Structural and Dielectric Properties of Manganese Ferrite Nanoparticles

Structural and Dielectric Properties of Manganese Ferrite Nanoparticles
Hashim Farooq, Muhammad Raza Ahmad, Yasir Jamil, Abdul Hafeez, Zeeshan Mahmood and Tahir Mahmood

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.53

Abstract: In this work, Manganese ferrite nanoparticles of various compositions were reproducibly synthesized via coprecipitation route. Variation in structural and dielectric properties was studied by varying the sintering temperature, sintering time and manganese to iron ratio. Structural, compositional and phase properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique which confirmed the pure normal spinel structure with no other phase/impurity. Particle size, Lattice constant, measured bulk density, X-ray density, Specific Surface Area and Porosity were determined by the standard formulae. Responses of Capacitance and Dielectric constant were studied at room temperature in the frequency range of 600Hz to 1MHz by LCR meter which both showed the exponential decay at low frequency while both became nearly independent of frequency in higher frequency ranges.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, spinel structure, coprecipitation, dielectric constant.

Gamma Dosimetric Response of Sandalfix Golden Yellow CRL Dye Solutions for Gamma Dosimetry Using Cs137 in the Range 0-1KGy

Gamma Dosimetric Response of Sandalfix Golden Yellow CRL Dye Solutions for Gamma Dosimetry Using Cs137 in the Range 0-1KGy

Muhammad Yousuf Hussain, Taqmeem Hussain, Irfan Toqeer, Nasim Akhtar, Inam-ul-Haq and Hashim Farooq

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.38

Abstract: The effect of gamma radiation source (Cs137) on the aqueous solutions of the Sandalfix Golden Yellow CRLdye was determined in the range 0-1kGy. λmax of the dye was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer before the exposure of gamma radiations and was found to be 422 nm. Absorbance of the sample solutions was studied at λmax of the dye at pre and post irradiation. It was determined that the Absorbance of the sample solutions was decreased with increasing absorbed dose. The exposed dye solutions were found to be discolored due to the structural changes in the dye solutions and the discoloration of the dye was found linear with respect to absorbed dose.

Keywords: Sandalfix Golden Yellow CRL, dosimetry, Cs137 gamma source, radiolytic bleaching.

Seasonal Variations and Characterization of Solid Aerosols Related to Faisalabad (Pakistan) Environment

Seasonal Variations and Characterization of Solid Aerosols Related to Faisalabad (Pakistan) Environment
Muhammad Attique Khan Shahid, Khadim Hussain and Mariam Saeed Awan

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.50

Abstract: Black solid aerosols were monitored continuously at Faisalabad using Gaussian dispersion model and nucleation model. Data for one year 2006 was analyzed here keeping in view the meteorological and climatological conditions of Faisalabad co-relating them with concentration gradient. Winter has minimum concentration, i.e. equivalent to background level followed by summer (598.80 mg/m3), Moon Soon (2762.00 mg/m3) and finally Post Moon Soon (8863.00 mg/m3). Temperature and pressure gradients both were negative co-relationed with black solid aerosols. These results were not in accordance with other studies, the reason may be the complexity of the Faisalabad environment on account of its geographical, geological and industrial setup confirmed by longitudinal, latitudinal effects and mix plume behavior. A positive co-relationship between biomass burning and seasonal variation i.e. low concentration of particulate matter i.e., 637.30 μg/m3 in summer and high in winter such as 3954 μg/m3.

Keywords: Black solid aerosols, Gaussian dispersion model, meteorological and climatological conditions, Temperature and pressure gradients, complexity of the Faisalabad environment.

Germination and Seedling Growth of Some Chickpea Cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.) under Salinity Stress

Germination and Seedling Growth of Some Chickpea Cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.) under Salinity Stress
A.A. Kandil, A.E. Sharief and S.R.H. Ahmed

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.49

Abstract: In order to study the response of some Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars i.e. Giza 1, Giza 2, Giza 3, Giza 3, Giza 4, Giza 195, Giza 531, and Chickpea stand1to germination under salinity concentrations i.e. control treatment, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 dSm-1 NaCl and to confirm the seedling growth performance. A laboratory experiment was laid out at Giza Central Seed Testing Laboratory of Central Administration for Seed Certification, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt. Giza 3 cultivar exceeded other cultivars in germination percentage, germination index, seedling vigor index, shoot length, shoot and root dry weight followed by Giza 1 and Giza 2 cultivars. Giza 2 cultivar recorded highest mean germination time, followed by chickpea stand 1 and Giza 4 cultivars. Giza 195 cultivar exceeded other cultivars in root length and Giza 531 and Giza 1 cultivars surpassed other cultivars in shoot fresh weight. Chickpea stand 1 and Giza 195 cultivars surpassed other cultivars in seedling height reduction and Giza 1, Giza 2, Giza 3, and Giza 4, came in the second rank. However, the lowest percentages of seedling height reduction were obtained from Giza 531 cultivar. Increasing salinity levels from 0 to 20 dSm-1 significantly decreased germination percentage, germination index, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight and relative dry weight. The control treatment recorded highest averages of these characters, vice versa mean germination time and seedling height reduction. Germination index, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length (cm), shoot and root fresh weight (mg), shoot and root dry weight (mg), seedling height reduction % and relative dry weight % significantly affected by the interaction between chickpea cultivars and salinity concentration. Giza 3, Giza 1 and Giza 2 cultivars were more tolerant to salinity and recommended to be used in breeding program for enhancing chickpea cultivation in newly reclaimed soils.

