Analysis of Nutritional Components of Horse Radish Tree Flowers (Moringa oleifera) Wildly Grown in Sindh Province

Analysis of Nutritional Components of Horse Radish Tree Flowers (Moringa oleifera) Wildly Grown in Sindh Province
Pages 213-220Creative Commons License

Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Benish Nawaz Mirani, Shafi Muhammad Nizamani, Aijaz Hussain Soomro and Aasia Akbar Panhwar

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.37
Published: 10 May 2017

Abstract: The present research study was aimed at determining the proximate and mineral composition of horse radish tree flowers by utilizing standard methodologies. The mean moisture content in fresh, thermally dehydrated, curry, shade dried and boiled fresh /processed samples of horse radish tree flowers was 80.98, 5.40, 68.07, 5.84 and 86.26%, respectively. The vegetable had the highest pH, carbohydrates, total solids, nitrogen free extracts and calorific values in thermally dried samples and crude fiber, ash and protein values were higher in shade dried samples. Whereas, fat and total fatty acids were found higher in curry samples. There was a significant presence of dietary essential micro-nutrients. It was therefore revealed that horse radish tree flowers(Moringa oleifera) when consumed in curry form could also be a good source of nutrients. The inclusion of horse radish tree flowers into the diet could potentially address some of the challenges, such as health benefits, food security and increase life expectancy in Sindh, Pakistan.

Keywords: Nontraditional vegetable, horse radish tree flowers(Moringa oleifera), proximate and minerals.

Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Three Districts of Sindh in Pakistan Pages 611-615

Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Three Districts of Sindh in Pakistan
Pages 611-615Creative Commons License

Farah Sharif, Imtiaz Ahmad and Rafia Rehana Ghazi
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.98

Published: 24 November 2017

Abstract: This study was conducted to record cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human beings from three districts i.e., Dadu, Hyderabad and Jamshoro in Sindh, Pakistan. A total number of 102 subjects of different age and sex groups were put under investigation. Ninety four (92.157%) were found positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis. The highest leishmaniasis infection (41%) was recorded in 21-30 years’ age group. The prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in males, (56%) than in females, (44%). The active lesion was more frequent on face (35%), on legs (26%) and on hands (25%) than other exposed parts of the body. Forty five percent of cutaneous leishmaniasis case were recorded in Dadu, 35 percent in Hyderabad, and 20 percent in Jamshoro.

Keywords: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Human infection, Hyderabad, Jamshoro and Dadu, Sindh.

Loaf Characteristics and Sensory Properties of whole Wheat Bread Fortified with Sorghum and Rice Flour Pages 606-610

Loaf Characteristics and Sensory Properties of whole Wheat Bread Fortified with Sorghum and Rice Flour
Pages 606-610Creative Commons License

Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi, Nida Shaikh, Asadullah Marri, Aijaz Hussain Soomro and Shahzor Gul Khaskheli
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.97

Published: 20 November 2017

Abstract: Bread is a common staple food in developing countries and also in many other regions of the world. The loaf characteristic and sensory attributes of bread samples prepared by using different composite flours in which ratio of whole wheat flour, sorghum flour and rice flour kept as 100:0:0 (F1), 80:10:10 (F2) and 60:20:20 (F3) was evaluated. The composite flours F1, F2 and F3 were subsequently used for making bread samples i.e. whole wheat bread (WWB), sorghum rice bread-1 (SRB-1) and sorghum rice bread-2 (SRB-2), respectively. The results indicated that significantly higher loaf weight (g) was recorded in SRB-2 followed by SRB-1 and WWB. Significantly higher bread height (cm) was noticed in SRB-1 followed by WWB and SRB-2. The bread sample WWB was found to have significantly higher volume and specific volume followed by SRB-1 and SRB-2. It was also revealed that significantly higher average score for bread crust color was perceived by WWB. However, bread sample SRB-1 perceived significantly higher score (P<0.05) for crumb color, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability. It is concluded from present study that fortification of bread with different proportions of rice and sorghum flour was found to improve sensory attributes of the bread samples rather than loaf characteristics.

