Comparison of Stapler, Single Layer and Double Layer Techniques for Colon Closure in Dogs Pages 551-555

Comparison of Stapler, Single Layer and Double Layer Techniques for Colon Closure in Dogs
Pages 551-555Creative Commons License

Amir Nawas Khan, Allah Bux Kachiwal, Shahla Karim Baloch, Rameez Raja Kaleri, Khalid Hussain Khan, Muhammad Zib, Faisal Noor Qureshi, Ghulam Murtaza Mari, Muhammad Saleem Pahnwar, Rashid Ali Shah and Abdullah Marri
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.89

Published: 07 November 2017

Abstract: The present study was performed on 18 healthy dogs (aged 16.80±1.22 months) and body weight (17.07± 2.21 kg) to determine the best suturing technique among single layer, double layer and stapler technique for the closure of colon in dogs. All dog were divided into three groups, placing 6 animals in each group, i.e. group A was closed with single layer suture technique, group B was closed with double layer suture technique and group C was closed with stapler technique. The number of stitches required for colon closure were 8.83, 16.33 and 9.16 in groups –A, B and C respectively. The mean number of stitches and time taken for the completion of double layer technique was significantly higher (P<0.01) than single layer and stapler techniques. The mean of total duration of abdominal closure was 47.00, 45.16 and 34.83 minutes in group A, B and C respectively. The mean of total duration for surgery was 57.16, 64.50 and 46.33 minutes in group A, B and C respectively..The study reveals that all the techniques were not completely free from complications and advantages. Although stapler technique had some advantages like minimal adhesion between anastomotic line and other structures, higher bursting wall tension at operated site and less duration required for closure of anastomosis. It is concluded that stapler technique used in this study proved better than single layer and double layer suture techniques in dogs.

Keywords: Comparison, Stapler, Techniques, Colon, Dogs.

An Initial Tidal Power Resource Estimation at Jhari Creek of Indus Delta, Sindh, Pakistan Pages 545-550

An Initial Tidal Power Resource Estimation at Jhari Creek of Indus Delta, Sindh, Pakistan
Pages 545-550Creative Commons License

Mirza Salman Baig, Zaheer Uddin and Ambreen Insaf
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.88

Published: 07 November 2017

Abstract: Energy crisis in Pakistan is one of the severe challenges the country is facing today. Electricity is essential part of our daily life and its shortage has severely affected the economy and the other segments of society. This shortfall of electricity is increasing day by day and situation becomes worst especially in summer. The energy crisis are caused due to disproportionate dependence on non-renewable energy resources. The most effective solution that has been found to overcome such crisis is the use of tidal energy, because tidal energy has a significant advantage over many other forms of renewable energy as it is almost perfectly predicted over long time horizons. Therefore, first time an attempt has been made to estimate the tidal energy resources at Jhari creek of Indus Delta, Sindh, Pakistan. For this purpose real time tidal data is acquired from Pakistan Navy and tidal resources are estimated. Potential power density is calculated for the duration of four months May-August 2013 and found that highest potential mean spring power density was observed in June 2013 that was 1.67 W/m2.

Keywords: Tidal energy, harmonic constituents, tidal range, power density and creek.

Prioritizing Factors of Entrepreneurial University to Inculcate Enterprise Formation Pursuit Among University Graduates Using Analytical Hierarchical Process Pages 534-544

Prioritizing Factors of Entrepreneurial University to Inculcate Enterprise Formation Pursuit Among University Graduates Using Analytical Hierarchical Process
Pages 534-544Creative Commons License

Muhammad Umar and Mirza Jahanzaib
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.87

Published: 30 October 2017

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to prioritize entrepreneurial activities in higher education institutions to inculcate enterprise development pursuit among university graduates. Various phases of enterprise development process are determined along with prominent activities of entrepreneurial universities through literature review. Problem formulation is done by structuring goal, objectives and alternatives into a hierarchical model in order to prioritize factors with the help of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). Experts of academic entrepreneurship are approached for pairwise comparison of factors on the preference scale of nine levels with the help of software tool Expert Choice 11. After recording judgments, preferences of all experts are combined in order to get overall priorities of objectives and alternatives. Results show that Internal Motivation has highest and Business Growth and Sustainability have lowest priority along with priorities of all other objectives of enterprise formation process falling between both. Moreover, University Incubation Center is prioritized among alternatives in order to achieve objectives. Sensitivity analysis of results is carried out with the help of Expert Choice in which weight of a single objective is varied to observe effect on hierarchical model. Research presents a complete picture to academicians and policy makers to determine role of universities for entrepreneurship development in country. It will also help government officials to allocate resources in a prioritized way in order to achieve specific objectives. .

