Adverse Effects of Lead Acetate on Light Weight Protein of Bactrocera dorsalis – Pages 447-451
Rizwanul Haq1, M. Farhanullah Khan2 and Ehteshamul Haq3
1Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Pakistan; 3Department of Zoology, Govt. National College, Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract: ALarge number of insects are influenced easily by a number of pollutants; such as, the influence of lead (as lead acetate) on Bactrocera dorsalis. Lead is considered to be an important toxic waste which could contaminate the environment, such as soil, air and water. Therefore, insects could be influenced by the lead. Bactrocera dorsalis, was studied at 48 hours post treatment, under the effects of lead acetate, in different concentrations. Lead is found to exert a definite specific physiological and morphological effect on these flies. It was observed that under the effect of lead abnormalities and deformities were developed in the larvae of flies. Thus these flies could present a useful module for the quick transmission of the environmental hazards due to lead contamination, which exerts a specific physiological and morphological effect on these flies. The purpose of the present work was to determine the effects of lead on proteins as a major indicator of physiological features along with morphological features of larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis flies.
Keywords: Effects, lead acetate, Bactrocera dorsalis.
Assessment the Quality of Life in Karachi City through the Integration of Space and Spatial Technologies – Pages 373-388
Sheeba Afsar, Syed Shahid Ali and Syed Jamil Hassan Kazmi
Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
Abstract: This study is an attempt to map and measure the quality of life in the urban area of Karachi, Pakistan, by using Landsat-7 sensor, Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) combined with Census data through the state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS). For this purpose, the physical environment of the city is determined by the variables of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), surface temperature and land cover/use. These are extracted from the satellite image data through various techniques of remote sensing. On the other hand, the socioeconomic variables were obtained from the 2000 Karachi District Census Reports, to represent the living environment of the city. Finally, the integration of the physical variables with the socioeconomic variables was conducted in a GIS framework using an aggregated Z Sum score approach, in order to derive the quality of life scores for the city of Karachi on the basis of Administrative-Spatial Units called Union Councils (UCs). The results effectively demonstrated the efficiency of the Index raster techniques to evaluate and map the quality of life over the study area. In addition, the GIS techniques also isolated the contributing variables that may be responsible for the spatial variability in the quality of life.
Keywords:Quality of Life, GIS, Socioeconomic variables.
Changing Spatial Patterns of Agriculture in the Punjab Province and the Food Sustainability – Pages 389-400
Syed Shahid Ali
Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract: Pakistan is essentially an agricultural country as most of the population is still living in the rural areas and depending on agriculture for their livelihood. Increasing population is putting more and more pressure on the agricultural lands of the country to fulfill the food requirement. Forty four percent of the labor force of the country is alone shared by agriculture sector. Its importance increases as the most of the industries are also dependent on the agricultural products as their raw material. The province of Punjab is the agricultural hub of the country and playing a vital role in supplying the food grain and other agricultural products not only to the population within the province but to all other parts of the country. The districts in the province are producing the major grain crops, which is quite sufficient for showing the level of sustainability for the population within their limits. Only few districts in the Punjab with highly populated urban centers such as Lahore, Rawalpindi and Islamabad are showing somewhat lower shares of agricultural contribution.
Keywords: Crop combinations, food security, sustainability.
Development and Validation of a RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
Farjahan Nur, Asma Rahman, Md. Zakir Sultan, Md. Gias Uddin, Mohammad A. Rashid, Amir Hassan and Mansoor Ahmed
Published: 18 December 2013
Abstract: A simple, fast and economic reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been successfully developed and validated for simultaneous determination of fluoroquinolone analogs namely levofloxacin and moxifloxacin in both pure form (as API) and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was validated according to the guidelines of ICH, FDA and USP with respect to accuracy, precision and linearity. For method development a C-18 bonded silica column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5μ, Phenomenex, Inc) was used with a mobile phase comprising of 10% aqueous solution of acetic acid and acetonitrile in a ratio of 80:20 v/v. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and effluents were monitored at 300 nm and the retention times were found to be at 7.0±0.1 min and 10.59±0.1 min for levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, respectively. The recovery was found to be more than 99% for each spiked samples of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, demonstrating the accuracy of the protocol. Intra-day and inter-day precisions of the new method were less than the maximum allowable limit (RSD% £ 2.0) according to FDA. The method showed linear response with correlation coefficient value of 0.9975 in both the cases.