Keywords: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L)., cultivars, salinity stress, germination parameters.

Study of Arabian Seawater Temperature Fluctuations

Study of Arabian Seawater Temperature Fluctuations

M. Arif Hussain, Shaheen Abbas, M. Rashid Kamal Ansari and Asma Zaffar

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.48

Abstract: It is well known that the ocean has an important role in climate variability and change. To study the variations in sea-surface temperature (SST) of Arabian sea near Karachi coastal region, we apply the probability distributions theory as it gives more insights of SST fluctuating behavior. In this regard the adequacy of Normal. Gamma, and Lognormal probability distributions is tested with the help of Kolmogorov-Smirnov D-test. It is found that most of the months of the year follow Normal probability distribution, whereas April, August, October, and November follow Lognormal probability distribution. Further, using the distribution parameters mean and standard deviations of monthly SST are also calculated, which come out to be (23.33 ± 0.316), (23.19 ± 0.300), (24.36 ± 0.312), (26.27 ± 0.360), (28.31 ± 0.325), (29.19 ± 0.347), (28.64 ± 0.346), (27.38 ± 0.364), (27.34 ± 0.322), (27.61 ± 0.311), (26.43 ± 0.352), (24.65 ±0.380).

Keywords: Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) Average Seawater Temperature Data (AVTD), Arabian Monthly Average Seawater Temperature (AMAST).

Pollutants of Wastewater Characteristics in Textile Industries

Pollutants of Wastewater Characteristics in Textile Industries

S.M. Imtiazuddin, Majid Mumtaz and Khalil A. Mallick

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.47

Abstract: Textile Industry is one of the most important and largest industrial sectors in Pakistan. It has a high importance in terms of its environment impact, since it consumes large quantity of textile industrial processed water and produces highly polluted discharge water. The textile industry uses high volume of water throughout its operation, from the washing of fibers to bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing and washing of finished products. A process data collection was performed and integrated with a characterization of the process effluents in terms of treatability and reusability. In order to evaluate properly the wastewater loading, on analysis course was set. The samples were collected during four months period of time i.e. November, December, January and February 2009-2010 from the seven samples were collected from different textile mills and analyzed for various parameters such as Total Dissolved Solids(TDS), Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD), Biochemical Oxygen demand(BOD), pH, Electrical Conductivity(EC), and heavy metals like Cadmium(Cd), Chromium(Cr), Copper(Cu), Iron(Fe), Manganese(Mn), Nickel(Ni), Potassium(K), Phosphorous(P), Sodium(Na), Sulphur(S), Zinc(Zn) were found in within the limits. Concentrations of all these metal ions in the effluent were above the recommended NEQS. It was therefore concluded that textile effluents were highly polluted.

Keywords: Textile wastewater, pollutant, analysis.

Atmospheric Metal Constituent, Concentration and Health Impacts in the Urban Environment of Faisalabad (Pakistan)

Atmospheric Metal Constituent, Concentration and Health Impacts in the Urban Environment of Faisalabad (Pakistan)

Muhammad Attique Khan Shahid, Khadim Hussain and Maryam Saeed Awan

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.46

Abstract: Currently rapidly growing heavy metal pollution is a burning issue due to deteriorating air quality and health status of the inhabitants of the world. In the present study heavy metals in the solid aerosols as well as in the human blood samples from randomly selected sites related to Faisalabad environment were estimated using Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The order of concentration of these toxic metals were found to be Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd for solid aerosols while Cu>Zn>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd for blood samples. Overall effect of all these elements present in solid aerosols and blood samples is 22.5 % and 23.11% respectively. The contribution of different kinds of industries is the major source of emission of these elements in the environment. From where these enter in the food web and food chain when deposited on land or inhaled by the inhabitants of the area concerned. Concentration factor and Pollution load index (PLI) were also calculated which showed the shifting of Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni from solid aerosols to human blood causing severe health hazards while Pb was the only element found in blood which has its origin other than solid aerosols. This state of affairs shows that atmosphere of Faisalabad has worsened to an extent that protective measures are urgently required to overcome the health hazards generated by these potentially toxic pollutants.

