Frequency of Vitamin B12 and Red Cell Folate Deficiency in Macrocytic Anaemia
Tanweer Ahmed, A. Sabeen Rahman, Shaista Ahmed, Afshan Siddiqui, Aisha Javed, Jawed Kamal and Laeeq Ahmed
Abstract: Background: Macrocytosis refers to a condition in which red blood cells are larger than normal, with or without anemia. Macrocytic anemia occur due to variety of illnesses and requires further clinical and laboratory assessment. Both folate and vitamin B12 have been known to cause macrocytic anemia since the deficiencies of these two vitamins are very common in Pakistan, it would be imperative to investigate their role in causing megaloblastic anemia.
Objective: To determine the frequency of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies in cases of macrocytic anemia.
Material and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the department of medicine of Abbasi Shaheed hospital from January 2012 to June 2012. A total of 95 patients (65 males and 30 females) with an age of above 13 years, who admitted with macrocytic anemia (MCV>96) with hemoglobin < 12 mg/dl in females and < 13 mg/dl in males were enrolled and data pertaining to complete blood count, serum level of vitamin B12 and RBC folate were analyzed.
Result: A total of 95 patients (65 males and 30 females) with hemoglobin < 12 mg/dl in females and < 13 mg/dl in males were taken. Mostly were non vegetarian and majority of the patients belongs to age group of 34-54 years. It was found that 69 patients (48 males and 21 females) from total of 95 had vitamin B12 deficiency which is 72.6% and 43 patients (20 males and 23 females) from total of 95 had folate deficiency which is 45.26%.
Conclusion: Our study concludes that vitamin B12 is a major contributing factor of macrocytic anemia in our population. Dietary insufficiency, poor absorption and increase demand might be contributing to high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in our population. Therefore our medical community should seriously consider the merit of early screening for vitamin B12 deficiency and take precautions against the clinical consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency.
Keywords: Macrocytic anemia, vitamin B12, folate, megaloblastic anemia.
Germination and Seedling Characters of Different Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress
A.A. Kandil, A.E. Sharief and M.A. Elokda
Abstract: The impact of salt stress under different salinity level (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 dS/m-1 NaCl) on eleven varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) viz., Sakha 93, Gemmeza 7, Egaseed 7, Sakha 94, Gemmeza 10, Egaseed 3, Masr 2, Masr 1, Gemmeza 9, Sids 1 and Giza 168 was conducted. A laboratory experiment was conducted at Giza Central Seed Testing laboratory of Central Administration for Seed Testing and Certification, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt. Wheat cultivars significantly varied in means of final germination percentage, germination rate, germination index, vigor index, shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, seedling height reduction and relative dry weight. Sakha 93 and Sakha 94 had positive effects in most of studied characters while, Masr 1 cultivar had negative effects in most of germination parameters under study. Salinity concentrations significantly varied in all germination parameters under study except shoot dry weight character. Increasing salinity concentrations from 0 to 14 dS/m-1 gradually decreased average of germination and seedling characters. All studied characters were significantly affected by the interaction between cultivars and salinity stress, vice versa, root length didn’t affect by the interaction. It could be concluded that for maximizing wheat germination percentage and seedling parameters under salinity stress are recognized by using Sakha 93, Sakha 94 and Gemmeza 10 cultivars with increasing salinity concentrations levels up to 14 dS/m-1. Among the cultivars under investigation Sakha 93 and Sakha 94 cultivars appeared to be more tolerant to salinity at germination stage compared with other cultivars. These cultivars were more tolerant to salinity and recommended to use in breeding program for enhancing Wheat production in Egypt.
Keywords: Bread wheat cultivars, salinity concentrations, germination characters, seedling parameters.
Gamma Radiation Effect on Commercial Reactive Dye in the Range 0-100KGy Using the Idea of the De-Coloration Factor and Extinction Coefficient.
Taqmeem Hussain, Muhammad Attique Khan Shahid, Muhammad Shahbaz, Inam-ul-Haq and Hashim Farooq
Abstract: In this study the usability of aqueous solutions of SR C4BLN and SGY CRL dyes; as secondary dosimeter was checked using the novel idea of de-coloration factor and extinction coefficient. All samples were irradiated by Co60γ-source in the range 0-105Gy. Absorbance of solutions was noted at λmax for pre and post irradiation stages. The λmaxof Red and Yellow dyes were 545nm and 448nm respectively. The absorbance%, extinction coefficient and %age of de-coloration factor for each dye were determined. The results showed a gradual decrease in Absorbance% and extinction coefficient while decrease in %age of de-coloration factor with the increase in absorbed dose which confirms the said dyes as secondary dosimeter in stable and safe mode.
Keywords: Chemical dosimeters, SR C4BLN, SGY CRL, dosimetry, Absorbance %age, extinction coefficient, de-coloration factor.
