Sustainable Agricultural Practices as Perceived by Farmers in Sindh Province of Pakistan

Sustainable Agricultural Practices as Perceived by Farmers in Sindh Province of Pakistan

Muhammad Ismail Kumbhar, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Aijaz Hussain Soomro and Aijaz A. Khooharo

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.12

Abstract: The study was conducted in Sindh Province of Pakistan. 180 respondents were selected from six district namely Badin, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar Khairpur, Larkana and Jacobabad. From each district 30 respondents were selected by using simple random sampling techniques. This study used a descriptive research design and the target population was farmers. A representative sample of 180 farmers was proposed from six districts of Sindh, namely, 1. Larkana 2. Naushehro Feroze 3. Shaheed Benazirabad 4. Sanghar 5. Mirpurkhas 6. Badin representing the agro-ecological zones of Sindh province producing Cotton, Wheat, Rice, Vegetables, Orchards and Sugar Cane crops. Multistage plan was used to collect the data. A survey questionnaire was designed to collect data for this study. A likert type scale ranging from (1) not familiar (2) to somewhat (3) for very much. This scale was used to asses the level of perceptions of the respondents. The respondents were interviewed personally by well structured and pre-tested direct interview schedule. Questionnaire items were coded and entered into the SPSS computer program. Suitable statistical techniques such as percentage analysis, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze and interpreted the data. The results revealed that out of total growers, majority (54.44%) had medium socio-economic status, whereas 28.89 percent and 16.67 percent had low and high socio-economic status respectively. Extent of knowledge of farmers: Majority of the respondents (52%) were observed in medium category of knowledge followed by high (26.67%) and low (20.56%) levels of knowledge, respectively. It was observed that the farmers were familiar to some what, familiar with sustainable agriculture practices selection of pure seed variety, maintenance and Integrated Soil Fertility, Integrated Weed Management and efficient Use of irrigation water. However the majority of farmers were not familiar with the use of genetically modified Crop, Fish farming, Mulch Technology, EM Technology and IPNMS. However, none of the farmers were found in high category of adoption levels. The respondents suggested adoption of sustainable agriculture practices should be promoted through extension services.

Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture, Farmers Perception, Technology

Effects of Carburizing Process Variables on Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Carburized Mild Steel

Effects of Carburizing Process Variables on Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Carburized Mild Steel
A. Oyetunji and S.O. Adeosun

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.11

Abstract: This work evaluates the suitability of using palm kernel shell, animal bone (mammalian bones from cattle) and  sea shell (oyster shell) materials as carburizers for case hardening of 0.078%C mild steel. The mild steel sample used in this study sourced from universal steel company, Ikeja Lagos Nigeria was cut into suitable sizes using hacksaw machine for tensile and hardness tests. The carburizing media used were milled into fine powder while Barium trioxo (iv)  carbonate (VI) (BaCO3) was used as an energizer in the carburizing process. Three rectangular stainless steel plate boxes were fabricated to accommodate each of the steel samples and carburized.  A calculated amount of each carburizer was weighed into each of the stainless steel boxes and 20 wt % of BaC03 was  mixed with each of them. Mild steel samples were covered completely in each of the boxes with the mixture of the  carburizer and energizer placed in the furnace chamber. The carburizing temperatures varied between 700 – 1100oC while the holding time varied between 1-5 hrs. The boxes and its contents were allowed to cool down to room  temperature in the furnace after carburization.  All samples were heated to 850oC after been soaked for 30 minutes at this temperature and oil quenched. This was to  increase the hardness of the case. Fifteen (15) of these samples were further tempered at 350oC for 2hrs to relieve the  stress built up during quenching. Hardness test, tensile strength tests and chemical analysis were carried out on the samples. It was observed that the hardness values of the untempered samples are superior to the tempered ones at  carburizing temperatures of 7000C, 8000C and 9000C. On the other hand, the tensile strengths of the tempered samples  are higher relative to the untempered samples at carburizing temperatures of 7000C, 10000C and 11000C. The results of the carbon analysis show that palm kernel shell and animal bone are potentially suitable to be used as a carburizing  media than the sea shell at high temperatures (above 10000C) with holding time above 1 hr.

Keywords: Carburizers, hardness, tensile, carburizing time and temperature, pack carburizing, quenching and  tempering properties.