Keywords: Bread, whole wheat flour, sorghum flour, rice flour and sensory attributes.

Impact of Logarithmic Transformation on the Restoration of Normality in Bioequivalence Data Pages 597-605Creative Commons License

Impact of Logarithmic Transformation on the Restoration of Normality in Bioequivalence Data
Pages 597-605Creative Commons License

Naila Khatoon Phullan, Mehrunisa Memon, Javaid Ahmed Shah, Muhammad Yousuf Memon, Tanveer Ali Sial, Naheed Akhtar Talpur and Ghulam Mujtaba Khushk
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.96

Published: 16 November 2017

Abstract: The Logarithmic Transformation is widely used to address the skewness and assumes the normality assumption of the bioequivalence data but this may not be true in all cases unless the underlying assumption is taken into account and verified that the randomly generated data is normally distributed in the BE studies. Instead of restoring the normality in the data, the Log-Transformation may introduce new problems like inducing skewness with an increase in variability, which are even more difficult to deal with, then the original problem of non-normal distribution of data. Pharmacokinetic parameters, derived from the real biodata of the bioequivalence study of Glimepiride 4mg tablet was statistically analyzed, with and without, Log-Transformation through ANOVA and the two were compared for normality assumption through the standard testing for normality like Shapiro-Wilk and Q-Q Plots. The comparison of the conclusive results from both approaches, linear and log-transformed data, does not conclude any significant difference. A further investigation is required to strengthen this notion and to identify the circumstances and situations where the deterministic parameters are ascertained to select a suitable model for the data analysis and conclusion. The alternative analytic methods that eliminate the need of transforming non-normal data distributions prior to analysis, like Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney two one-sided test which has been recommended by Hauschke et al., Hodges-Lehmann estimator or the other newer analytic distribution-free methods, that are not dependent on the distribution of data like the generalized estimating equations (GEE) are recommended.

Keywords: Bioequivalence, Log-transformation, Normality, Normal Distribution, Log-Normal Distribution, Skewness, Confidence Interval, Hypothesis testing, Outliers

Estimation of Exopolysaccharides (EPS) Producing Ability of Cr (VI) Resistant Bacterial Strains from Tannery Effluent Pages 589-596

Estimation of Exopolysaccharides (EPS) Producing Ability of Cr (VI) Resistant Bacterial Strains from Tannery Effluent
Pages 589-596Creative Commons License

Rida Batool, Usama Marghoob and Asma Kalsoom
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.95

Published: 16 November 2017

Abstract: Chromium is a known heavy metal and recognized as a carcinogen to the biological systems. Previously isolated Cr (VI) resistant Exiguobacterium UE1 and UE4 were used in this study. These strains were analysed for exopolysaccharides (EPS) production for the remediation of Cr (VI) contaminated soils. Both the strains could tolerate about 250µg/ml of Cr (VI) stress. Strain UE1 showed 100% Cr (VI) removal whereas UE4 reduced 99.2% at an initial concentration of K2CrO100µgml-1. Optimum growth was observed at 37ºC and pH 7 for both strains. Strains exhibited significant EPS production under Cr (VI) stress and non-stress conditions. However, UE1 showed increased production of released as well as loosely bound EPS (0.36g/100ml and 0.152g/100ml respectively) under Cr (VI) supplemented condition. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) technique confirmed the presence of sugars in EPS samples after hydrolysis. Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed the involvement of various functional groups such as hydroxyl group and aromatic compounds in the binding of Cr (VI) ions to the EPS. These findings suggest that strains UE1 and UE4 isolated from local tanneries of Pakistan can be used for remediation of Cr (VI) pollutes soils.

