Two Integral Operators Defined with Bessel Functions on the Class N(β) – Pages 57-59

Two Integral Operators Defined with Bessel Functions on the Class N(β) – Pages 57-59
Nicoleta Ularu

University of Pitesti, str. Târgul din Vale, no. 1, Pitesti, Romania

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.10

Abstract: Using Bessel functions of first kind we introduce new integral operators and show that these operators are in the class N(b).

Keywords: Analytic functions, integral operator of the first kind, Bessel function.

Quality Attributes of Immature Fruit of Different Mango Varieties – Pages 52-56

Quality Attributes of Immature Fruit of Different Mango Varieties – Pages 52-56
Mujahid Hussain Leghari1, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh1, Noor-un-nisa Memon1, Aijaz Hussain Soomro1 and Aijaz A. Khooharo2

1Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan; 2Faculty of Social Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.09

Abstract: The study was carried out to evaluate quality attributes of immature fruits of four commercially grown varieties of mango namely Sindhri, Chaunsa, Langra and Desi. The immature mango fruits were collected from basin of mango tree in the end of April followed by washing, surface drying and extraction of fruit pulp. The extracted fruit pulp was assessed for pH, TSS, moisture and ash percentage, acidity, vitamin C, fat, protein and sugars. Besides, minerals including sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper, chromium, and manganese were also determined. On the basis of varietal comparison Sindhri had more moisture (88.60%), ash and fat (0.60%) each, total sugars (6.99%) and reducing sugars (2.78%) as compared to rest of the varieties. However TSS (9.35%), protein (0.71%), and non reducing sugars (4.86%) were recorded the highest in Langra variety. Only the Chaunsa variety had maximum pH of 3.01 and vitamin-C (27.16 mg 100g-1). Regarding mineral elements, Desi was found potential in terms of sodium (453.93 mg kg-1), calcium (403.79 mg kg-1), Zinc (3.47 mg kg-1) and iron (5.95 mg kg-1). The zinc and iron was at par with the results obtained from Langra. However, potassium (904.58 mg kg-1) and copper (2.58 mg kg-1) were observed the highest in Langra, magnesium (78.09 mg kg-1) in Chaunsa and manganese (2.43 mg kg-1) in Sindhri.

Keywords: Nutritional composition, green fruit.

Intelligent Decision Making Technique for Marketing Using Hypothetical Database and Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Method – Pages 44-51

Intelligent Decision Making Technique for Marketing Using Hypothetical Database and Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Method – Pages 44-51
A. Fareed, Ansar A. Khan, B. Mahmood and H. Shamsul

NED University of Engg. & Tech. Karachi, Pakistan

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.08

Abstract:Marketing organizations use databases to locate potential customers and to generate sales lead. A number of software systems have been playing a key role in supporting the decision making activities in recent years but common problem in all that they cannot handle fuzzy data appropriately for “what-if” analysis. This paper proposes intelligent scenarios analysis system framework for marketing decision support which deals with crisp and fuzzy data like linguistic variable. Applying new approach “Hypothetical Database” for derived data that permits decision manager to manage views according to the need of organization and/or market environment. View in Hypothetical Database provides versatility in “What-If” analysis by using versions of “What-If” database and reduce data redundancy and data storage in updating. Using Fuzzy database will help to handle imprecise and uncertain information like “Linguistic variable” in a more human oriented process. Finally, the projected scenarios selected by decision manager will be aligned in a hierarchy according to the distance from “Ideal Vector” by using Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making method.

Keywords: Marketing Decision Making, What-If analysis, Hypothetical Database, Fuzzy Database, Multi-Criteria Decision Making.

Estimation of Heterosis, Heterobeltiosis and Potence Ratio Over Environments Among Pre and Post Green Revolution Spring wheat in Pakistan – Pages 36-43

Estimation of Heterosis, Heterobeltiosis and Potence Ratio Over Environments Among Pre and Post Green Revolution Spring wheat in Pakistan – Pages 36-43
Amarah Batool1, Ijaz Rasool Noorka1,2, Muhammad Afzal3and Ali Hassan Syed3

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan; 2Molecular Cytogenetics Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Leicester, United Kingdom; 3Department of Agricultural Entomology, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.07

Abstract: Globally wheat trade has a major and impacting role in political and economic relationships between nations. Twelve pre-green revolution and post green revolution wheat genotypes viz., Sehr-06, Pasban-90, C-273, Pari-73, SA-42, Fsd-08, Chenab-70, Blue Silver, Lasani-08, Pak-81, Uqab-2000, and Pothowar-73 and their direct and reciprocal crosses were evaluated. The study concluded significant differences and highest values in heterosis, heterobeltiosis and potence ratio were found among genotypes and their cross combinations for pollen viability (Sehr-06 × Blue Silver), flag leaf area (SA-42 × Fsd-08), number of grains per spike (Pak-81× Lasani-08) and grain yield plant-1 (Chenab-70 × Fsd-08). Under changing climatic condition and limited water provision an amalgamation of pre-green revolution and post green revolution may provide a genetic diversity to break the stagnant yield barrier to ensure food security.