Radiolysis of Commercial Dyes in Aqueous Solutions to Produce Dosimeters for Gamma Dosimetry

Radiolysis of Commercial Dyes in Aqueous Solutions to Produce Dosimeters for Gamma Dosimetry

Taqmeem Hussain, Muhammad Yousuf Hussain, Muhammad Shahbaz, Inam-ul-Haq, Hashim Farooq and Shaukat Ali

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.10

Abstract: The usability of aqueous solutions of SR C4BLN and SGY CRL dyes; as secondary dosimeter was confirmed. All samples were irradiated by Co60 γ-source in the range 0-105Gy. Absorbance of solutions was noted at λmax for pre and post irradiation stages. The λmax of Red and Yellow dyes were 545nm and 448nm respectively. The absorbance% and the %discoloration of each dye were determined. Sample solutions showed a gradual decrease in Absorbance% and increase in %age discoloration versus absorbed doses.

Keywords: Chemical dosimeters, SR C4BLN, SGY CRL, dosimetry, Absorbance%, %age discoloration

Sustainable Agricultural Practices as Perceived by Farmers in Sindh Province of Pakistan

Sustainable Agricultural Practices as Perceived by Farmers in Sindh Province of Pakistan

Muhammad Ismail Kumbhar, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Aijaz Hussain Soomro and Aijaz A. Khooharo

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.12

Abstract: The study was conducted in Sindh Province of Pakistan. 180 respondents were selected from six district namely Badin, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar Khairpur, Larkana and Jacobabad. From each district 30 respondents were selected by using simple random sampling techniques. This study used a descriptive research design and the target population was farmers. A representative sample of 180 farmers was proposed from six districts of Sindh, namely, 1. Larkana 2. Naushehro Feroze 3. Shaheed Benazirabad 4. Sanghar 5. Mirpurkhas 6. Badin representing the agro-ecological zones of Sindh province producing Cotton, Wheat, Rice, Vegetables, Orchards and Sugar Cane crops. Multistage plan was used to collect the data. A survey questionnaire was designed to collect data for this study. A likert type scale ranging from (1) not familiar (2) to somewhat (3) for very much. This scale was used to asses the level of perceptions of the respondents. The respondents were interviewed personally by well structured and pre-tested direct interview schedule. Questionnaire items were coded and entered into the SPSS computer program. Suitable statistical techniques such as percentage analysis, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze and interpreted the data. The results revealed that out of total growers, majority (54.44%) had medium socio-economic status, whereas 28.89 percent and 16.67 percent had low and high socio-economic status respectively. Extent of knowledge of farmers: Majority of the respondents (52%) were observed in medium category of knowledge followed by high (26.67%) and low (20.56%) levels of knowledge, respectively. It was observed that the farmers were familiar to some what, familiar with sustainable agriculture practices selection of pure seed variety, maintenance and Integrated Soil Fertility, Integrated Weed Management and efficient Use of irrigation water. However the majority of farmers were not familiar with the use of genetically modified Crop, Fish farming, Mulch Technology, EM Technology and IPNMS. However, none of the farmers were found in high category of adoption levels. The respondents suggested adoption of sustainable agriculture practices should be promoted through extension services.

Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture, Farmers Perception, Technology

Experimental Study on the Morphology of Keratin Based Material for Asbestos Free Brake Pad

Experimental Study on the Morphology of Keratin Based Material for Asbestos Free Brake Pad

O.S. Olokode, S.O. Fakolujo, P.O. Aiyedun, Z.O. Jaji, F.T. Owoeye and B.U. Anyanwu

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.08

Abstract: This research was carried out to investigate the friction and wear of automotive materials using a pad on disk type friction tester to study the synergistic effects of bagasse (residue from sugarcane) and cow hooves dust (keratin based material). The friction materials were based on a simple formulation with three ingredients (phenolic resin, cow hooves dust and bagasse). Friction stability, hardness, compressive strength, flame resistance and oil absorption were measured. Microscopic observation of the friction material showed that the cow hooves adhered to the bagasse providing heat resistance and strength to the friction film at the rubbing interface. The beneficial synergistic effect from the two fibrous ingredients however was significantly diminished when only one of them was employed.

Keywords: Hardness, compressive strength, cow hooves, Bagasse

Heavy Protein Alteration under the Effects of Lead Acetate in Bactrocera cucurbitae

Heavy Protein Alteration under the Effects of Lead Acetate in Bactrocera cucurbitae

Rizwanul Haq, M. Farhanullah Khan and Ehteshamul Haq

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.07

Abstract: Lead is supposed to be an important poisonous waste which could contaminate the environment, therefore, insects could be influenced easily by the lead., Bactrocera cucurbitae was studied at 48 hours post treatment, under the effects of lead acetate, in different concentrations of 0.125 mg., 0.25 mg., 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg. It was observed that under the effects of lead abnormalities and deformity were developed in the larvae of flies. Thus these flies could present a useful module for the quick transmission of the environmental hazards due to lead contamination, which exerts a specific physiological and morphological effect on these flies.

