Determination of the Chronological Age of Skull Base Suture Closure Using Computed Tomography
Sattam S. Lingawi
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the postnatal chronological age of central and posterior skull base suture closure using computed tomography. The central and posterior skull base suture of pediatric brain CT’s obtained from 75 girls and 125 boys of varying ages (newborn to 18 years) were evaluated for this purpose. Premature infants of less than 38 weeks gestation, cases of congenital skull base malformations, and cranial anomalies were excluded. All brain CT studies were performed using 3 mm axial slice thickness at the skull base level. The central and posterior skull base sutures, synchondroses and ossification centers were all assessed for normal appearance and age of closure. The age of initial and completed fusion for the 12 main sutures in the occipital and sphenoid bones, were determined.
Data obtained during the study provides CT scans standard for normal age of closure of the central and posterior skull base sutures that may assist in the future evaluation of skull base fractures, dysplasia and deformities.
Keywords: Skull Base, Suture, Closure, Computed Tomography (CT)
Determination of Selected Physical Properties of Egusi Melon (Citrullus colocynthis lanatus) Seeds
Y.M. Bande, N.M. Adam, Y. Azmi and O. Jamarei
Abstract: Physical properties of seeds are determined for the purpose of developing a processing system. The aim of this research is to determine those properties that will guide the design of seed dehulling machine. In most West African countries, Egusi is grown as a food and cash crop. However, one of the most important problems is its manual dehulling, which is strenuous and time consuming. At moisture level 7.11 % dry basis, average length, thickness and width of Egusi melon seed were 13.199, 1.853 and 7.924 mm respectively. In moisture range of 7.11 to 38.70 % dry basis, studies revealed that 1000 seed mass increased from 0.0949 to 0.1299 kg and surface area from 25.394 to 27.827 mm2. Sphericity and Porosity of seed decreased from 0.215 to 0.196 and 0.541 to 0.444 respectively, while angle of repose increased from 23.66 to 33.63o. Bulk density rose from 414.006 to 456.339 kg/m3 while true density decreased from 901.515 to 821.668 kg/m3. Coefficient of friction on plywood (0.3388 – 0.3598), metal (0.2767 – 0.3198), aluminium (0.2736 – 0.3172) and PVC (0.2999 – 0.3782) were recorded.
Keywords: Dimensions, porosity, density, sphericity, Porosity, coefficient of friction.
Isolation and Characterisation of l,l’-binaphthalene-2,2’-diol, A New Biaryl Natural Product from Sesbania grandiflora Root
Noviany, Hasnah Osman, Wong Keng Chong, Khalijah Awang and Nurhuda Manshoor
Abstract: This study aimed to isolate and characterise purified compound from the root of Sesbania grandiflora. The root of Sesbania grandiflora provided a new natural compound: l,l’-binaphthalene-2,2’-diol (1) together with two known isoflavanoids (2–3). Complete 1H- and 13C-NMR data of compounds isolated were reported. The structures were determined through various spectroscopic methods notably 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR and HRESIMS.
Keywords: Sesbania grandiflora, l,l’-binaphthalene-2,2’-diol, biaryl natural product
Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) Among HIV Seropositive Patients
Anamika Vyas, Ramavtar Saini and Pooja Gangrade
Abstract: Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) share the routes of transmission as a consequences infection with Hepatitis B Virus are expected to occur in HIV infected patients. The co-infection of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have become a major health care catastrophe as it complicates the clinical course, management and therapy for HIV infection. Hence it is important to identify them as early as possible.
Aim: The prevalence of HBV co-infection with HIV varies widely across different studies within India and outsides. This study is planned to evaluate the prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection by HBsAg screening in HIV seropositive patients in our region.
Material and Method: A total of 140 HIV seropositive patients were screened for the presence of Hepatitis B virus on the basis of the presence of HBsAg.
Result: In patients infected with HIV the prevalence of HBsAg was 7.1% (10/140) wherease in control group it was 1% (5/500).
Discussion: Our study documents fairly high rate of Hepatitis B co-infection among HIV seropositive patients suggesting that it should be mandatory to screen every HIV seropositive patient and their sexual partners for co infection with HBV and vice versa for early detection and a simultaneous treatment of hepatitis B co-infection beside HIV infection management to reduce the morbidity, delay mortality and improve quality of life in HIV-AIDS patients.