Management of Injuries of Tendon Achilles at NMC Hospital NawabShah
Saeed Samo, Zulfiqar Soomro, Zamir Soomro and Mehtab Pirwani
Abstract: Introduction: Tendon Achilles is largest tendon of the body and is made of fibrous tissue, descends from calf & gets attached to calcaneum. The injuries of this strongest tendon are not only uncommon but disabling as well. Twenty one tendons in 20 patients were managed successfully using Bosworth repair in the department of Orthopaedics NMC Hospital NawabShah during the period from March 2002 to April 2006.
Patients & Method: All patients were male and age ranged from 25 years to 55. Thirteen injuries were caused due to direct trauma, 3 patients noticed sudden jerk during high jump while playing, 3 had fall while running on plain ground and use of prolong corticosteroids caused 2 bilateral tendon injuries in one patient (Figure 1). Eleven patients sustained right side injury while 9 had their left side tendon injury. All patients were admitted through OPD & Emergency departments and were operated after their pre-op work & anesthetist’s fitness was completed. Period lapsed from injury to admission was one day to 3 months and surgery was performed within 1day to 6 days after their admissions (Figure 3).
Results: All twenty patients healed completely. Out of these 20 patients 17 were farmers, one medical professional and two were agriculture mechanics (Figure 4). Follow-up period in all these patients was over 15 months and no patient lost to follow- ups.
Conclusion: Public awareness service programs and interaction between Orthopaedic consultants and other health professionals including general practitioners of the areas can prevent not only delay in diagnosing such problems, but shall minimize the ailment suffered by these patients. Nevertheless, all injuries of tendon Achilles should be dealt immediately to restore the full function of this strongest tendon of body regardless the lapse of any length of time.
Keywords: Bosworth, repair, tendon achilles.
Effect of Pesticide Residues on Health and Different Enzyme Levels in the Milk of Women from Karachi-Pakistan
Uzma Mehboob, Mohammad Ahmed Azmi, Mohammad Arshad Azmi and Syed Naeem ul Hasan Naqvi
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of pesticide residues in human milk and their effects on the enzyme levels (cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase) as well as the health status of the pesticide exposed women. Total 135 milk samples from 45 women were collected from nine different divisions of Karachi, Pakistan. In addition ten milk samples were also collected from normal subjects. The milk samples were taken at day 1, day 15 and day 30 from the same women and from the same divisions. The data indicated that only cypermethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and match were identified. The highest concentration 34.86 µg/10 µl of deltamethrin and the lowest concentration 0.336 µg/10 µl of cypermethrin was found in the milk sample. It may be concluded that exposed women showed significant increased and decreased enzyme levels at different division and also complained about the disturbance in the normal functioning of different organ system and possibly produced various ailments and clinically suffered with skin diseases, backache, disturbance in micturition, difficulty in breathing, asthma and hepatitis.
Keywords: Pesticide residues, Human milk, Enzymes, Health.
The Bi-Gamma ROC Curve in a Straightforward Manner
Abstract: In biomedical research, biomarkers (diagnostic tests) are used in distinguishing healthy and diseased populations. The effectiveness and accuracy of a biomarker generally assessed through the use of a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve model, and its functional such as area under the curve (AUC). The parametric (smooth) ROC curves are obtained under the specific distributions assumptions. A resulting ROC curve model is the plot of sensitivity versus 1-specificity for all possible threshold values. Most popular and widely used ROC curve model is bi-normal ROC curve model under the assumptions of normality. When the biomarker results are continuous and positively skewed (non-normal). The gamma distribution is supposed to a flexible model for positively skewed measurements. In practice use of bi-gamma ROC curve model is hindered by the fact that ROC function cannot be written in closed-form.
The solution of the problem is to use transformed invariance property of ROC curve model. Which assumes that the test results of both diseased and healthy are normally distributed after some monotone transformation .
In this paper we propose a simple approximation solution for the problem mentioned in above lines using a normal approximation due to Wilson and Hilfertys . Which is useful to approximate gamma distribution results with classical normal distribution based results.
Keywords: Sensitivity, Specificity, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, Normal distribution, Gamma distribution
Study of Arabian Seawater Temperature Fluctuations
M. Arif Hussain, Shaheen Abbas, M. Rashid Kamal Ansari and Asma Zaffar
Abstract: It is well known that the ocean has an important role in climate variability and change. To study the variations in sea-surface temperature (SST) of Arabian sea near Karachi coastal region, we apply the probability distributions theory as it gives more insights of SST fluctuating behavior. In this regard the adequacy of Normal. Gamma, and Lognormal probability distributions is tested with the help of Kolmogorov-Smirnov D-test. It is found that most of the months of the year follow Normal probability distribution, whereas April, August, October, and November follow Lognormal probability distribution. Further, using the distribution parameters mean and standard deviations of monthly SST are also calculated, which come out to be (23.33 ± 0.316), (23.19 ± 0.300), (24.36 ± 0.312), (26.27 ± 0.360), (28.31 ± 0.325), (29.19 ± 0.347), (28.64 ± 0.346), (27.38 ± 0.364), (27.34 ± 0.322), (27.61 ± 0.311), (26.43 ± 0.352), (24.65 ±0.380).