Keywords: Effects, Lead acetate, Proteins Bactrocera cucurbitae

Effects of Lead Acetate on Morphology of Musca domestica L. (Muscidae: Dipptera)

Effects of Lead Acetate on Morphology of Musca domestica L. (Muscidae: Dipptera)

Rizwanul Haq, M.farhan Ullah Khan and Ehtesham ul Haq

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.06

Abstract: Lead is significant environmental pollutant which contaminates food, soil, water, and air. Insects too are influenced easily by such pollutants, therefore present study have been designed to study the influence of lead (as lead acetate) on external morphology of Musca domestica. The different concentrations of lead acetate, i.e., 0.25 mg., 0.5 mg, and 01 mg per ml in diet of Musca domestica, were added ad effects were observed after 48 hours. Results revealed that in addition to abnormalities and malformation the larvae, morphological changes in adults were observed such as elongated and de-shaped wings and elongated and folded legs. Some other structural abnormalities of larvae and pupal shape were also observed (tell briefly what were those changes. Thus the Diptera flies present a useful model for the rapid screening of the environmental hazards due to lead contamination, which exerts a definite physiological and morphological effect on these flies.

Keywords: Heavy metal, lead acetate, M. domestica

In Vitro Comparative Study on Antiherpetic Effect of Chlorhexidine and Persica Mouthwashes with Acyclovir

In Vitro Comparative Study on Antiherpetic Effect of Chlorhexidine and Persica Mouthwashes with Acyclovir

Sara Pourshahidi, Fahimeh Rezazadeh, Mohammad Motamedifar, Mahdi Davarmanesh, Hooman Ebrahimi and Abbas Alipour

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.05

Abstract: Introduction: Recurrent intraoral herpes in one of the common oral diseases that causes painful ulcers and viral shedding. The question was if chlorhexidine and persica mouthwashes has antiviral effects comparing to acyclovir.

 Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, virucidal effects of both mouthwashes were examined, before and after HSV-1 infection of the vero cells, in the presence of various concentrations (½,¼,¹/8) of mouthwashes applied at different time intervals(0.5,1,5 minutes), by using quantal assays then were compared with acyclovir. The data were analyzed by one way and two way ANOVA.

 Results: Before inoculation, both mouthwashes showed virucidal effects on HSV-1, at all concentrations and persica showed more virucidal effect than chlorhexidine and acyclovir (p=0.0001,p= 0.04, respectively). After virus inoculation although persica and chlorhexidine indicated antiviral effect, this already were so far less than that of acyclovir which caused more significant reduction on virus titer (p=0.0001).

 Conclusion: Because of the better direct anti-HSV effect of the herbal mouthwash, persica, and its less side effects than chlorhexidine, it can be used for reduction of oral fluid contamination caused by viral shedding and also reduction of infectivity of oral ulcers.

Keyword: Herbal mouthwash, chemical mouthwash, acyclovir, HSV1, ulcer oral.

Radiolytic Reduction of Aqueous Solutions of a Commercial Reactive Dye in the Range 0-100KGY by CO60 Gamma Radiation Source

Radiolytic Reduction of Aqueous Solutions of a Commercial Reactive Dye in the Range 0-100KGY by CO60 Gamma Radiation Source

Taqmeem Hussain, Muhammad Shahbaz, Inam-ul-Haq and Hashim Farooq

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.04

Abstract: Gamma dosimetric behavior of the aqueous solutions of the Sandalfix Golden Yellow CRL (SGY-145) dye was studied. The sample solutions of two chemical natures i.e., Acidic and Alkaline; were irradiated by Co60 γ-sources in the range 0-100kGy. The “Control samples” were remained un-irradiated and also chemically neutral. The dosimetry was done in three phases i.e., Low, Intermediate and High, ranging from 100-1000Gy, 1-10kGy and 10-100kGy respectively. The found values of the “λmax” and the molar extinction coefficient “ε” of the dye were 467 nm and 3.4×103mol-1cm-1 respectively. The absorbance (A) of the aqueous solutions was studied at the absorption band maxima (λmax). The behavior of “Alkaline and Acidic solutions” was checked with the help of curve fitting.

Keywords: Chemical dosimeters, Sandalfix Golden Yellow CRL dye, dosimetry, optical density (OD), radiolytic bleaching.

A Validation of the Real Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function via the Continuation Formula of the Zeta Function

A Validation of the Real Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function via the Continuation Formula of the Zeta Function
O.O.A. Enoch and F.J. Adeyeye

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.02.03

Abstract: In this paper, the analytic continuation formula of the Riemann zeta function is presented as a function of t2n,
thus validating Riemann’s claim that ε(t) allows itself to be developed in the power of t2. It is also shown that the root of
ε(t) is always real. A theorem to validate the real roots is established.
Keywords: Meromorphic functions, Riemann zeta functions, zeros Riemann hypothesis