Spatial Distribution of Noise Released from Iron and Steel Industry and their Effects on Human Health in the Lahore City, Pakistan Pages 117-122

Spatial Distribution of Noise Released from Iron and Steel Industry and their Effects on Human Health in the Lahore City, Pakistan
Pages 117-122Creative Commons License

Anum Liaqut, Isma Younes and Rakhshanda Sadaf
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.20
Published: 12 April 2017

Abstract: This research investigates the phenomenon of perception of people about industrial noise pollution and its effects on human health. Thirty-six (36) industries were selected for estimation of noise levels and its effects on human health. Concurrently, samples of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents were also taken from nearby residential area, using random sampling method. The key tool of data collection was well-structured questionnaires consisting of twenty-one questions. Chi-Square test was used for examination of data, which illustrated effects of industrial noise on people living in industrial zone. The noise level results indicated that the mean values were exceeding permissible environmental standard used in Pakistan. Majority of respondents (50.6 %) were conscious about the basic reason of noise pollution in study area. Eighty-two percent (82%) people have opinion that old technology was the basic cause for noise pollution. It was shocking to see the results which indicate that 99.8% people are suffering from noise related diseases. This include 81.3% with increase anger, 81.5% with ear ache, 16% with ear discharge, 79.3% with high blood pressure, 78% with depression, 77.3% temporary hearing loss, 9.3% permanent hearing loss. Only 23.3% of people conduct regular hearing test.

Keywords: Noise, pollution, spatial distribution, GIS, SPSS, Buffers.

Heritability Estimates for some Performances Traits of Baluchi Sheep Pages 114-116

Heritability Estimates for some Performances Traits of Baluchi Sheep
Pages 114-116Creative Commons License

Zahid Qadir, Hubdar Ali Kaleri, Rameez Raja Kaleri, Asma Kaleri, Mushtaque Ahmed Jalbani, Azhar Hussain Kaleri, Faisal Ashraf, Abdul Kabir and Ali Ghulam Bugti
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.19
Published: 12 April 2017

Abstract: Present study was carried out to estimates the genetic parameters of Baluchi sheep during the year 2015 at Bhagnari cattle Cum Baluchi Sheep Farm Usta Muhammad, Baluchistan. The recorded data including (lactation yield and lactation length) was collected for the period 2005 to 2014.The results of current study revealed that average milk yield and lactation length was found 95.1±11.122kg and 123.60±8.44days of Baluchi sheep. The results for heritability and correlation estimates for lactation yield and lactation length was observed 0.113, 0.126 and 0.26, respectively. There was positive and low heritability and correlation was worked out for lactation yield and lactation length. Due to low results heritability and correlation estimates of some performance traits of Baluchi sheep, it was concluded that improvement can be achieved by process of mass selection.

Keywords: Baluchi sheep, heritability, correlation, milk yield, lactation length.

Spectral and Spatial Feature Extraction of Electroencephalographic (EEG) Data Using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) Pages 104-113

Spectral and Spatial Feature Extraction of Electroencephalographic (EEG) Data Using Independent Component Analysis (ICA)
Pages 104-113Creative Commons License

Wei Wang and Yan Liu
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.16
Published: 12 April 2017

Abstract: Purpose of this research is to extract features associated with human brain signal related to electroencephalographic measurements and classification of extracted EEG signals to the relevant the brain region. EEG brain signals from 14 electrodes placed on the human scalp is recorded non-invasively using Emotiv EPOC / EPOC+:Scientific contextual EEG system with a sampling rate of 128 Hz. EEG data of human brain functions related to evoked motor imagery tasks consisting of two different classes of activities, namely imagination of right arm-movement i.e. arm down (termed here as PUSH) and arm up (termed here as PULL) for three healthy subjects is recorded. After pre-processing for noise and artifacts removal, the EEG signals associated with investigated evoked activities are extracted using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The results obtained show good contrast plots for the extracted brain signals recorded on F7, FC5 and FC6 electrodes, decomposed on independent components, namely IC1, IC4, IC5, IC6. Classification of extracted features is mapped on to the motor imagery parts of human brain. The algorithm based on independent component analysis gives good results for feature extraction corresponding to evoked signals. Power spectra are also determined for the extracted independent components.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram, electrocorticogram, independent component analysis, brain computer interface, event related potential.