Keywords: HIV, HBsAg, HBV, Co-infection, Prevalence
Evaluation of Oregano and α-Tocopheryl Acetate on Laying Japanese Quail Diets
E. Christaki, E. Bonos, I. Giannenas and P. Florou-Paneri
Abstract: In this experiment 108 Coturnix japonica quail, 149 days old, were randomly allocated into four equal groups with three subgroups of 9 birds each (6 females and 3 males). A commercial laying diet was fed to the control group. The remaining three groups were fed the same diet supplemented with ground oregano at 10 g/kg or 20 g/kg or additional 300 mg α-tocopheryl acetate /kg. The birds were offered feed and water ad libitum for a period of 29 days, while being kept under commercial conditions. During the whole experiment, egg production, feed consumption and mortality were recorded daily. Also, at the end of the experiment the egg weight, the weight percentages of egg yolk, albumen and shell, the egg yolk colour (using the L*a*b* colour space) were determined. Moreover, blood serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were determined. The results showed that the α-tocopheryl acetate addition did not affect any of the examined parameters. In contrast, oregano at 10 g/kg increased the a* yolk colour parameter (redness) compared to control, but did not affect the other examined parameters.
Keywords: Vitamin E, Coturnix japonica, antioxidants, egg laying, performance, egg quality, yolk color.
Influence of Certain Animal Manures on Incidence of Stem Canker and Black Scurf Disease on Potato
Heidi I.G. Abo-Elnaga, A.A. Mohamed, M.M. El-Fawy and A.M. Amein
Abstract: Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) is the causal pathogen of stem canker and black scurf disease on potato. Under open greenhouse conditions two isolates of R. solani (AG-3) were used to infect Nicola potato cultivar and caused typical symptoms of stem canker and black scurf disease with different disease severities ranged from strong to weak. In vitro Addition of chickens, pigeons and cows manure extracts to the media at different concentrations 0-50% (vol/vol) reduced the growth of the tested isolates of the pathogen. The highest reduction of mycelial growth of the pathogen isolates was obtained when pigeons manure extract was added to the growing media at a concentration of 50 % (vol/vol) followed by another concentrations. Under open greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons 2010 and 2011 addition of manures to the soil at 0.5 and 1% weight of the soil before sowing significantly decreased incidence of stem canker and black scurf disease. Generally, cow manure showed the highest effect on controlling the disease followed by pigeons and chickens. On the other hand, concentration 1 % of all manures was more effective on the reducing of disease incidence than the concentration 0.5 %. On the other hand, cow manure was more effective in increasing the eyes germination followed by pigeons and chicken manure and decreased the dead of sprouts, stem canker and black scurf. Treatment with all the kinds of tested manures increased eyes germination of tubers and reduced sclerotia formation on the surface of tubers and hence disease incidence.
Keywords: Rhizoctonia solani, Potato, Stem canker, Black scurf, animal manures.
Encouragement Germination of Potato Seed Cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.)
A.A. Kandil, A.E. Sharief and A.M.Y. Abd El-Atif
Abstract: A greenhouse experiment were conducted to study encouragement germination capacity of some potato tuber cultivars. The mean aim of this experiment was to assess the effect of some plant growth regulators treatments i.e. IAA and GA3, soaking time i.e. at (10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes on some germination and vegetative parameters of some potato cultivars i.e. Cara, Draga and Spunta. The results showed that Cara cultivar recorded highest germination index followed by Cv. Spunta without significant differences between them. Draga cultivar recorded tallest plant, highest fresh weight and dry weight in gm/plant followed by Cv. Cara for plant height only and followed by Cv. Spunta for fresh and dry weight without significant differences between them. Highest germination index percentage, tallest plants and highest fresh and plant dry weight were obtained from soaking tubers in GA3 at 10 ppm plus IAA at 6 ppm. While, soaking tubers in GA3 at concentration of 10 ppm produced highest mean of germination time. Results clearly indicated that soaking tubers for 30 minutes produced highest fresh weight followed by soaking for 20 minutes without significant differences between them. The interaction among cultivars and growth regulator treatments recorded significant differences on mean germination time, fresh weight and dry weight. Within this context, it is important to recognize the role of some growth regulators, soaking times and their interactions on encouragement germination capacity of some potato tuber cultivars.