Therefore, the developed method was found to be simpler, accurate, reproducible, efficient and less time consuming and can be successfully applied for the simultaneous assay of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin formulations.
Keywords: HPLC, method development, validation, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin.
Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Wrightia arborea
Ronok Zahan, Laizuman Nahar, Ashik Mosaddik, Mohammad Abdur Rashid, Amir Hassan and Mansoor Ahmed
Published: 18 December 2013
Abstract: Wrightia arborea (Br.) (Family-Apocynaceae), locally known as Sathkurchi, is a small deciduous tree with small branches and densely velvety leaves. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti tumor activities of leaves of W. arborea.
Antioxidant potential was evaluated in vitro by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging- and reducing power- assay method which was concentration dependent that was 25-200 µg/ml. The extract showed scavenging activity with IC50 value of 15.23 ± 4.10 µg/ml for DPPH and also showed reducing activity in dose dependent manner. In addition, total phenol and flavonoid content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and were found to be 112.54 ± 9.74 mg/g plant extract (in GAE) and 247.14 ± 15.45 mg/g plant extract (in quercetin equivalent), respectively. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by phosphomolybdenum method and was found to be 117.27 ± 12.36 mg/g plant extract (in ascorbic acid equivalents). The anti tumor effect of the methanol extractwas determined with doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.wt against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice with respect to the determination of tumor volume, tumor weight, % of cell growth inhibition, % increase in life span (%ILS), and hematological parameter (WBC, RBC and hemoglobin).
The methanol extract of W. arborea decreased the tumor weight significantly compared to control group at all the mentioned doses and the highest was observed at the dose of 20 mg/kg b. wt. (1.28 ± 0.15 g). The % of cell growth inhibition increased in dose dependent manner like 36.43 ± 7.45, 58.76 ± 9.43 and 98.43 ± 12.45 at the doses of 5, 10, 20 mg/kg b.wt. respectively. The %ILS was also enhanced in all the doses where 20 mg/kg b.wt showed maximum effect (105.5 ± 3.57). Heamoglobin (Hb) content was significantly increased 8.12 ± 2.6, 10.23 ± 1.62 and 12.12 ± 2.09 g/dL at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.wt. respectively, compared to EAC control mice (4.95 ± 1.80 g). There was a significant (p< 0.05, p< 0.01, p<0.001) decrease in RBC count and increase in WBC counts in extract treated animals when compared to EAC control animals.
This is the first report of biological activities of leaves of W. arborea and it showed significant antioxidant as well as antitumor activity.
Keywords: Antitumor,Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, free radical, phenol, flavonoid, Wrightia arborea.
Using Vapor Generation Equipment to Create Artificial Rain: The Design and Function of a New System
Published: 11 December 2013
Abstract: The incidence of water shortage events – including drought, forest fire, and desertification – is rapidly increasing due to global warming. This paper shows the principles and the practical application of a new artificial rain system that would help prevent these types of harmful water shortage events. The proposed artificial rain system is composed of solar-powered vapor generation equipment that floats on a large body of water. From this water, vapor is generated by means of solar energy. This vapor is transformed into clouds. These clouds are transported to an area experiencing water shortage, and these clouds provide rain to the target area. The proposed artificial rain system can be designed to provide a specific amount of rain, to be applied at a pre-determined time, to a specified area. This equipment is operated by solar power, so does not produce any CO2emissions. The detailed design example shown in this paper demonstrates that a vapor generation equipment group 1,080km square in area can make 1,200 kg of vapor per square meter per one year, and provide precipitation for an agricultural area 9,720 km square. The advantages and disadvantages of this system are considered. The estimated cost to produce one kilogramme of precipitation water by the proposed artificial rain system is about 0.002USD.
Keywords: Water shortage, global warming, solar power, CO2emissions, Wind Generation Equipment.
Structural and Phylogenetic Profiles of Muscle Actins from Cephalopods
Y. Ochiai, S. Watabe and G. Wang
Published: 26 November 2013
Abstract: Structural properties of cephalopod muscle actins have not been characterized in detail to date. Sequences of these actins have been determined by cDNA cloning from the arm muscles of four cephalopod species, namely, Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus, spear squid Loligo bleekeri, common cuttlefish Sepia esculenta, and common octopus Octopus vulgaris. The sequence identities of the deduced amino acid sequences among the cephalopod actins were around 98%, and the substitutions were mostly limited to Subdomains 1 and 3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that cephalopod actins formed one cluster and were distinguishable from the bivalve counterparts. The modeled tertiary structure of squid actin was very similar to that of rabbit counterpart, but the structures of Subdomains 1 and 3 were slightly different.