Keywords: Enterprise Formation Process, Internal Motivation, Analytical Hierarchical Process, Entrepreneurial University, Expert Choice.

Comparing the Early Stage Carbon Sequestration Rates and Effects on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties after Two Years of Planting Agroforestry Trees Pages 527-533

Comparing the Early Stage Carbon Sequestration Rates and Effects on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties after Two Years of Planting Agroforestry Trees
Pages 527-533Creative Commons License

M. Farrakh Nawaz, Komal Mazhar, Sadaf Gul, Irfan Ahmad, Ghulam Yasin, M. Asif and Muhammad Tanvir
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.86

Published: 25 October 2017

Abstract: Farm friendly and fast growing trees are the sustainable, cheaper and efficient source of carbon sequestration and carbon stock, however, their carbon sequestration potential vary among tree species depending upon several factors. This study was conducted to determine the carbon sequestration potential and carbon storage difference among different tree species at early stage. Second objective of this study was to observe the effects of trees on the physico-chemical properties of soils. Seedlings of fifteen widely planted farm trees species were planted under same set of climatic and soil conditions. Employing tree biomass after two year of planting (2014-2016), carbon stocks and carbon sequestration rates were calculated. Soil samples were collected under each tree species at two depths: 0-15cm and 16-30 cm, to determine the physico-chemical properties of soils such as pH, EC, N, P, K, C and organic matter (O.M.). It was found that Populus deltoides contained the highest carbon stocks (7.21 ± 1.31 kg C) and sequestered the CO2 at the highest rate of 13.21 ± 0.84 kg C/year as compared to all other fourteen tree species. O.M. (%) and Carbon (mg/kg) were also the highest in the soils under P. deltoides (2.29 ± 0.42 and 3.8 ± 0.2 respectively) as compared to and all other tree species. Nitrogen contents (%) were found the maximum in the soils under D. sissoo (0.063 ± 0.04) > Acacia nilotica (0.058 ± 0.008) and Albizia lebbeck (similar to Acacia nilotica). Such information enhances our capacity to better predict the carbon sequestration potential and carbon stock in different trees.

Keywords: Agroforestry, climate change, Carbon dioxide, Global warming, Carbon sequestration.

Characterization of Elite Upland Cotton Genotypes for Earliness and Yield Traits Pages 508-513

Characterization of Elite Upland Cotton Genotypes for Earliness and Yield Traits
Pages 508-513

Shahnaz Memon, Wajid Ali Jatoi, Nasreen Fatima Veeser, Nabila Kaleri, Samreen Khanzada, Nazia Kamboh and Lubna Rajput
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.83

Published: 22 September 2017

Abstract: Short duration cotton genotypes increased the chances to harvest crop before cold and rainy weather conditions. However, earliness in cotton is a difficult character, which is assessed by determining many plant traits. The current experimental was conducted at Cotton Section, A.R.I. Tando Jam, during kharif season 2013. The eight cotton genotypes including CRIS-342, Sindh-I, Haridost, Malmal, Bt-121, Bt-3701, TS-501 and Shahbaz were sown in randomized complete block design with four replications. In a total, seven quantitative traits were measured such as days to first flowering, node number to set first sympodial branch, node number to set first flowering, sympodial branch length (cm), sympodial branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1, seed cotton yield plant-1 (g). The mean squares from analysis of variances showed that genotypes differed significant (P≤0.01) for all the studied traits, demonstrating a vast genetic variability in tested genotypes. The genotypes, Sindh-1, CRIS-342, Bt-121 and Bt-3701 were characterized as early maturing or short duration cotton varieties. However, the correlation between yield and earliness traits were best criteria for developing the short duration cotton yield varieties. .

Keywords: Characterization, earliness, association, yield traits, cotton genotypes.