Keywords: Potato cultivars, IAA, GA3, germination index and vegetative parameters
The Effects of Zataria Multiflora Hydroalcoholic Extract on Some Liver Enzymes, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, Albumin and Total Protein in Rat
Ameneh Khoshvaghti, Saeed Nazifi, Seena Derakhshaniyan and Bijan Akbarpour
Abstract: Zataria multiflora is a valuable medicinal plant grown extensively in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The chemical compositions of their extracts have been extensively characterized in Iran and Pakistan. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Zataria multiflora on some liver enzymes, triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, albumin and total protein in rat. Sixty adult male Wistar rats weighing about 200 to 220 g were divided into six groups of ten. The control group (group 1) did not receive any drug. The sham group (group 2) received 2 cc of distilled water. The other four experimental groups (groups 3 to 6) including very low (100 mg/kg BW), low (200 mg/kg BW), medium (300 mg/kg BW) and maximum dose (400 mg/kg BW) received Zataria multiflora hydroalcoholic extract intraperitoneally daily for 28 days. After 28 days all animals in the different groups were weighed and blood samples were collected from heart vein. Serum biochemical parameters were measured using validated standard methods. The results of this study showed Zattaria multiflora hydroalcoholic extract analyses various lipids in lipid tissues and transfer to blood for elimination from body.
Keywords: Zataria multiflora hydroalcoholic extract, Liver enzymes, Lipids, Proteins, Rat.
Kamil Abidalhussain Aboshkair, Saidon Bin Amri, Kok Lian Yee and Bahaman Bin Abu Samah
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to measure health-related fitness of children based on different implementation levels of the physical education program. Another was to determine the effect of anthropometric and social factors on students’ health-related fitness. A total of 918 students’ age 13, 14, and 16 years old were selected from three different implementation levels program. The total score of the checklist questions was used as criteria in classifying implementation levels in Selangor schools. Heights and weights were measured, from which the BMI was calculated. Data concerning students’ family income were collected from school files. Data on student involvement in a variety of PA during and outside of school hours were gathered from information given by students (SKAF questionnaire). Tanner, self-reported assessment was used to estimate students’ stage of maturation. Length was considered as indicator of adolescent growth. While, students’ health-fitness was measured by a battery of health fitness tests. Effectiveness of these factors on students’ health-related fitness was determined by comparing the pre-post-health-fitness tests scores of students. Results indicated that children in the high-implementation-level have better-health fitness performance on both pre-test and post-test measurements than children in the low-implementation level. However, health- fitness performances that reflect significant differences were different among age groups. The older age groups generally performed better on overall fitness tests than did the younger age groups. Several covariates had strong relationships with pre and post-test fitness scores for different age groups such as; height, weight, BMI, maturity status, time spent in PA, race, and family income. Variations of health-related fitness performance between students involved in this study are most likely contributing to the different implementation levels. Thus, a well-programmed and supervised PE program can develop the health status of students at all levels of education.
Keywords: Implementation level of a physical education program, Quality Physical education program, Quality physical education teacher, Adolescent health-related physical fitness.
Aweng Eh Rak, Noor Azlina Ibrahim and Marina Bujang
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using Chromolaena odorata as absorbent and to ascertain as to whether indigenous bacteria has the potential to degrade hydrocarbon from oily wastewater and thereby reducing its toxicity and other negative impacts to the environment particularly on aquatic life. The potential of Chromolaena odorata and indigenous bacteria to remove oil from wastewater was evaluated by measuring total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. The result shows that, about 55% of oil substances were absorbed or removed after 4 hours of Chromolaena odorata application with the optimum dosage of 4mg/L. Growth percentage of bacterial consortium and single pure strain on medium containing oily wastewater was studied. It was found that bacterial consortium, the mixture of Bacillus cereus (KA) and Acinetobacter (TB) shows higher growth among other bacterial consortium and single pure cultures and this consortium was used for further analysis. In addition, the results have shown that, bacterial consortium (KA+TB) exhibited high efficiency to remove TSS at the optimum dosage of 1 mg/L. Absorption and biodegradation rate was increased after being treated with Chromolaena odorata and bacterial consortium mixture. The mixture of Chromolaena odorata powder and bacterial consortium in 4:1 ratio was obtained to significantly removed TSS by 75% in 24 hours.
Keywords: Bacterial consortium, Chromolaena odorata, Bacillus cereus (KA), Acinetobacter (TB), TSS, oily wastewater.