Keywords: Actin, cephalopod, muscle, structure, sequence.
Delineation of Water Logging and Salinity for Salvaging Built Environment
Rao Atif, Mohammed Raza Mehdi and Sheeba Afsar
Published: 21 November 2013
Abstract: Millions of acres of splendidly productive land and valuable infrastructure are deteriorated continuously. The reason for such deterioration in majority of areas is mainly due to water logging and salinity. Rise of water table level and the dearth of drainage and lack of continuous monitoring and timely remedial measures, extended the circle of devastation to historical heritage and precious archeological sites as well.
Mohenjo-Daro has been selected for this study, it has global significance but due to water logging and salinity, it is in danger of total destruction. The archeological buildings and other infrastructure and land in its environs are being gradually eroded by the capillary rise of saline ground the intensity of which constitutes a serious threat.
For delineating and periodic monitoring of the salinity and waterlogging and to effectively implement the appropriate remedies, use of the latest technologies is essential. In this study the remote sensing technologies are used to address this issue with the help of Soil investigation parameters mainly EC and pH.
The aftermaths of this study would provide a methodological framework along with practical application in delineation saline areas using satellite technology. The final value-added products of this research would be useful for all interested stakeholders including conservationists, environmentalists, archeologists, planners and decision-makers at various levels. The international community at large would be the beneficiary of this study since Mohenjo-Daro is the heritage of entire mankind.
Keywords: Mohenjo Daro, water logging and salinity, Remote Sensing, EC, pH.
Efficacy of Non-Linear Approach in the Study of Ozone Layer Depletion
M. Ayub Khan Yousuf Zai, M. Rashid Kamal Ansari, Afaq Ahmed Siddiqui and Faisal Ahmed Khan Afridi
Published: 21 November 2013
Abstract: The stratosphere is one of the constituents of thermal structure of the atmosphere. The maximum concentration of ozone is found at the stratospheric region where it is interacted by many species including chemical and physical processes. Atmosphere as a whole is an open system that is regarded as a non linear system and that seems to be complex. Therefore, a non-linear trend is plausible to explain phenomenon of ozone layer depletion (OLD).
In this manuscript we have paid our attention in the analysis of the major portion of historic data on stratospheric O3based on ground-based measurements by the Dobson Spectrophotometer. In this communication we have estimated parameters for describing non-linearity in the process using polynomial trend functions and predicted values are calculated for the period from 1960 to 1999. Future values for ozone depths are computed till 2006 and compared with the minor portion of the data set.
Keywords: Ozone layer depletion, Non-linear approach, Pakistan Air Space, Bilinear model (BARMA), Stratospheric Ozone.
The Suitability of Seashell, Animal Bone and Sodium Carbonate as Energizers in Case Carburization of Mild Steel
O.S. Fatoba, M.A. Bodude, O.L. Akanji, I.O. Adamson and S.C. Agwuncha
Published: 01 November 2013
Abstract: This work examines the suitability of using seashell (Oyster shell), animal bone and Na2CO3 materials as energizers for case hardening of mild steel. A carburizer consisting of charcoal was used for research with sea shell, animal bone and Na2CO3 as energizers. Samples were carburized in fabricated rectangular stainless steel boxes using different percentages of energizers (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) respectively. The samples were covered completely in each of the boxes with the mixture of carburizer and energizer placed in the chamber of the furnace. The process was carried out at carburizing temperature of 9500C, soaked for 4, 6, and 8hours and quenched in oil. Twenty samples were further tempered at 2000C for 1hour to relieve the stress built up during quenching. Hardness test, chemical analysis and impact test were carried out on the samples. The hardness values of the carburized mild steel were measured with a micro hardness tester. The results of the study showed that hardness values of the untempered mild steel samples were slightly improved than the tempered samples at carburizing temperature of 9500C and carburizing time of 4, 6 and 8hours. The Impact results revealed that samples carburized at 9500C in seashell energizer for 8hours have the highest impact values of 184 Joules for the tempered samples which are higher than the untempered samples due to increase in toughness resulting from tempering. The results also showed that seashell and animal bones are potential energizers in case carburization of mild steel.
Keywords: Carburizer, energizer, carburizing time, carburizing temperature, hardness, impact.