Keywords: Genetic diversity, pollen viability, grain yield, direct, reciprocal.

Black Watermelon Bug, Coridius viduatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Dinidoridae) in Hatay Region of Turkey – Pages 31-35

Black Watermelon Bug, Coridius viduatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Dinidoridae) in Hatay Region of Turkey – Pages 31-35
Şener Tarla1, Halit Yetişir2 and Gülcan Tarla1

1Uşak University, Sivaslı Vocational High School, Organic Agriculture Program, 64800, Sivaslı / Uşak, Turkey; 2Erciyes University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 38039, Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.06

Abstract: Black watermelon bug, Coridius viduatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Dinidoridae) is one of the most important pest of watermelon in many of African countries. This species is known to be present in Turkey. Although several studies on this species have been done in countries where it is present, it was not sufficiently studied in Turkey. This pest was observed first time on squirting cucumber [Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae)] in Hatay province in 2004. This plant species is the natural host of several viruses creates significant problems in cucurbit plants in the Mediterranean basin. The studies were conducted in both laboratoryand natural conditions in 2007 and 2008. Biological stages of the pest was investigated and determined. Furthermore, damage of the pest on four different cucurbit species [watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Matsum. and Nakai), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), squirting cucumber (E. elaterium) and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Stadl.)] was investigated. In these studies, it was observed that the pest was able to complete its life cycle when only squirting cucumber and watermelon were used as food sources.

Keywords: Cucurbitaceae, black watermelon bug, Ecballium elaterium, Heteroptera, viruses.

Grain Phytic Acid Accumulation of Domestic and Exotic Rice Genotypes in Zinc-Deficient Soil – Pages 26-30

Grain Phytic Acid Accumulation of Domestic and Exotic Rice Genotypes in Zinc-Deficient Soil – Pages 26-30
Nizamuddin Depar1, Inayatullah Rajpar2, Nabi Bux Sial2 and Muhammad Ibrahim Keerio3

1Soil Science Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam, Pakistan; 2Department of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam, Pakistan; 3Department of Crop Physiology, Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam, Pakistan

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.05

Abstract: Micronutrient malnutrition in humans living in rice growing areas is increasing rapidly due to less absorption of mineral nutrients chelated by phytic acid (anti-nutrients) present in rice grains. A field study was conducted to evaluate the grain phytic acid and zinc (Zn) accumulation of 10 field grown rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes on a Zn deficient soil. Both the Zn- efficient (Shua-92, IR-9, Shandar, IR-36, and IR-6) and Zn-inefficient (Sarshar,. UPL-48, Khushboo-95 and RG-120) rice genotypes were included in the study. The two Zn treatments (0 and 15 kg ha-1) were arranged in a two factor randomized complete block design with three replications. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P2O5) were applied at the rate of 120 and 80 kg ha-1. The rice genotypes IR-36, UPL-79, Shandar and Shua-92 were the most Zn accumulators whereas; Sarshar, IR-9 and Khushboo-95 the least accumulator in Zn deficiency. Zinc in-efficient genotype Sarshar was the highest Zn accumulator in response to Zn application. Phytic acid content of rice genotypes was significantly influenced (p < 0.05) by the application of Zn fertilizer. Phosphorus concentration in rice grains decreased with Zn application. Zinc in-efficient genotypes accumulated more phytic acid in their food reserves than Zn-efficient genotypes. Phytic acid: zinc ratio decreased significantly more in Zn-inefficient genotypes as compared to Zn efficient genotypes, with application of Zn fertilizer. Zinc efficient genotype Shua-92 accumulated low concentration of phytic acid. The rice genotypes Shua-92, IR-9, Shandar and IR-36 low accumulators of phytic acid performed successfully and contained higher concentrations of Zn than other genotypes.

Keywords: Micronutrient, Rice, Genotypes, Zinc, phytic acid.

Mineral Content in Dehydrated Mango Powder – Pages 21-25

Mineral Content in Dehydrated Mango Powder – Pages 21-25
Mujahid Hussain Leghari, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, M.B. Kumbhar and A.F. Baloch

Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.04

Abstract: The study was carried out to explore mineral content in dehydrated mango powder made from immature green stage fruits. For the purpose, two type of slices from peeled and unpeeled fruits of four commercial grown varieties viz. Desi, Sindhri, Langra and Chaunsa were prepared. These slices were categorized into three groups A, B and C. In group A, slices were kept in controlled conditions in electric cabinet chamber (dehydrator) at 65oC temperature, while in group B, slices were dried by open sun drying method using muslin cloth over the cots at (43 ± 5 oC) and in group C, slices were kept in wooden glass dehydrator at (48 ± 4 oC).

