Effect of Different Meltable Binders on the Disintegration and Dissolution Behavior of Zolmitriptan Oromucosal Fast Melt Tablets Pages 13-23

Effect of Different Meltable Binders on the Disintegration and Dissolution Behavior of Zolmitriptan Oromucosal Fast Melt Tablets
Pages 13-23

Doaa Ahmed El-Setouhy, Emad B. Basalious and Nevine Shawky Abdelmalak

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.01.3
Published: 14 February 2017

Abstract: Objective: Fast melt tablets and sublingual route have been widely used for providing quick onset of action with the avoidance of first pass metabolism. The objective of this work was to compare the effect of different meltable binders namely; polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000, pluronic F127 and pluronic F68 on the performance of fast release tablets of the model drug zolmitriptan prepared using the melt granulation technique regarding disintegration time (DT) and dissolution rate (DR) as criteria for rapid absorption and hence quick onset of action. Zolmitriptan is a potent antimigraine drug. Current oral zolmitriptan tablets suffer fromslow onset of action, poor bioavailability and large inter-subject variability.

Methods: 33 factorial design was adopted. The effect of binder type, binder concentration and croscarmellose sodium (disintegrant) concentration were studied on DT and DR.

Results: The three factors were found to significantly affect the DR and the inverse square root of DT and significant interactions were elucidated.

Conclusion: Although satisfactory results were obtained regarding DR, modifications using different excipients and or preparation methods should be considered to comply with pharmacopoeia requirement for DT.

Keywords: Melt granulation technique, fast release sublingual tablets, meltable binders, intragranular desintegrant, PEG4000, F68, F127.

Effects of Quercetin and Omega-3 Combination on Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NFκB) Expression Level in Pancreatic Tissue of Rats with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Pages 1-5

Effects of Quercetin and Omega-3 Combination on Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NFκB) Expression Level in Pancreatic Tissue of Rats with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus
Pages 1-5
Asri Hendrawati and Mujiyanto Winardi
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.01.1
Published: 14 February 2017

Abstract: Background: Hyperglycemia increases nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) expression and promotes cellular injury. Quercetin and omega-3 are expected to regulate NFκB expression. This study aims to measure the effect of combination therapy with quercetin and omega-3 in lowering the expression of NFκB in the pancreatic tissue of rats with type-2 DM as compared to those treated with monotherapy with either agent.

Methods: This experimental study involved the use of a paraffin block of pancreatic tissue from 24 male Wistar rats aged 3 months, weighing between 250 g and 350 g. All rats underwent induction of type-2 DM and were divided into 4 groups: K1 (treated daily with placebo), K2 (treated with quercetin at 20 mg·kgBW-1·d-1), K3 (treated with omega-3 at 100 mg·kgBW-1·d-1), and K4 (treated with quercetin at 20 mg·kgBW-1·d-1 and omega-3 at 100 mg·kgBW-1·d-1). Treatments were administered orally for four weeks. Once the treatment was completed, samples of pancreatic tissue were collected for the measurement of the percentage of NFκB expression using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining.

Results: The average level of NFκB expression in the pancreatic nuclei of DM rats treated with the combination of omega-3 and quercetin was significantly lower than that of those treated with placebo, quercetin only, or omega-3 only (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The combination of quercetin at 20 mg·kgBW-1·d-1 and omega-3 at 100 mg·kgBW-1·d-1 is significantly more effective in lowering the percentage of NFκB in pancreatic nuclei than monotherapy with either agent.

Keywords:Quercetin, omega-3, type-2 diabetes mellitus, immunohistochemistry, nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB).

Carotenoid Content and Composition in 20 Medicinal Plant Species of Traditional Malay Midwifery Postnatal Bath – Pages 193-197

Carotenoid Content and Composition in 20 Medicinal Plant Species of Traditional Malay Midwifery Postnatal Bath
Pages 193-197
Rashidi Othman,Siti Farah Aliya Abdul Halim, Farah Ayuni Mohd Hatta and Mohd Aizat Jamaludin
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.04.6
Published: 06 November 2017

Abstract: Today in Malay community, midwifery traditional knowledge of herbal medicine has disappeared and extinct. The facts are Malay midwives are becoming rare and the more crucial is medicinal plants are over-harvested. The aim of this research is to identify and investigate the active pharmaceutical ingredients content in 20 selected species used in the Malay traditional bath. There is a solid need to analyse the potential of these natural bioactive compounds, particularly carotenoids to be fully utilised and commercialised especially in halal market and health advantages. Through High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, all 20 species were found to have at least four individual carotenoid pigments with a relatively high concentration of lutein and β-carotene and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin. Strobilanthes crispus (Pecah Kaca) leaf was detected to have the highest total carotenoid content (1546.80±283.45 μg/g DW)while Psidium guajava (Jambu Batu) shoot has the lowest total carotenoid content (112.9±82.2 μg/g DW). The significant outcome of the research was a new findings of new natural bioactive compound sources as health promoting agents which covers not only the Shariah requirement, but also safety aspects. Moreover, it will preserve the traditional knowledge of Malay traditional bath practices..

