Determination of Paraquat (Herbicide) Residue Level in Sandy Clay Loam Soil Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Pages 566-577

Determination of Paraquat (Herbicide) Residue Level in Sandy Clay Loam Soil Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Pages 566-577
Y.C. Wong, N. Norsyamimi and W.A. Wan-Nurdiyana

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.73

Published: 30 September 2013

Abstract: Pesticide is considered as the most widely used form of agricultural chemical. Pesticide residue is the remaining pesticide on or in soil after pesticide is applied on agriculture soil. Soil is a component that is crucial to life. The research purposely concerned on major effects that could be contributed from medium to unlimited application of pesticide. The soil samples were systematically collected from 5 plots and Paraquat residues concentrations were determined in dissimilar depth of soil layers. The herbicide used was Paraquat that contained Paraquat Dichloride. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis detected the peak area volumes of Paraquat in soil samples at level ranging from 0.3 to 5.9 mg/l. The concentration of Paraquat in sandy clay loam soil showed that herbicide leached downward to the depth of 15 cm. The maximum concentration of Paraquat residue was detected at 0 to15 cm of soil depth at 2.783 mg/l. In highly organic soils, adsorption is weaker and Paraquat remains herbicidally active for longer, up to 29 days in one trial on soil with 98% organic matter [1]. Oral dose, LD50 for human is equal to 40-60 mg/kg [2] while the lowest fatal dose recorded for human was 17 mg/kg, but even lower doses may be fatal for children [3].

Keywords: Paraquat, pesticide residue, herbicide, sandy clay loam soil, high performance liquid chromatography.

Botulinum Neurotoxin: Advances in Diagnostics and Healthcare Applications – Pages 562-565

Botulinum Neurotoxin: Advances in Diagnostics and Healthcare Applications
Pages 562-565
Sandeep Kumar Vashist, Gregory B. Stevens and Thomas van Oordt

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.72

Published: 30 September 2013

Abstract: Pesticide is considered as the most widely used form of agricultural chemical. Pesticide residue is the remaining pesticide on or in soil after pesticide is applied on agriculture soil. Soil is a component that is crucial to life. The research purposely concerned on major effects that could be contributed from medium to unlimited application of pesticide. The soil samples were systematically collected from 5 plots and Paraquat residues concentrations were determined in dissimilar depth of soil layers. The herbicide used was Paraquat that contained Paraquat Dichloride. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis detected the peak area volumes of Paraquat in soil samples at level ranging from 0.3 to 5.9 mg/l. The concentration of Paraquat in sandy clay loam soil showed that herbicide leached downward to the depth of 15 cm. The maximum concentration of Paraquat residue was detected at 0 to15 cm of soil depth at 2.783 mg/l. In highly organic soils, adsorption is weaker and Paraquat remains herbicidally active for longer, up to 29 days in one trial on soil with 98% organic matter [1]. Oral dose, LD50 for human is equal to 40-60 mg/kg [2] while the lowest fatal dose recorded for human was 17 mg/kg, but even lower doses may be fatal for children [3].

Keywords: Paraquat, pesticide residue, herbicide, sandy clay loam soil, high performance liquid chromatography.

Seasonal Variability of Trace and Heavy Metals Concentration in Groundwater and its Quality for Drinking and Irrigation Purpose under Phuleli Canal Command Area (Sindh), Pakistan – Pages 550-561

Seasonal Variability of Trace and Heavy Metals Concentration in Groundwater and its Quality for Drinking and Irrigation Purpose under Phuleli Canal Command Area (Sindh), Pakistan – Pages 550-561

Ashifa Soomro1, Altaf Ali Siyal1, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat2 and Nabi Bux Sial3

1Department of Land and Water Management, FAE, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan; 2Department of Irrigation and Drainage, FAE, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan; 3Department of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Sindh, 70060, Pakistan

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.71

Abstract: The availability of good quality groundwater is a serious problem not only for drinking purpose but also for agriculture production. Human health problems due to waterborne diseases are commonly reported in Phuleli Canal Command area. In this context, a study was conducted to find out the existence of heavy metals as well as trace elements in groundwater of Phuleli Canal Command area, (Sindh) Pakistan which were affected by seasonal variability. The groundwater samples were collected from different seven locations i.e. RD-0, RD-30, RD-50, RD-70, RD-90, RD-110 and RD-130 throughout four seasons (summer, autumn, winter, and spring). Results of analysis of groundwater samples showed that Fe, Cd, Cr and Pb concentration in groundwater was higher than WHO permissible limit while Cu and Mn concentrations were greater than FAO limit. Comparatively heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb and As) concentrations in groundwater were higher towards downstream reach in winter as compared to upstream reach. Regarding seasons, the values of these parameters decreased in autumn>spring>summer. The results also showed increasing trend of heavy metal concentrations towards downstream reach (RD 130>110>90>70>50>30>0). It was concluded that groundwater in Phuleli Canal Command area contains highly toxic metals above the permissible limits of WHO and FAO for human consumption and agricultural crops respectively. Hence, people using groundwater, directly or indirectly, at downstream reach of the canal are at health risk.