Keywords: Chromium reduction, exopolysaccharides, protein estimation, tanning industries, bioremediation, heavy metals, FTIR and TLC etc

Response of Various Nitrogen Levels on the Growth and Yield Performance of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) Pages 583-588

Response of Various Nitrogen Levels on the Growth and Yield Performance of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.)
Pages 583-588Creative Commons License

Qadir Bux Baloch, Altaf Hussain, Niaz Ahmed Wahocho, Nasir Ali Baloch, Safdar Ali Wahocho, Arshad Ali Kaleri, Rameez Raja Kaleri and Abdul Qadir Gola
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.94

Published: 16 November 2017

Abstract: Nitrogen (N) fertilization at optimum quantity to cultivated plants is essential for sustainable crop productivity. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of nitrogen fertilizers on the growth and yield traits of tomato during 2016, at the experimental field of Orchard, Department of Horticulture, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. Six nitrogen treatment doses were tested (T1 =control (untreated), T2 = 30 N kg ha-1, T3 = 60 N kg ha-1, T4 = 90 N kg ha-1, T5 = 120 N kg ha-1 and T6 = 150 N kg ha-1.). The data were recorded on the number of branches plant-1, days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of fruits plant-1, weight of single fruit (g), yield plot-1 and yield ha-1 (tons). The results demonstrated that N fertilization showed significant influence on both vegetative and reproductive traits of tomato. On the contrary, plants which were not fertilized with N displayed minimum values for all investigated traits. The highest N level (150 kg ha-1) showed maximum number of branches (5.51) plant-1, minimum day to flowering (42.43) less days to fruiting (46.00), more fruits plant-1 (31.00) maximum weight of single fruit (46.50 g) and highest fruit yield plot-1 (21.01 kg) and per hectare (14008 tons), respectively. It was concluded that the crop growth and productivity was significantly influenced by various levels of nitrogen. However, 150 N kg ha-1 as compared to 120 N and other concentrations considerably displayed better performance in terms of vegetative and reproductive traits of tomato. Hence for optimum growth and economically higher yield, the tomato crop may be fertilized with 150 N kg ha-1.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Growth, Yield, Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

Geo Spatial Assessment of Flood Hazard in Jhang District, Pakistan Pages 577-582

Geo Spatial Assessment of Flood Hazard in Jhang District, Pakistan
Pages 577-582Creative Commons License

Maryam Khalid, Omar Riaz, Azeem Sultan, Muhammad Nasar-u-Minallah and Muhammad Naeem Hassan
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.93

Published: 08 November 2017

Abstract: Floods are one of the leading natural disasters in Pakistan. In recent decades the frequency and intensity of floods has increased due to human and environmental factors. In this work an attempt was made to examine the flood vulnerable areas of Jhang district and its impact on land cover changes by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Image Analysis and different indices like NDVI, NDWI were applied on satellite images for identification of flood prone areas and vegetation conditions in study area. Flood prone areas were further classified into low, medium and high risk areas according to flood hazard. The results indicate that, Jhang covers total area of 6357 kmout of which flood affected area is 530 km2. During the flood of 2010 water area expanded approximately 714 kmwhile a decline was observed in agricultural lands which have lost139 km2 area under vegetation

Keywords: Flood Hazard, Vegetation Cover, Image Analysis, NDVI, Jhang.

Abrupt Intensification and Dissipation of Tropical Cyclones in Indian Ocean: A Case Study of Tropical Cyclone Nilofar – 2014 Pages 566-576

Abrupt Intensification and Dissipation of Tropical Cyclones in Indian Ocean: A Case Study of Tropical Cyclone Nilofar – 2014
Pages 566-576Creative Commons License

Abdul Qayoom Bhutto, Muhammad Jawed Iqbal and Mirza Jawwad Baig
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.92

Published: 08 November 2017

Abstract: This study aims to investigate the possible influence of different atmospheric forcing on intensification/dissipation of tropical cyclonic “Nilofar” in Arabian Sea appeared during the last week of October, 2014 which exhibited abrupt intensification and dissipation as well. The cyclone was monitored by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC) of Pakistan Meteorological Department and the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) of Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) continuously, issued warnings and advisories with the help of available synoptic observations, satellite data and numerical models. Almost all the essential ingredients for intensification and tracking of the cyclone were studied and monitored accurately. Although the track forecast of the cyclone remained up to mark; but great errors occurred in intensity forecast. The atmospheric vertical wind shear could not be studied accurately. The intensity of wind shear itself is dependent on both; the local and global atmospheric forcing and climate variables, reoccurring periodically, especially while occurring two or more at the same time. More studies are required for influence of these climate variables while co-occurring at the same time period. This study will help weather forecasters to pay special attention on variation of climate factors affecting the wind shear for proper forecasting of tropical cyclones in the Arabian Sea for the safety of coastal communities along the coast.