Keywords: Malay midwifery, postnatal traditional bath, carotenoids, antioxidant, active pharmaceutical ingredients, natural bioactive compounds.

Influence of the Preparation “Nicavet-1000” on a Morphofunctional Condition of some Organs of Rats at Experimental Aluminium Intoxication – Pages 183-192

Influence of the Preparation “Nicavet-1000” on a Morphofunctional Condition of some Organs of Rats at Experimental Aluminium Intoxication
Pages 183-192
David A. Areshidze, Lyudmila D. Timchenko, Igor V. Rzhepakovsky, Maria A. Kozlova, Iaroslavna A. Kusnetsova and Ivan A. Syomin
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.04.5
Published: 06 November 2017

Abstract: During the conducted research, it is established that aluminium chloride intoxication leads to the considerable changes of composition of red blood, development of a hypercalcemia and change of a bone structure of animals. A number of significant morphofunctional changes in the hippocampus of the examined animals are also noted. The use of the tissue preparation “Nicavet-1000” leads to the normalization of both hematocrit and other parameters of red blood, as well as to the intensification of erythropoiesis. Use of the preparation “Nicavet-1000”, judging from the results of research, prevents pathological changes in a bone tissue, caused by aluminium chloride. “Nicavet-1000” leads to the expressed normalization of both the morphological, and micromorphometric parameters characterizing a hippocampus of rats.

Keywords: Aluminium, intoxication, hippocampus, bone tissue, tissue preparation.

A Diabetes and Obesity Crisis: Preliminary Study of Lifestyle, Diet, Knowledge and Attitude of Malaysian Pharmacy Undergraduates Towards Type-2 Diabetes – Pages 172-182

A Diabetes and Obesity Crisis: Preliminary Study of Lifestyle, Diet, Knowledge and Attitude of Malaysian Pharmacy Undergraduates Towards Type-2 Diabetes
Pages 172-182
Shariza Sahudin, Mumtaz Hussain, Nor Farhah Abdul Ghaffar and Azyyati Mohd Suhaimi
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.04.4
Published: 06 November 2017

Abstract: Background: Patient education and self-care are important not only for diabetes prevention but also chronic disease management. Community pharmacists are an ideal position to play a role in providing medicines management, lifestyle and preventative advice specific to type-2 diabetes care, Malaysian pharmacists must be ready and willing to firmly establish such clear roles and as such, undergraduate pharmacy students need to be equipped with the skills and mind-set to accept such a challenge

Objective: To explore knowledge and awareness of pharmacy undergraduate students at Universiti Technology MARA (UiTM) towards diabetes risk factors. To identify potential diabetes risk factors by evaluating dietary intake and to determine students’ attitude towards their future roles as health care providers.

Method: 159 Malaysian third-year undergraduate pharmacy students were provided a questionnaire and a two-day food diary. The questionnaire consisted of four sections to examine demographics, lifestyle and diet, together with knowledge of diabetes and the perception of pharmacists’ role.

Results: A total of 113 completed questionnaires were received. 20% of the respondents were overweight or obese and 21% had elevated blood pressure. 95% of students consumed only 50% of the recommend daily calorie intake for adults. Students however possessed good knowledge of diabetes with a positive attitude towards pharmacist roles in healthcare.

Conclusion: Overall, the health status of Malaysian pharmacy students is very similar to the general population, displaying similar risk factors and dietary habits despite their status as future healthcare professionals. Students do however display a good knowledge of diabetes and appear positive towards their roles as future pharmacists.

Keywords: Diabetes, Obesity, Community Pharmacy.

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Malnutrition among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Addi Harush Eritrean Refugees Camp, Tigray Region, North Ethiopia – Pages 164-171

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Malnutrition among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Addi Harush Eritrean Refugees Camp, Tigray Region, North Ethiopia
Pages 164-171
Befekadu Ejigu, Tesfaye Girma Legesse and Daniel Haile Chercos
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.04.3
Published: 06 November 2017