Comparison of Vicryl, Dexon and Intestinal Stapler for the Closure of Colon in Dogs Pages 514-521

Comparison of Vicryl, Dexon and Intestinal Stapler for the Closure of Colon in Dogs
Pages 514-521Creative Commons License

Khalid Hussain Khan, Allah Bux Kachiwal, Shahla Karim Baloch, Rameez Raja Kaleri, Amir Nawas Khan, Mujahid Ali Shah, Gulam Murtaza Mari, Mehran Ali Baloch, Nawaz Sharif, Sajid Ali Umrani and Muhammad Zeb
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.84

Published: 25 October 2017

Abstract: Eighteen healthy mongrel dogs of sexes, varying ages (16.50 ± 0.22 months) and weights (19.83 ± 0.16 kg) were used in this study. The experiment was conducted in the Department of Surgery and Obstetrics, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam.A total of 18 dogs (male and female) were randomly divided into three groups placing 6 animals in each i.e., group-A (Vicryl 3/0 suture material), B (Dexon 3/0 suture material) and C (stapler). Physically healthy animals were used in this study in order to achieve the required results. Xylazine (9.91 ± 0.08 mg/dog) and thiopental Sodium (198.33 ± 1.05 mg/dog) was administered intramuscularly in all groups. The anaesthetized animals were placed on the dorsal recumbancy on surgical table in order to perform surgical procedure. The caudal ventral midline incision of 5 cm was made in all dogs to exteriorized the colon. One incision of 5 cm was given on colon and bleeding was controlled by artery forceps. Colon incision was closed with Vicryl (3/0) in group-A, Dixon (3/0) in group-B and intestinal stapling materials in dogs of group-C. The peritoneum in each dog was sutured with chromic catgut by simple interrupted suture technique, the linea alba was sutured with chromic catgut by simple continuous suture technique, sub-cutaneous layer was apposed with sub-cuticular suture technique using 3/0 chromic catgut. Skin was closed with simple interrupted suture pattern using silk 2/0 suture material in dogs.The total duration of anesthesia required was 328.33 ± 1.17, 330.00 ± 1.39 and 313.83 ± 2.52 minutes for closure of colon closed with Vicryl, Dexon and Stapling material respectively. The mean number of total stitches for colon closure with Vicryl, Dexon and stapling material was 15 ±0.57. 17.00 ± 0.36 and 6.66 ± 0.21 respectively. Though the partial development of mucosal folds can be seen on day 10 of post-surgery whereas fully development except lamina epithelia on day 20. It is concluded that Vicryl suture material showed the superiority in terms of better apposition of the sutured tissues and better healing and lesser complications like minimal adhesions between sutured site and other structures applied with double layer appositional suture technique for the closure of colon in dogs. This study also reveals that all suture materials were not completely free from complications but staple technique showed quicker application and lesser number of staples was required as compare to Vicryl and Dexon suture stitches and duration..

Keywords: Comparison, Vicryl, Dexon, Intestinal stapler, colon, Dogs.

Analysis of Correlation and Regression among M2 Wheat Mutant Population for Yield and its Associated Traits Pages 522-526

Analysis of Correlation and Regression among M2 Wheat Mutant Population for Yield and its Associated Traits
Pages 522-526Creative Commons License

Saima Bano, Arshad Ali Kaleri, Raheela Keerio, Shabana Memon, Rameez Raja Kaleri, Rabab Akram, Abdul Latif Laghari, Irfan Ali Chandio and Sajida Nazeer
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.85

Published: 25 October 2017

Abstract: Crop yield is the resultant product of components character which is not under the control of any single gene, therefore it is necessary for plant breeder to know the relationship between two traits. The present research was conducted to calculate the correlation and regression for yield and yield contributing traits in mutant population of bread wheat. The experiment was conducted at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tandojam, during rabi season 2015-2016, in split plot design with three replications. Material under study was two wheat varieties (T.D-1 and ESW-9525). These two wheat varieties were evaluated along with control for yield and yield associated traits under normal field conditions. Mean square showed that there were significant differences between wheat varieties for days to 75% heading, days to 75% maturity, plant height (cm), spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000 grain weight (g), biological yield plant-1 (g), harvest index (%), spike length (cm) and grain yield plant-1 (g). Number of grains spike-1 showed positive and highly significant correlation with spike length, spikelets spike-1, 1000 grain weight and biological yield of plant-1. Significant and positive with days to 75% maturity and harvest index. However, negative correlation was found with height of plant and non-significant but negative with the trait of days to 75% heading. Grain yield plant-1 showed highly positive highly significant association with grains spike-1, number of spikelets spike-1, length of spike, harvest index and biological yield plant-1 and negative with plant height. Approximately 85.9%, 65.2%, 59% and 24.3% variation in grain yield plant-1 is due to grains spike-1, biological yield plant-1, harvest seed index and height of plant, respectively. This shows that taller plants produce lesser grain yield.

Keywords: Wheat, Correlation, Regression, Mutant, Yield..