Comparative Study on Water Holding Capacity (WHC) of Broiler and Layer Meat Pages 100-103

Comparative Study on Water Holding Capacity (WHC) of Broiler and Layer Meat
Pages 100-103Creative Commons License

Majid Saleem, Rameez Raja Kaleri, Depeesh Kumar, Raza Ali Mangi, Lokesh Kumar, Kabir Ahmed, Anees Memon, Zafar Khoso and Muhammad Amjad Jakhro
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.17
Published: 12 April 2017

This manuscript RETRACTED by the authors

ARIMA Forecasting Chinese Macroeconomic Variables Based on Factor and Principal Component Backdating Pages 91-99

ARIMA Forecasting Chinese Macroeconomic Variables Based on Factor and Principal Component Backdating
Pages 91-99Creative Commons License

Wei Wang and Yan Liu
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.16
Published: 12 April 2017

Abstract:  In this paper the backdating methods based on factors and principal components are applied for the first time to emulate the historical macroeconomic variables in China. The numerical results show that these procedures are useful to backdate some missing or not available historical data. ARIMA forecasting experiments based on backdated historical data are conducted and compared with forecasting procedures using directly factors and principal components. Our results suggest that some key variables like GDP can indeed be forecasted more precisely with the principal components backdated data.

Keywords: Backdating, Factor model, Principal components, ARIMA forecasting, GDP of China.

Distribution of Halophyte Plants in Relation to Properties of Salt-Affected Soils of District Thatta Pages 85-90

Distribution of Halophyte Plants in Relation to Properties of Salt-Affected Soils of District Thatta
Pages 85-90Creative Commons License

Sajid Hussain Kaleri, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Arshad Ali Kaleri and Mumtaz Ali Gadehi
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.15
Published: 31 March 2017

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to survey and collect some halophyte species capable of growing in highly salt affected soils and their distribution in relation to some soil properties of district Thatta. Sueda fruticosa, Tamarix aphylla, Ceriops candoleana, Cynodon dactylon, and Chenopodum album species were collected form Thatta. Soil samples were collected from the vicinity of each halophyte and were analyzed for pH, organic matter (OM), electrical conductivity (EC), soluble Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3, Cl, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Halophytes species collected were analyzed for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+and Cl) contents. Data regarding plant ionic composition showed that contents of Na+ ranged between 3.7-6.9 %, K+0.7-1.9 ,Ca+2 0.4–1.2 %, Mg2+ 0.6-2.2 and Cl contents between 0.1-0.8 in species collected from Thatta, respectively. Data further revealed that maximum Na+ (6.9 and %) was recorded in Sueda fruticosa and Salsola indica, highest K+(1.9 %) was noted in Chenopodium album species, greatest Ca+2 (1.2 %) was documented in Sueda fruticosaspecies, highest Mg2+ (2.2 %) was observed in Sueda fruticosa whereas, maximum Cl (0.8 %) was noted in Sueda fruticosa collected from district Thatta, respectively. Data pertaining to soil properties indicated that EC of studied soils ranged between 7.0-18.4dS m-1, pH 7.5-8.0. O.M 0.82-0.94 % , soluble Ca2+ 17.3-33.3 meq L-1, Mg2+ 15.5-24.6 meq L-1, Na+ 43.6-83.4 meq L-1 , Ka3.20-4.50 meq L-1, HCO3 2.4-5.3 meq L-1, Cl 55.6-145.4 meq L-1, SAR 10.2-17.1 whereas, ESP ranged between 12.2-19.6 % in soil samples collected from Thatta, respectively. It was concluded that halophyte species Sueda fruticosa, Tamarix aphylla, gallica, Salsola indica, Cyperus irria accumulate significant amounts of salt (Na+ and Cl)from salt-affected soil and, therefore, may remediate land to the point where native plants could invade and become established, or the site could be returned to agricultural productivity. These halophytes species have an excellent potential for rehabilitation of degraded salt affected soils.

Keywords: Halophytes, Salinity, EC, PH, SAR Organic Matter.

