Comparative Toxicities of Hydrastis Canadensis L., Berberis aristata DC.and Achillea millefolium L.Against Brine Shrimps (Artemia salina) Using Dosage Mortality Curve: A Probit Approach
Mahwish Ahmed Karim, Ghazala H. Rizwani, Afaq Ahmed Sidddiqui and Muhammad Farhanullah Khan
Abstract: Hydrastis canadensis, Berberis aristata DC. and Achillea millefolium were compared for their toxicities against brine shrimps (Artemia salina). After applying statistical method of probits to the experimental data, H. canadensis was found to be the most toxic with the LC50of 3.236 mg/ml, while, B. aristata showed moderate toxic potential showing that of 60.264 mg/ml and A. millefolium manifested the highest value, that is, 41297.5 mg/ml.
Keywords: Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberis aristata DC. and Achillea millefolium L., invitrotoxicity assay, Artemiasalina, Probit, LC50.
A Removability Result for Holomorphic Functions of Several Complex Variables
Published: 03 February 2016
Abstract: Suppose that Ω is a domain of Cn, n≥1, E⊂Ω closed in Ω, the Hausdorff measure H2n-1 (E) = 0 , and ƒis holomorphic in Ω\E . It is a classical result of Besicovitch that if n=1 and ƒ is bounded, then ƒ has a unique holomorphic extension to Ω. Using an important result of Federer, Shiffman extended Besicovitch’s result to the general case of arbitrary number of several complex variables, that is, for n≥1 . Now we give a related result, replacing the boundedness condition of ƒ by certain integrability conditions of ƒ and of ∂2ƒ/∂Ζ2j, j=1,2,K ,n.
Keywords: Holomorphic function, subharmonic function, Hausdorff measure, exceptional sets.
Synthesis and Structural Studies on MgO Nanoparticles Suitable for Tunnel Barrier Applications
S. Rizwan Ali, M. Naeem, S. Imran Ali, Sajida Azam, S. Naseem Shah, Zia-ur-Rehman and S. Masood Raza
Published: 31 December 2015
Abstract: Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method. XRD studies reveal that nanoparticles are predominantly (100) textured with an average crystallite size of 19 nm.The relative peak intensities for (100) and (110) textured grains i.e., I(100)/I(110) is found to be ~ 2. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures of our samples indicate that our synthesized nanoparticles are spherically shaped. Due to excellent electron tunneling features of (100) textured MgO nanoparticles, our synthesis method is suitable for cost effective and simple synthesis of pure MgO nanoparticles for applications involving electron tunneling.
Keywords: Metallic oxide, MgO, Nanoparticles, chemical synthesis, tunnel barrier..
A Study of Anomalous Wet and Dry Years in the Winter Precipitation of Pakistan and Potential Crop Yields Vulnerability
S. Sarfaraz and Tariq Masood Ali Khan
Published: 31 December 2015
Abstract: Pakistan experiences distinctively large rainfall variability on spatial as well as temporal scales. On spatial scale the rainfall variability is mainly caused by its peculiar topographic features encompassing from south to north of the country. On the other hand the temporal rainfall variability sometimes exceptionally large, does affect the climate of the country that in turn impacts the climate-dependent sectors like agriculture, hydroelectric power generation and ecology. In this study the 30-year winter season (December-March, DJFM) rainfall data of 35 meteorological sites of Pakistan have been analysed to identify the anomalous wet and dry years, their potential impact on crop yields across Pakistan and vulnerability of climate. The National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), US reanalysis data are used to investigate the association of the surface and upper air atmospheric circulation features responsible for anomalous wetness and dryness. This study may prove of some help for an improved winter rainfall prediction tool and better management of available water resources viz-a-viz optimal crop yields production.
Keywords: Winter rains, Anomalous wetness/ dryness, NCEP reanalysis, Agriculture yields.