The statistical analysis reveals highly significant differences for all main factors including varieties, dehydration methods, type of mango powder and their interactions. Chaunsa had the highest mean calcium (389.54 mg kg-1), potassium (912.07 mg kg-1) and magnesium (90.92 mg kg-1). However, only sodium was observed more in variety Langra (467.59 mg kg-1). On the basis of dehydration methods, mean calcium (407.06 mg kg-1) and magnesium (90.11 mg kg-1) content were observed more in wooden glass drying method as compared to rest of the drying methods. The sodium (511.83 mg kg-1) and potassium (811.35 mg kg-1)content were recorded the highest in open sun drying method. The powder made from fruits without peel was observed more in all mineral content including sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium.

Keywords: Minerals, Mango powder, Dehydration.

Thermodynamics of Synthesis of New Phenoxazine Derivatives – Pages 16-20

Thermodynamics of Synthesis of New Phenoxazine Derivatives – Pages 16-20
V. José Cotuá1, Sandra Cotes2, Fernando Castro1 and Pedro Castro1

1Grupo de Investigación Max Planck, Universidad del Atlántico, Facultad de Química y Farmacia, Km 7 Antigua Vía a Puerto Colombia, Barranquilla, Colombia; 2Universidad del Norte, Departamento de Química y Biología, Km 5 Antigua Vía a Puerto Colombia, Barranquilla, Colombia

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.03

Abstract: This article describes a semi-empirical study on the thermodynamics involved in the synthesis of three novel orthometa and para, potentially intercalatingphenoxazine 1 derivatives o-(6), m-(7) and p-(8)Quantum chemical calculations at the semi-empirical PM3 method were used in order to evaluate conformational states of the molecules, as well as to predict thermodynamic properties and equilibrium constants. The more favourable product was found to be the compound with the methoxy group in ortho-position. The methoxy group in para-position hinders the reaction by steric factor, which is reflected from the small constant, Kp.

Keywords: Phenoxazine, PM3 calculation, conformational structures, equilibrium constant, thermodynamics.

A Quantitative Analysis of Firewall Impact on Critical Data Communication – Pages 11-15 Minhaj Ahmad Khan Department of Computer Science, Bahauddin Zakariya Univ. Multan, Pakistan http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.02

Mineral Content in Dehydrated Mango Powder – Pages 21-25
Mujahid Hussain Leghari, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, M.B. Kumbhar and A.F. Baloch

Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.04

Abstract: Multimedia communication is considered to engulf the entire transmission taking place through internet. Most of the applications running on clients communicating through internet incorporate video or audio data transmission. Such transmission may however hinder the performance of other critical applications running on the network. For instance, the clients connecting to a database may suffer large delays if the network bandwidth is being utilized for multimedia communication. In this regards, a firewall may be used to block the non-critical and unnecessary communication.

In this paper, we perform a quantitative analysis to record the impact of a firewall deployed in a network. We develop various network scenarios with voice and video data being transmitted in parallel with queries from a database client. As the database application is critical for its clients, the unnecessary communication causing the wastage of bandwidth is blocked through a firewall. We record the improvement in the performance of the database application due to the usage of firewall. We simulate all the scenarios using OPNET IT Guru v 9.1. Our results show that due to the blocking of video transmission, there is a significant improvement in performance of the database application. We also find that the use of a firewall has an overhead that depends mainly on the amount of communication taking place simultaneously and can also impact the performance of the critical application.

Keywords: Computer Networks, Firewall, Multimedia Communication, Voice over IP, Response Time.

Storability and Chips Quality of Chemical Treated Potatoes under Ordinary Condition – Pages 1-10

Storability and Chips Quality of Chemical Treated Potatoes under Ordinary Condition – Pages 1-10
Ishwori P. Gautam1, Moha D. Sharma2, Bhim B. Khatri1, Resham B. Thapa2 and Kanti Shrestha3

1Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC),National Potato Research Prom (NPRP), Khumaltar, Nepal; 2Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Rampur, Chitwan; 3Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Khumaltar, Lalitpur

http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2013.09.01

Abstract: Storage experiments were conducted under ordinary room conditions in the mid hill, Khumaltar (1350 masl ; meter above sea level) and high hills, Daman (2200 masl) of Nepal during the summer season of 2011 to find out the effect of chemical treatments and their time of applications on storability and chips qualities of potato cv. Kufri Jyoti. Chemicals treatments were; CIPC (Isopropyl N (3 chlorophenyl) carbamate), hydrogen peroxide and calcium chloride, which were applied as a single dose (before storage) and double dose (before and at 45 days in storage). Ordinary water treated potatoes served as control. The treatments were replicated thrice. Apparently healthy tubers > 60 gram weight after different chemical treatments were stored in bamboo racks and wooden tray, respectively at Kumaltar and Daman for 120 days. Observations were recorded on weight loss percentage (WLP), sprouting percentage, numbers and weight of sprouts and quality parameters for chips. Double fumigation with CIPC was effective for inhibition of sprouting and reduction of postharvest loss up to 120 days in both the locations. On the other hand the better colour of the chips was produced by two times hydrogen peroxide treated potatoes.

Keywords: Post-harvest treatment, CIPC, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, potato storage, sprouting, chips processing.