Effect of Preliminary Infestation of Three Stored Grain Insect Pests Tribolium castaneum, (H) Sitophils oryzae (L.) and Trogoderma granarium (E), their Population Buildup, Loss of Germination and Consequently Wheat Loss during Storage Pages 79-84

Effect of Preliminary Infestation of Three Stored Grain Insect Pests Tribolium castaneum, (H) Sitophils oryzae (L.) and Trogoderma granarium (E), their Population Buildup, Loss of Germination and Consequently Wheat Loss during Storage
Pages 79-84Creative Commons License

Akhlaq Ahmad, Q.M. Ali, P.A. Baloch, Riaz Uddin and S. Qadri
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.14
Published: 31 March 2017

Abstract: Population buildup of Tribolium castaneum (H), Sitophils oryzae (L.) and Trogoderma granarium (E) at 6, 8 and 10 pairs per 500 gm wheat per specie of initial insect infestation and resultant loss of wheat was calculated under laboratory conditions during storage period of six (06) months. Average increase number ranged from 20 to 3900 insects. Loss of germination, kernel damage and weight loss were 2.49 to 50.0, 2.79 to 63.69 and 1.99 to 15.38 respectively during the study period. Sitophilus oryzae was found to cause higher weight loss, kernel damage and loss of germination as compared to Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum.

Keywords: Fumigation, Wheat grain, Infestation, Inqlab.

Persistence and Degradation of Imidacloprid in Wheat Crop Pages

Persistence and Degradation of Imidacloprid in Wheat Crop
Pages Creative Commons License

Sajid Iqbal, Riaz Uddin, Sumayya Saied, Hameed Ur Rehman, Abdul Bari, Anum Hafeez, Abbas Bhutto and Najmus Sahar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.13
Published: 31 March 2017

Abstract: Present study was conducted to investigate the levels and persistence of imidacloprid residues in wheat grains and straw of field crop samples grown from treated seed and foliar application. Objective of the study was to assess the best practices that may be used to produce safe grains and straw. Residual uptake of imidacloprid was measured after seed treatments at four dosage levels of seed. Each sample of 25g treated seed was sown in a separate 5ft2 plot.

The absorption of imidacloprid residues was investigated by spraying the crops with 1ml and 5ml of 6 mgmL-1 solution of 200SL Confidor (imidacloprid). The results helped in determining the maximum allowable limits of imidacloprid application (foliar or seed treatment) on wheat, which would prevent the residues from exceeding the MRL. The quantitative determination of imidacloprid suggested that the lowest seed treatment level (i.e. 0.015g/25g seed) may be used to produce a residues-free crop.

Keywords: Imidacloprid, wheat grains, wheat straw, persistence, seed treatment, foliar application.

A Review and Classification of Energy Efficient MAC Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network Pages 63-70

A Review and Classification of Energy Efficient MAC Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network
Pages 63-70Creative Commons License

Waheed Hyder, Adnan Nadeem, Abdul Basit, Kashif Rizwan, Kamran Ahsan and Nadeem Mehmood
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.12
Published: 31 March 2017

Abstract: Underwater wireless sensor network is an emerging wireless networking technology (UWSN). UWSN has various applications for example it can be used for monitoring seismic activities, underwater animal, pipeline etc. UWSN face challenges in their MAC later operations. Different energy efficient MAC protocols have been proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSN) to overcome the problem of propagation delays which is inherent in underwater acoustic networks. In this paper, we study the energy efficient MAC protocols including EE-MACU, R-MAC and T-Lohi. We classify UWSN MAC protocols into two broad categories contention free and contention based and we further categorize contention based protocol. We analyze and compare key UWSN MAC protocols based on certain parameters and suggest their suitability in various scenarios.

Keywords: Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSN), energy efficient MAC protocol, and performance analysis.

Effect of Genetic Parameters on Some Growth Performance Traits of Harnai Sheep Pages 60-62

Effect of Genetic Parameters on Some Growth Performance Traits of Harnai Sheep
Pages 60-62Creative Commons License

Abdul Sattar Safi, Hubdar Ali Kaleri, Gul Muhammad, Rameez Raja Kaleri, Asma Kaleri, Muhammad Akram Safi, Assad Ullah, Kamal Uddin Mandokhial and Muhammad Siddiq
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2017.13.11
Published: 29 March 2017

Abstract: Present study was performed to estimates the genetic parameters forsome growth performance traits of Harnai sheep. The data was recorded for the period of 2004-2013 from the Multi-purpose research centre Yetabad, District, Baluchistan. The performance traits including birth, yearling, weaning and fleece weight was recorded for the estimation of genetic parameters. There was no significant difference was observed parity and Ram wise among some growth performance traits of Harnai sheep. While the results for heritability, estimation for birth weight, yearling weight, weaning weight and fleece weight was observed low to medium for some growth performance traits of Harnai sheep. It is concluded that low heritable and correlative traits mainly affected by the management, nutritional and temporary environmental conditions, hence improvement can be achieved through the better selection.

Keywords: Harani sheep, growth traits, heritability.