Keywords: Trace metal, Heavy metal, Phuleli Canal, reduced distance (RD), WHO and FAO.

Biodegradation of Malachite Green by Extracellular Laccase Producing Bacillus thuringiensis RUN1 – Pages 543-549

Biodegradation of Malachite Green by Extracellular Laccase Producing Bacillus thuringiensis RUN1 – Pages 543-549

Olumide D. Olukanni1, Aliu Adenopo1, Ayodeji O. Awotula2,3 and Akinniyi A. Osuntoki2

1Department of Chemical Sciences, Redeemer’s University, P.M.B. 3005 Redemption City, Ogun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine University of Lagos, P.M.B. 12003 Lagos, Nigeria; 3Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, McPherson University, P.M.B. 2094, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.70

Abstract: A bacteria strain Bacillus thuringiensis RUN1identifiedby 16s RNA gene phylogenetic analysiswas used to decolorize malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye in a simulated wastewater. The ability of the organism to produce extracellular laccase and degrade the dye were also investigated. Results showed that the organism decolorized (84.67 ± 1.19 %) malachite green at 40 mgl-1 within 6 h; and the decolorization was associated to laccase production by the organism experimentally. Laccase activity increased as the decolorization process progressed, with the highest activity value of 0.1043 ± 0.02 U/min/ mg protein recorded after 24 h of incubation using ABTS as substrate. In addition, FTIR analysis showed that the strain actually degraded the dye. It was therefore concluded that this strain of Bacillus thuringiensis will be relevant in the biotreatment of industrial effluent containing malachite green and in the production of laccase, an industrially important enzyme.

Keywords: Laccase, malachite green, decolorization, biodegradation, Bacillus thuringiensis.

Intake of Some Biological Seeds and Root Extracts of Plants Improves Fertility and Hatchability of Turkey Eggs – Pages 538-542

Intake of Some Biological Seeds and Root Extracts of Plants Improves Fertility and Hatchability of Turkey Eggs – Pages 538-542

Ndubuisi S. Machebe1, Simeon O. Ugwu1, C.S. Atu2 and Ndofor-Foleng H. Mbunwen1

1Department of Animal Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria; 2Department of Animal Science, Ebonyi State University Abakiliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.69

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the fertility and hatchability of eggs laid by Turkey hens fed extracts of okra seed, pumpkin seed and guava root powder for 8 weeks. Twenty four, 32 weeks old turkeys (4 toms and 20 hens) were randomly selected and allotted into four treatment groups; T1 (No extract or feed supplementation); T2 (50 ml okra seeds extracts/ litre of water); T(50 ml guava root extract/ litre of water) and T4 (50 g pumpkin seed powder/kg of feed). Turkey hens were subjected to artificial insemination and eggs laid in the period were collected and determined for fertility and hatchability. Total and weekly egg production of hens was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T4 groups of birds. The number of fertile eggs, early, middle and late dead embryo was better (P < 0.05) for the same groups of birds compared to other treatments. Egg hatchability percentage of hens in T2 and T4 groups were markedly improved and higher (P < 0.05) than those in T1 and T3 groups. Fertility and hatchability of eggs in T1 and T3 were similar (P > 0.05). The findings concluded that feeding okra and pumpkin seed extracts to breeder turkey hens can improves the fertility and hatchability of the eggs.

Keywords: Okra seed, guava root, pumpkin seed, potency, antioxidants, spermatozoa.

Remapping Hydroecoregion Boundaries: A Proposal for Improving the Base of the Running Water Monitoring Procedures- Pages 533-537

Remapping Hydroecoregion Boundaries: A Proposal for Improving the Base of the Running Water Monitoring Procedures- Pages 533-537

Lorenzo Traversetti1, Alessandro Manfrin2 and Massimiliano Scalici1

1Department of Sciences,University of Roma Tre, Viale G. Marconi 446, 00146, Rome, Italy; 2Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology, Müggelseedamm 301, 12587, Berlin, Germany

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.68

Abstract: Inland waters are constituted by a lot of seriously threatened habitats. The increasing need to safeguard these ecosystems led European Union Member States to propose the Water Framework Directive which decided the creation of homogeneous areas characterized by very similar geology, topography and climate, known as hydroecoregions (HER) and firstly proposed by the French National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture (Cemagref). Watercourses reference conditions had to be defined within any HER in order to confront any sampling site. HERs are consistent with European scale maps but important local reinterpretations in order to define more precise boundaries and extensions for each hydroecoregion are required and this point constitutes the main goal of this manuscript.

Latium is a climatically very homogeneous region and it’s roughly divided into three major portions confirming Cemagref’s proposal. Geological and topolographical maps were then used in order to achieve a more detailed characterization of this region in order to obtain a more defined map. All our results allow to better define similarities and differences both between streams and within the same stream allowing to entirely locate each water course within the same HER. It would be important to follow up this study by proposing a similar approach for the entire national territory based on an appropriate region knowledge.