Characterization of Elite Upland Cotton Genotypes for Earliness and Yield Traits Pages 508-513

Characterization of Elite Upland Cotton Genotypes for Earliness and Yield Traits
Pages 508-513Creative Commons License

Shahnaz Memon, Wajid Ali Jatoi, Nasreen Fatima Veeser, Nabila Kaleri, Samreen Khanzada, Nazia Kamboh and Lubna Rajput
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.83

Published: 22 September 2017

Abstract: Short duration cotton genotypes increased the chances to harvest crop before cold and rainy weather conditions. However, earliness in cotton is a difficult character, which is assessed by determining many plant traits. The current experimental was conducted at Cotton Section, A.R.I. Tando Jam, during kharif season 2013. The eight cotton genotypes including CRIS-342, Sindh-I, Haridost, Malmal, Bt-121, Bt-3701, TS-501 and Shahbaz were sown in randomized complete block design with four replications. In a total, seven quantitative traits were measured such as days to first flowering, node number to set first sympodial branch, node number to set first flowering, sympodial branch length (cm), sympodial branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1, seed cotton yield plant-1 (g). The mean squares from analysis of variances showed that genotypes differed significant (P≤0.01) for all the studied traits, demonstrating a vast genetic variability in tested genotypes. The genotypes, Sindh-1, CRIS-342, Bt-121 and Bt-3701 were characterized as early maturing or short duration cotton varieties. However, the correlation between yield and earliness traits were best criteria for developing the short duration cotton yield varieties. .

Keywords: Characterization, earliness, association, yield traits, cotton genotypes.

Augmented Reality Based Spelling Assistance to Dysgraphia Students Pages 500-507

Augmented Reality Based Spelling Assistance to Dysgraphia Students
Pages 500-507Creative Commons License

Muhammad Faizan Khan, Muhammad Azhar Hussain, Kamran Ahsan, Muhammad Saeed, Adnan Nadeem, Syed Asim Ali, Nadeem Mahmood and Kashif Rizwan
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.82

Published: 22 September 2017

Abstract: Dysgraphia, a learning disability associated with writing skills, hinders students to put their thought on paper and write correctly. Writing problems hit students most frequently that one third students become failed to acquire writing skill. Different IT based assistance solutions available for dysgraphia students but most of them are accommodations based or provides writing alternatives rather than developing writing skills of a dysgraphia student. Handwriting is an essential skill for academic life and developed handwriting skill helps student to protect their self-esteem and build student’s confidence to participate in other activities during class. Most of available writing assistance solutions do not provide interesting ways to acquire writing skills. To handle this problem, augmented reality (AR) based dysgraphia assistance solution has presented in this work. This study utilized AR to develop dysgraphia student’s interest in writing and used it to assist in writing activity by providing help in spellings. AR based dysgraphia assistance writing environment (AR-DAWE) modal use Google cloud API of speech-to-text and addressed one of the important issues of dysgraphia student that is associated with spelling mistakes.

Keywords: Dysgraphia, Learning Disability, Assistance, Writing Skill, Assistive Technology, Handwriting.

Effect of Centaurea pullata Methanolic Extract on the Growth of Portulaca oleracea Pages 496-499

Effect of Centaurea pullata Methanolic Extract on the Growth of Portulaca oleracea
Pages 496-499Creative Commons License

Wasi Ullah Khan, Rahmat Ali Khan and Safir Ullah Khan
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.81

Published: 14 September 2017

Abstract: Phytotoxicity or allelopathy means poisonous results by a composite onplantgrowth, composites may be trace metals, pesticides salinity or phytotoxins. Some of the medicinal plants have phytotoxic activities which inhibit the growth of weeds and unwanted plants which are not of our desire. The present study is aimed to investigate the phytotoxic assessment of Centaurea pullata methanolic extract (CPME) roots. Dried plant were ground and extracted with methanol to prepare methanol crude extract. In-vitro phytotoxicity activity was conducted using these methanolic extracts as per standard procedures. The inhibitory effect of Centaurea pullata extract is tested on stalk and root of Portulaca oleracea and using four concentrations (3, 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37mg/ml) of plant extract and distal water in control. The result is noted on 5th and 10th days. The results obtained from these experiments showed that the crude methanolic extract of Centaurea pullata slightly inhibits the roots and shoots of Portulaca oleracea seeds as compared to the control plate which was not treated by the above mentioned sample extracts shown in Figures as. From the results obtained that, Phytotoxicity activity of Centaurea pullata methanolic extract showed non-significant results. Purification and in vivo studies of these plant are required for further verification.

Keywords: Phytotoxicity, Alelopathic, Portulaca oleracea, Centaurea pullata.