Stochastic River Flow Modelling and Forecasting of Upper Indus Basin
Hamza Khan and Syed Ahmad Hassan
Published: 18 December 2015
Abstract: Upper Indus Basin (UIB) region has faced seasonal and sometimes unpredictable disastrous flow in their tributaries and contributing one of the world’s largest Indus River System. As these streams emerged from high mountains of Hindukush, Karakorum and Himalaya ranges, and formed as a lifeline for the local population of which90% is accommodate by Indus River system source. A little change in the regional climate may cause floods and outburst flows in the river and affects the lives, regional ecosystem and long part of the Karakoram highway. On the other hand, the shortage of water in Pakistan can create an alarming condition in future because a huge amount of eastern glaciers is shrinking. According to UN-ICC 2011 report Pakistan is in top of the four risky countries which adversely affected by climate change and especially worst hit by bi-catastrophes in 2010.During summer, intensifications of temperature may dissimilar for different locations/altitudes but it affects the glaciated areas. Moreover, the summer river flow and precipitation in previous winter and spring seasons has significant correlation shows their influence in the UIB region. Consequently, it may also be responsible for fluctuation in the seasonal/regular flows of UIB Rivers. To study these variations this paper analyses two types of data, mean monthly and 4-times moving average of monthly for long-term forecast. They belong to two different rivers Ghizer-Gilgit at Gilgit and Ghizer-Gilgit-Hunza at Alam stations. Both types of data illustrate a strong seasonal cycle. Therefore, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models of time series method have been used. The five selected SARIMA models explore 90% and more river flow forecast. Moreover, the result with 4-times moving average is more accurate than simple data.
Keywords: Upper Indus Basin, SARIMA, Time series, Monsoon, Stochastic.
Gene Ontology Tools: A Comparative Study
Muhammad Shahzad, Kamran Ahsan, Adnan Nadeem and Muhammad Sarim
Published: 11 December 2015
Abstract: Gene ontology (GO) is a key initiative of bioinformatics to provide uniform description of gene product in different public databases. The GO project has initiated 3 (three) structured and organized controlled vocabularies (i.e. ontology) that describes gene products in term of cellular components, biological processes and functions in an independent of species. This resource saves lots of time and effort in finding information of any particular gene from different databases. Since 1998, many tools have been developed which at one end relieves the researchers to search particulars about gene products but at other end makes difficult to opt most appropriate tool for any certain investigation in gene ontology. Here we present the state-of-the-art web based GO tools currently used for biological ontologies. We adopt comparison methodology in conjunction with visualization capabilities and sources of annotation data. This paper considers three GO tools for the said purpose. In Visualization capabilities; Indented List, Node-link & tree and Zoomable capabilities of selected tools have been analyzed. In the data sources section; currently available sources for data annotation have been discussed. This review will facilitate potential users of the GO tools to select an appropriate tool for their need.
Keywords: Gene Ontology, Knowledge Representation, Visualization, Data Annotation.
Bioconcentration Potential Studies of Heavy Metals in Fenneropenaeus penicillatus (Jaira or Red Tail Shrimp) along the Littoral States of Karachi City
Tuba Kamal, Muhammad Asad Khan Tanoli, Majid Mumtaz, Nida Ali and Sara Ayub
Published: 27 November 2015
Abstract: Fenneropenaeus penicillatus (commonly known as Jaira or Red tail shrimp) is one of the commercially important and abundant species in the coastal areas of Pakistan and export to more than 40 countries world wide. It is a good source of nutrients for human diet because of its highly rich composition of protein, calcium and vitamins. The littoral state of Pakistan is facing much environmental issues during the last many years because of increasing pollution and human induced environmental changes which have gradually declined the export of shrimps. Crustacean species are considered as the bio-indicators of toxic materials due to their high affinity to accumulate heavy metals than fishes. The study was undertaken to quantify the heavy metals like copper, zinc, cadmium and lead in the Red tail shrimp. For this purpose biosamples were collected in year 2011 to 2013 from the littoral states of Karachi city, Pakistan. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) technique was used to analyze the Cu and Zn while Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GAAS) technique was used to quantify the Cd and Pb. Results were compared with the WHO/FAO/FDA values. The concentrations of selected heavy metals were within the normal range in all analyzed samples except for cadmium. Bioconcentration of cadmium was found much higher than the recommended value which is an alarming condition. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to find out the concentration variation of heavy metals in three years research study at p < 0.05. The results suggested that there is no significant effect of year wise variation on accumulation level of heavy metals in F. penicillatus..