Keywords: Tropical cyclone, Nilofar, Climate variables, Co-occurring.

Effect of Organic Manure and Mineral Fertilizers on Wheat Growth and Soil Properties Pages 559-565

Effect of Organic Manure and Mineral Fertilizers on Wheat Growth and Soil Properties
Pages 559-565Creative Commons License

Naila Khatoon Phullan, Mehrunisa Memon, Javaid Ahmed Shah, Muhammad Yousuf Memon, Tanveer Ali Sial, Naheed Akhtar Talpur and Ghulam Mujtaba Khushk
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.91

Published: 08 November 2017

Abstract: Sustainable crop management relies on the combined use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with manures (control, farmyard manure, sesbania and cluster bean) as main split and mineral fertilizer rates (control, 40-30, 60-45, 80-60, 90-70 and 120-90 kg N-P2O5 ha-1) as sub-split. The manures significantly influenced shoot dry weight, N, P and K uptake and soil properties. Conversely, the rates of mineral fertilizers did not have any effect on soil properties, however, significantly enhanced the shoot dry weight and N, P and K uptake. The combined use of manures and mineral fertilizers had a significant effect on shoot P uptake. Farmyard manure was the best manure amendment with 13% reduction in bulk density and 51% increase in organic matter content over control. Incorporation of farmyard manure increased the shoot dry weight and N, P and K uptake, respectively by 8, 14, 11 and 8% over control. Among rates of mineral fertilizers, recommended rate of mineral fertilizer (120-90 kg N-P2O5 ha-1) was the best treatment with corresponding increase of 26, 81, 56 and 55% in shoot dry weight, N, P and K uptake over control. Integration of farmyard manure with recommended rate of mineral fertilizer enhanced shoot P uptake by 17% as compared to solo application of mineral fertilizers. Through this study, it was concluded that farmyard manure at 6 tons ha-1 coupled with mineral fertilizer rate of 120-90 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was the best source for sustainable soil health and wheat production. .

Keywords: Cluster bean, farmyard manure, green manure, organic, sesbania, whea.

Heritability Estimates for Some Growth Traits of Dhatti Camel Breed in Tharparkar Pages 556-558

Heritability Estimates for Some Growth Traits of Dhatti Camel Breed in Tharparkar
Pages 556-558Creative Commons License

Rameez Raja Kaleri, Hubdar Ali Kaleri, Shahla Karim Baloch, Asma Kaleri, Raza Ali Mangi, Abdul Latif Bhatti, Ghulam Murtaza Mari, Faial Noor Qureshi, Muhammad Saleem Pahnwar and Abdullah Marri
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.90

Published: 07 November 2017

Abstract: The present study was performed on 18 healthy dogs (aged 16.80±1.22 months) and body weight (17.07± 2.21 kg) to determine the best suturing technique among single layer, double layer and stapler technique for the closure of colon in dogs. All dog were divided into three groups, placing 6 animals in each group, i.e. group A was closed with single layer suture technique, group B was closed with double layer suture technique and group C was closed with stapler technique. The number of stitches required for colon closure were 8.83, 16.33 and 9.16 in groups –A, B and C respectively. The mean number of stitches and time taken for the completion of double layer technique was significantly higher (P<0.01) than single layer and stapler techniques. The mean of total duration of abdominal closure was 47.00, 45.16 and 34.83 minutes in group A, B and C respectively. The mean of total duration for surgery was 57.16, 64.50 and 46.33 minutes in group A, B and C respectively..The study reveals that all the techniques were not completely free from complications and advantages. Although stapler technique had some advantages like minimal adhesion between anastomotic line and other structures, higher bursting wall tension at operated site and less duration required for closure of anastomosis. It is concluded that stapler technique used in this study proved better than single layer and double layer suture techniques in dogs.

Keywords: Comparison, Stapler, Techniques, Colon, Dogs.