Keywords: Freshwater, HER, Latium region, river management, water framework directive.

Spatial Framework for the Assessment of Road Traffic Accidents in Karachi – Pages 525-532

Spatial Framework for the Assessment of Road Traffic Accidents in Karachi – Pages 525-532

Salman Zubair and Syed Jamil Hasan Kazmi

Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.67

Abstract: Karachi, the most populous city of Pakistan, is entangled by an ever increasing health problem of Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) in the recent past with ranked 4th in the world stats of highest road fatalities cities. The most devastating problem is that it is affecting the most productive age group. Nearly 300 RTA victims were interviewed last year and questioned about different socio-economic aspects of road crashes. This has demonstrated that the RTAs cases were observed between the age group of 18-45 years in Karachi. The problem is not only resulting financial losses but also social burden as well as pain, grief, psychological trauma in many cases and suffering for the effects which is certainly an irreparable damage. The prime objective of this study is to highlight the spatial variation most affected age group under threat of road traffic accidents in Karachi. This has been achieved by using a stratified random sampling technique and targeting the effects of RTA. Information was collected and analyzed and spatial pattern of RTAs in terms of accident location has been displayed with high and low RTA cases caused injuries and fatalities. Town based Road Accidents maps were developed in ArcGIS 10.1 to show the spatial patterns of road accidents. This study approaches with emphasis the miserable outcome of road accidents on the specific age grouped people because they are mostly involved in road crashes and also the future prospect of the country.

Keywords: GIS, RTAs (Road Traffic Accidents), productive age group, RTA victims, dilemma, spatial pattern.

Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainages onto Pig Bristles, Poultry Feathers and Crustacean Shells Industrial Biowastes – Pages 510-524

Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainages onto Pig Bristles, Poultry Feathers and Crustacean Shells Industrial Biowastes – Pages 510-524

Fernando I. Ramírez-Paredesa, Teresa Manzano-Muñozb, Juan C. Garcia-Prietob, J. Felipe Bello-Estéveza, Galina G. Zhadanc, Valery L. Shnyrovc, John F. Kennedyd and Manuel G. Roiga,b

aDepartment of Physical Chemistry, University of Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca, Spain; bWater Research and Development Centre (CIDTA), University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain; cDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain; dChembiotech Laboratories, Advanced Science and Technology Institute, Kyrewood House, Tenbury Wells, Worcestershire, WR15 8SG, UK

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.66

Abstract: The removal of metals ions from aqueous solutions plays an important role in water pollution control. In this study, a biosorption process for the bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated acid mine drainages, located in Western Spain, has been developed. The process is based on the physico-chemical properties for the adsorption, ion exchange, and complexation of metal ions by biopolymers keratin and chitin from different industrial biowastes such as pig bristles, poultry feathers and crustacean shells. The selectivity for metals, the first order kinetics and yields of the corresponding biosorption processes of uranium and other metals polluting such acid mine drainages by such biosorbents are described. The biowaste rich in keratin (pig bristles) seems to show a higher biosorption capacity than that of bioresidues rich in chitin (crustacean shells). Moreover, factors such as the lower contamination by metals of acid waters, the lower influent water volume/biosorbent mass ratio, the configuration of the packed-bed reactor and the partial hydrolysis of keratin increase both the capacity and the rate of the process of metal biosorption onto the biosorbent.

Keywords: Biopolymers, chitin, keratin, biosorption, desorption, isotherms, kinetics, heavy metals, mine drainages, toxicity, industrial wastes.

Obesity and CRP, Adiponectin, Leptin, and Lipid Profile in Saudi Arabian Adolescent Females – Pages 500-509

Obesity and CRP, Adiponectin, Leptin, and Lipid Profile in Saudi Arabian Adolescent Females – Pages 500-509

Sawsan Hassan Mahassni and Rajaa Braik Sebaa

Department of Biochemistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.65

Abstract:Overweight and obesity are increasing tremendously in female Saudi Arabian adolescents. Overweight and obesity lead to many medical risks and affects the immune system. In this study, the effects of obesity on the immune system of 100 Saudi female adolescent students were investigated. Using a blood sample from each subject, the following immune related parameters were determined: concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin and leptin hormones, and the complete lipid profile. Finally, to assess the body weight status of the subjects and to categorize them, the weight, height, and the waist and hip circumferences were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and the waist circumference (WC). Results show highly significant increases for the CRP and leptin and a highly significant decrease of adiponectin with increasing body weight measured by the three methods. As for the lipid profile, both triglycerides and LDL increased while HDL decreased as body weight increased. Cholesterol did not change with changing body weight measured by the three methods. The findings indicate that obesity seriously affects the immune systems of the subjects and confirm the finding of other researchers that obesity is an inflammatory disease, which explains some health complications associated with obesity.

Keywords: CRP, leptin, adiponectin, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, adolescents, BMI, WHR, WC, obesity, inflammation, immunity.