Keywords: Elemental atmospheric air pollution, positive co-relationship with human blood, confirmed through concentration factor and pollution load index, hazardous effects on human health, protective measures suggested.

Long Term Wind Trends Analysis of Coastal Belt of Pakistan

Long Term Wind Trends Analysis of Coastal Belt of Pakistan

Zeeshan Alam Nayyar, Nayyer Alam Zaigham and Abdul Qadeer

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.45

Abstract: Pakistan has a long coastal belt, stretched over an area of more than 1000 km from Indian border in east to Iranian border in west, which has varying nature of geomorphic, geologic and climatic setups. In view to understand the characteristic nature of the area in relevance to undertake the wind energy assessment study, it is imperative to carry out the time-series climatic analyses especially for the wind parameters. Pakistan coastal belt has its unique windy nature because of the monsoon period in summer and land-to-sea wind behavior in winter, which further varies respect to coastal geomorphologic features. A research study has been conducted to analyze the long term wind speed trends for the salient cities lying near the coast of Pakistan. The seasonal decomposition technique, i.e. multiplicative model, was applied for the wind trend analyses using the wind data of 60 years for five major cities namely Karachi, Badin & Hyderabad in Sindh province and Lasbella & Ormara in Balochistan province. The present study describes the methodology adopted for the calculation of long term wind speed trends and subsequent the results indicate different wind variables of long term time-series analyses for the selected five cities.

Keywords: Wind speed, time series analyses, seasonal decomposition, Pakistan

Measurement of Annual Effective Doses of Radon from Drinking Water and Dwellings by CR-39 Track Detectors in Kulachi City of Pakistan

Measurement of Annual Effective Doses of Radon from Drinking Water and Dwellings by CR-39 Track Detectors in Kulachi City of Pakistan

Tabassum Nasir and Mujtaba Shah

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.44

Abstract: Radon concentration and annual effective doses were measured in drinking water and dwellings of Kulachi city of Pakistan. Twenty samples of drinking water were collected from various sources i.e. tap water, pond water, hand pump and tube well water. CR-39 (Columbia Resin-39) based NRPB (National Radiological Protection Board) radon dosimeters were used to measure the radon concentration. Among the various types of samples, the maximum average value of radon concentration was detected (1.218±0.005 Bq/L) in tube well water while the minimum average value was (0.602±0.003 Bq/L) in tap water. The annual effective dose was calculated from the measured radon concentration which varied from 4.39 × 10-3 to 8.89 × 10-3 mSv/y. The measured values of radon concentration as well as the annual effective dose were found within the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) and World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits.

In order to carry out radon survey in dwelling, thirty CR-39 based NRPB dosimeters were installed in various buildings in the area under study. The maximum measured indoor radon concentration was found to be 270±22 Bq/m3 while the minimum was 21±2 Bq/ m3. The mean value of indoor radon concentration in bed rooms was 98 Bq/m3 which was within the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended limits however, maximum concentration of 240 Bq/m3 was observed in a mud made room which was above the US-EPA and WHO new recommended limits. The mean annual effective dose from indoor radon was found to be 1.546 mSv/y which was within the ICRP recommended limits.

Keywords: Drinking water, Dwellings, CR-39, NRPB dosimeters, Radon concentration, Annual effective dose.

Near and Intermediate Field Evolution of A Negatively Buoyant Jet

Near and Intermediate Field Evolution of A Negatively Buoyant Jet

Raed Bashitialshaaer and Kenneth M. Persson

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.43

Abstract: In this study, a mathematical model was developed to simulate the jet and plume behavior in order to determine the optimum discharge conditions for different scenarios. The model was divided into two sub-models, describing respectively the near and intermediate field properties of the discharge for different inclinations and bottom slope. The lateral spreading and electrical conductivity was also described through a generalization of measured data. The predictions of the model were compared with experimental data collected in lab as well as results obtained with a commercial software CORMIX. A Matlab code was also developed describing the lateral spreading and centerline dilution of buoyant jet and plumes for near and intermediate field was developed. The model produces results in acceptable agreement with data and observations, even though some improvements should be made in order to give the correct weight to the bottom slope parameter and to reduce the need for user calibration. This study has limited result for only 16% bottom slope and 30 degrees inclination. Concentration was improved with the bottom slope by 10% than the horizontal bottoms and improved by about 40% with bottom slope together with inclination of 30 degrees.

Keywords: Lab-scale experiment, Turbulent jet, Negative buoyancy, Desalination, Brine