flux rates and sugar utilization. The new bioreactor was compared to the fermentation kinetics’ of the ultrafiltration unit.A synthetic glucose based medium was fermented by fresh, baker’s yeast to produce ethanol. The cells were not recycled; the medium was continuously withdrawn by filtration through an internal, immersed hollow-fiber cartridge. In this way, the inside of the membrane was exposed to the ethanolic solution, while broth with viable yeast cells remained outside the membrane. This design, with a cell retention system, provided much less membrane fouling (loss of about 76% of the original water flux after 96 hours of filtration) than while using the ultrafiltration (UF) external hollow-fiber membrane with cell recycling (loss of 97% of the original water flux after 2-3 hours of operation). Both modules converted at least 95% of glucose with biomass concentration of 30 g/L, and the final ethanol concentration of 62 g/L. However, the UF membrane became plugged after only 2 hrs of operation. The ZeeWeed® membrane operated successfully for 96 hrs with a final flux of 4 L/h m2 with ethanol concentration of 62.4 g/l, biomass yield 0.34 g/g and cell viability of 95.3%. This concept could be successfully used for biofuel production. A very strong positive correlation was observed between the biomass and EtOH concentration (R=0.98; at p<0.05).
Keywords: Continuous ethanol fermentation, hollow fiber, cross-flow microfiltration, membrane bioreactor, cell retention, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Techniques to Identify and Test PCB Faults with Proposed Solution
Ambreen Insaf, Mirza Salman Baig, Zeeshan Alam Nayyar and Mirza Aman Baig
Published: 18 December 2014
Abstract: Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are getting more complex day by day because of vast and modern technology. Analyzing PCB’s failure and their reason of failing is a challenging task but despite how faulty they may be, they can be diagnosed and repair. Modern PCBs consist of fine pitch components including unidentified, non-testable and customized parts, which make it difficult to troubleshoot and repair. Modern PCBs cannot test and repair using generic Automatic Test Equipments (ATEs), unlike simple ones. Successful repair of such types of PCBs is an art more than science. PCB troubleshooting and fault analysis needs a good theoretical knowledge and analytical thinking. It is not something, which can only study from books, but it can gain through constant troubleshooting and experiencing. Keeping in view above mentioned problems this research focused on exploring diagnosis skills and techniques used to identify faults in such Integrated Circuits (ICs) and components using VI instrument. As a result, reducing equipment downtime and high costs need in PCB repairs.
Keywords: Troubleshoot and repair, VI instrument, customized components, Printed Circuit Board (PCB), defective component.
An Assessment of Wheat Procurement Issues in Jafferabad District of Balochistan
Parvez A. Rind, Abdul Latif Bhutto, Rafique A. Chandio, Khalid N. Panhwar and Aijaz A. Khooharo
Published: 18 December 2014
Abstract: Exploitation of farmers’ profit margins by middlemen is well documented and reported by various studies. In this regard, public sector initiated support price and procurement policies especially for wheat. Presently, Pakistan Agricultural Storage and Services Corporation (PASSCO) is a key procurement agency in Pakistan. It has been reported that in certain cases, PASSCO do not reach directly to farmers for the purchase of wheat. Hence, the role of middlemen in procurement of wheat is once again emerging and leaving low profit margins for the farmers. In this regard, this study aimed to assess wheat procurement issues in Jaffarabad district of Balochistan. Quite a large majority of the respondents were aware about seed dealers (69.4%), whole sellers (66.6%) and commission agents (62.5%). On the other hand, majority (55.5%) of the respondents were not aware about procurement centers of PASSCO. Price variation by various wheat procurement agencies was observed from Rs. 22.50kg-1 offered by seed dealer to Rs. 31.25 kg-1 offered by PASSCO. One fourth (25.0%) of the respondents opted “lack availability of gunny bags” as one of the top most problem in selling wheat while 20.8% respondents reported for timely availability (especially during harvesting season) of gunny bags as a serious problem. Lack of coordination was reported by 13.8% while the same proportion of the respondents was of the opinion “delay in announcement of the support price” is one of the most important issues. Majority (94.44%) of the farmers suggested that the transport facilities should be provided to farming community for transport of their wheat from farm to market.
Keywords: Wheat Procurement, PASSCO, Support Price..
Role of Mass Media in Dissemination of Agricultural Technology among the Farmers of Jaffarabad District of Balochistan
Inayatullah Memon, Khalid N. Panhwar, Rafique A. Chandio, Abdul Latif Bhutto and Aijaz A. Khooharo
Published: 18 December 2014
Abstract: Agricultural extension is essentially a message delivery system organized to convey the latest findings ofagricultural research to farmers. Effective communication is therefore, the prime requirement in extension work. This study conducted during 2013 attempted to examine the role of mass media in dissemination of agricultural technology among the farmers of Jaffarabad district of Balochistan province of Pakistan. The results revealed majority of the respondents were male (80%), belonged to the age group of 31-40 years (45.35%), and with formal education of (31%). Information regarding agricultural farming revealed that three-fourth (75%) of the respondents owned personal land, medium size of farms (12.5-50.0 acres) were more common (52%). Majority (70.93%) of the respondents perceived that the sources of media used in the area are highly conventional. About two third (66.28%) of the respondents perceived that the sources of media for agricultural information was highly accessible. Relative majority of the respondents (40.70%) supposed to prefer listening to agricultural programs between 8 pm to 12.00 am; 33.72% respondents showed preference for listening to agricultural programs from 4.00 -8.00 pm. Majority (70.93%) of the respondents considered the information receiving through mass media is highly relevant in solving agriculture problems. Majority (41.86%) of the respondents reported infrastructural development due to agricultural information received through mass media and 22.09 percent found that agricultural information received through mass media was helpful in capacity building. Regarding major obstacles in receiving information, 31.40 percent respondents reported power failure, followed by high cost (24.42%), and poor signals (12.79%).
Keywords: Mass Media, Agricultural Technology Transfer, and Agricultural Extension.
Sewage Sludge Compost as Potting Media Component for ivy Pelargonium (Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L’Her.) Production
Agnieszka Zawadzińska and Piotr Salachna
Published: 12 December 2014
Abstract: The increasing demand and raising cost of high quality peat for horticultural use have led to search for low cost substrates as an alternative. The source of materials for their production can be various types of industrial, municipal and agricultural waste. Most of them are rich in organic matter and minerals essential for plant growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the growth and flowering of two ivy pelargonium cultivars (‘Beach’ and ‘Boneta’) grown in the media containing sphagnum peat and composts made from municipal sewage sludge and structure-forming components. Two different types of composts were used, consisting in equal proportions of sewage sludge and straw (SSRS) or leaves (SSL). The composts replaced 25% or 12.5% of sphagnum peat (v/v) in the growth media. A control media was sphagnum peat (100%) supplemented with a mixed fertilizer.
It was found that the media containing both types of compost might be useful for growing ivy pelargonium. The most beneficial effect on the growth, foliage, and a decorative value of the pelargonium was observed for the medium containing 12.5% of SSL compost and 87.5% of peat. Decorative value of the pelargonium grown in the medium with 25% of SSL compost or with either dose of SSRS compost, did not differ from the control plants. The investigated cultivars differed in the number of shoot, color and area of leaves as well as length of stem of inflorescence. ‘Boneta’ cv. developed more stems and had greener leaves than those from ’Beach’ cultivar. While cultivar ‘Beach’ had greater area of leaves per plant and longer stem of inflorescence.
Keywords: Bedding plants, decorative values, growing media, ornamental plant, sphagnum peat, rye straw, waste material.