Keywords: Fenneropenaeus penicillatus, heavy metals, littoral states of Karachi city, FAAS, GAAS.
Seasonal Evaluation of Trace Metals in Irrigated Soils at Various Sites in Phuleli Command Area (Sindh), Pakistan
Ashifa Soomro, Altaf Ali Siyal, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi and Rabail Gandahi
Published: 25 November 2015
Abstract: Phuleli Canal (Sindh) Pakistan is the main source of irrigation water for lower Sindh. However, its quality has been deteriorated by the addition of industrial effluents and city wastes discharged directly or indirectly into canal when it passes through Hyderabad city. For monitoring the effect of this canal water on soil quality of the command area, the present study was designed to evaluate the seasonal variability of trace metals including Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn in the cultivated soil area. The soil samples were collected from different seven sites (reduced distance, RD = 304.8 m) RD-0, RD-30, RD-50, RD-70, RD-90, RD-110 and RD-130) in four seasons (summer, autumn, winter, and spring) and analysed for Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn contents. Then, the obtained results were compared with the maximum permissible values of FAO for agriculture/crop production. Results showed that the Zn contents in soil samples was relatively higher than FAO permissible limits during winter in all soil layers and all sites mostly at upper reach sites of Phuleli Command area. While, the Fe content in soil at all depths was found higher during winter, autumn and spring. Whereas, in summer season it was relatively more in upper soil layers near mid to down reach sites and were not within the permissible limits of FAO. Same was true with Cu and Mn which were also not within the permissible limits of FAO for crop production. So, it was inferred that almost of the locations trace elements in soils found higher under Phuleli Canal Command area were mainly produced from various pollution sources viz, industrial and municipal liquid effluents.
Keywords: Seasons, Soil, Trace metals, Phuleli Canal.
Relative Importance of Emotional Intelligence’s Dimensions in Contributing to Dimensions of Job Performance
Jamil Ahmad and Maryam Saeed Hashmi
Published: 18 November 2015
Abstract: Career in service industry is emotional labor intensive, which turns performance of the employees into undesired status who are not emotionally intelligent. To put light on this issue the present study scrutinizes the significant contributor from four dimensions of emotional intelligence to three dimensions of job performance individually as well jointly. Data gathered from 292 bankers through instrument adopted from literature, regression results revealed that self emotional appraisal, others emotional appraisal, regulation of emotions and use of emotions significantly contribute task performance, counterproductive work behaviors and organizational citizenship behaviors individually as well as jointly. The use of emotions remained significant when included with other dimensions of emotional intelligence in the hierarchical regressions model after controlling for age and gender, whereas regulation of emotions lost its significance. In organizational citizenship behaviors maximum variation was observed due to emotional intelligence’s dimensions as compare to the other dimensions of job performance. Banks’ management could use these findings for recruitment, training and promotions of employees. Limitations and future suggestions are presented in later part.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence, job performance, banking sector, dimensions of emotional intelligence, dimensions of job performance.
Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Attitudes of Students Towards Entrepreneurship
Muhammad Kashif Yaqub, Nadeem Ahmad Mufti, Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Uzair Khaleeq
Published: 16 November 2015
Abstract: Entrepreneurship has become an international interest of students. The economic and social relevance of entrepreneurship is established across the world and many offerings are available by the universities. This has resulted into an increased focus of university teachers on entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activities. The purpose of this paper is to study and evaluate the impact of entrepreneurship education on attitude of students to become an entrepreneur. Relationship between the education and student in development of entrepreneurial attitude is proposed.Review of the literature also shows the importance of entrepreneurship education in development of entrepreneurial attitude. This study was carried out in universities of Pakistan and data was collected from 10 different universities in which entrepreneurship is available as a course or discipline. Sample of 329 students was collected and statistical tests were used to evaluate the relationship. It is found that a strong relationship and positive correlation exist between attitude towards entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Universities, Entrepreneurship teaching, Entrepreneurial attitude, Entrepreneurial intentions.