Keywords: Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) Average Seawater Temperature Data (AVTD), Arabian Monthly Average Seawater Temperature (AMAST).
Effect of Different Infestation Levels of Chilo Infuscatellus (Snellen) on Quantity and Quality Parameters of Sugarcane
Raza Muhammad, Maqsood Anwar Rustamani, Nazir Ahmad and Qadeer Ahmad
Abstract: Population dynamics of sugarcane stem borer on commercial varieties of sugarcane were evaluated. The adults of Chilo infuscatellus (Snellen) emerged from over wintering larvae during fourth week of February. The population of adults of C. infuscatellus remained low in early vegetative growth stage of sugarcane crop. The number of moth/ trap increased gradually as the growth of the crop advanced and the maximum population of 37.4± 2.20 was recorded during August. When mean number of 18.98 moth/ trap were collected. The population of C. infuscatellus was declined after August and 28.6±2.42, 14.6 ± 1.74 moths were captured/ trap in month of September and October, respectively. The infestation of sugarcane stem borers was inversely proportional to the quantity and quality of sugarcane. Maximum cane weight of 13.5 ± 0.21 and 12.1± 0.05 kg were recorded in CPF-237 and Thatta-10 varieties at 0% infestation level, while minimum at 20% infestation (9.3±0.12 and 8.5 ±0.12 kg), respectively. Highest sugar recovery (11.0 ±0.08 and 10.2±0.11%) was observed at 0% infestation while lowest (9.3±0.12 and 8.5 ±0.12%) at 20% infestation in both the varieties.
Keywords: Infestation, Chilo infuscatellus, quantity, quality, sugarcane.
Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Leaf Litter Decomposition of Two Species of Mangroves, Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata
Waqar Ahmed and S. Shahid Shaukat
Abstract: Decomposition of litter is influenced by physicochemical characteristics of the habitat which is affected by pollution. In this study the effect of heavy metals on leaf litter decomposition of two mangrove species, Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata is investigated. An experiment was conducted in which litter bags were half-buried in mangrove soil in earthen pots in a greenhouse in which close to natural conditions were maintained and they were treated with 0, 5 and 10 ppm Ni and Pb as a solution of sea water for 16 weeks. Periodic observations were taken on the dry weight remaining and the four factor ANOVA was performed. All four factors (species, heavy metals, concentrations, time) were found to be significant (P at the most 0.05) while some of the interactions were also significant. Half-life and rate of decomposition, k were calculated on the basis of 12 periodic weight loss observations. The litter decomposition followed an exponential decay curve in all cases. The highest rate of decomposition (0.0155 gDWd-1) and the shortest half life (7.44 days) were found for the control of Avicennia marina. In general, decomposition rate of A. marina was more rapid compared to that of R. mucronata. Whereas, the decomposition in treatments with heavy metals were found to be slower than in the controls, the minimum of which (0.0105 gDWd-1) and the longest half life (18.17 days) were found in Rhizophora mucronata leaves treated with 10 ppm Pb. Lead appears to be more inhibitory to the process of litter decomposition compared to nickel. The two mangrove species responded differentially to the heavy metal concentrations. The influence of heavy metals in the decomposition process is discussed.
Keywords: Litter Decomposition, Heavy metals, Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata.
Dosimetric Evaluation and Verification of External Beam 3-D Treatment Plans in Humanoid Phantom Using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs)
Rizwana Siddique, Zaheer Uddin and Muzaffar Hussain
Abstract: Dosimetric Evaluation & Verification Of External Beam 3-D Treatment Plans In Humanoid Phantom have been carried out. In this study male anthromorphic phantom, model no.702 D, manufactured by Atom Ltd has been used. The plan was delivered to phantom and TLD- 100 was placed in cavities to evaluate and verify the dose delivered by implementing 3D treatment plans. TLD 100 was calibrated using SIEMENS PRIMUS PLUS Linear Accelerator with calibrated 6 MV X ray beam. We chose phantom skull, abdomen and pelvis region for making treatment plans and then doses by treatment plans have been verified by TLDs. 4%, 3.5% and 3% variation in the results was found for skull, pelvis and abdomen region respectively which is within the safe limit of accuracy i-e from 3% to 5 %. Before working with TLDs, it has also been found that thermoluminescent dosimeters were showing the linear response and results are reproducible for the dose range from 50 cGy to 200 cGy. This study has been performed at Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (KIRAN) during the year 2010-2011.
Keywords: Thermoluminescent (Tlds) Dosimeters, anthromorphic phantom, vitro Dosimetry, vivo Dosimetry, Linear accelerator.