Abstract: Malnutrition is a serious medical condition marked by a deficiency of energy, essential proteins, vitamins, and minerals in a diet. In Refugee situations where the population is often extremely dependent on the humanitarian assistance and food aid; the value of the food is greatly determine their nutritional status. That is why under nutrition is a critical public health problem among refugee children aged 6-59 months. Institutional based cross- sectional study was conducted from March to June, 2015 in Addi Harush Refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia. The data was collected using interview administered questioners, observational and Anthropometric measurement. Among the total of 372 planed participants 367 of them were enrolled in the study with a response rate of 98.7%. This had identified 69 (18.80%) of stunting and 36 (9.81%) of wasting. Children who fed exclusive breast feeding for the duration of six months were 0.04 times less likely to be wasted. Children, those who used bottle feeding were 6.067 times more likely to be affected with acute malnutrition (wasting). Children who had been vaccinated with BCG were 0.037 times less likely to be wasted. While generally immunized children were 0.013 times less likely to be wasted and 0.054 times less likely to be stunted. Both stunting and wasting are remaining public health nutrition problem in the refugee. Wasting is observed to be affected by immunization practice behavior, duration of exclusive breast feeding, BCG vaccination and bottle feeding. Stunting is observed to be affected by hand washing practice before serving food and immunization practice behaving. Bottle feeding should be avoided, Exclusive breast feeding till six months should be strengthen, Child immunization should be encouraged more than the current and Awareness towards cause and prevention of stunting and wasting should be increased at a refugee communities level.

Keywords: Child aged 6-59 months, Wasting, Stunting, Haddi Harush.

Stability of Carotenoid Composition in Orange Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Tuber Flesh Over Three Growing Seasons and 6 Months Storage Time – Pages 158-163

Stability of Carotenoid Composition in Orange Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Tuber Flesh Over Three Growing Seasons and 6 Months Storage Time
Pages 158-163
Rashidi Othman, Suhair Kamoona, Irwandi Jaswir, Parveen Jamal and Farah Ayuni Mohd Hatta
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.04.2
Published: 06 November 2017

Abstract: Considerable research interest has recently focused on the development of both transgenic and traditional breeding methods to increase total and individual carotenoid composition in sweet potatoes. Unfortunately little information is available on the influence of the environment on carotenoid profile stability in sweet potatoes especially growing seasons and storage. Therefore the aim of this study is to explore the composition and concentration of carotenoids in orange sweet potato tubers to enable their future enhancement through genetic manipulation over different growing seasons and storage time. Our findings revealed that orange sweet potato tubers contained α-carotene and β-carotene in the first and second season, whereas in the third season only lutein and zeaxanthin were detected. Analysis of carotenoid profiles of the orange sweet potato tubers grown in three different seasons showed that the growing season had a major effect on the carotenoid compounds stability. Besides growing seasons, the level of total and individual carotenoids in orange sweet potato tuber flesh are strongly influenced and affected by storage conditions. The storage of tubers over 6 months period of time appears to have distinct effects on carotenoid content and composition. Results showed that storage from 1 to 6 months resulted in the accumulation of zeaxanthin and β-carotene with a concomitant decreased of lutein, α-carotene and total carotenoid content.

Keywords: Orange sweet potato, abiotic factors, total carotenoid, storage, growing season, carotenoid stability.

The Effects of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja) on the Levels of Expression of Nrf2 Target Genes in Mice Liver – Pages 147-157

The Effects of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja) on the Levels of Expression of Nrf2 Target Genes in Mice Liver
Pages 147-157
Azman Abdullah, Tan Chung Phern, Nur Fatihah Hanis Mohamad Rahim, Nur Izzati Zaharuddin, Nurdayana Maulat Salihin, Ahmad Hilmi Yusof, Kamsiah Jaarin, Yusof Kamisah, Qodriyah Haji Mohd Saad, Nur Azlina Mohd Fahami and Harizz Miszard Radman
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.04.1
Published: 06 November 2017

Abstract: Background: Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja) is an appetizer (ulam) eaten with rice in Malaysia. Previous studies showed that Cosmos caudatus possess high antioxidant content. Nrf2 is a transcription factor which regulates the expression of phase II enzymes and antioxidant proteins. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Cosmos caudatus aqueous extract (UR) on the expression of Nrf2 target genes in mice liver.

Methods: ICR white mice were treated for 21 days with different doses of UR (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg) through oral gavage. Control mice were only given distilled water. After 21 days, the mice were sacrificed and their livers harvested. Total RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and subjected to qPCR to detect Nrf2 target genes expression.

Results: Administration of 100 mg/kg UR significantly increased NQO1 expression in mice liver. Administration of 500 mg/kg UR significantly increased HO-1 liver expression. Administration of 100 and 500 mg/kg UR significantly increased GSTA1 liver expression. Administration of 500 and 1000 mg/kg UR significantly increased GSTM3 liver expression, whereas GSTP and GSTM1 liver expression was significantly decreased at similar dosesAdministration of all doses of UR significantly decreased the expression of GSTA3SOD3 and GCLC in mice liver.

Conclusion: UR administration mostly resulted in downregulation of Nrf2 target genes. However, conclusive evidence can only be made through the use of Nrf2 knockout mice or by performing Nrf2 nuclear translocation studies.

Keywords: Cosmos caudatus, Nrf2, mice, liver, gene expression.

Histological Assessment of Pioglitazone Preventive Effect in Glycerol Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Rats – Pages 64-72

Histological Assessment of Pioglitazone Preventive Effect in Glycerol Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Rats
Pages 64-72

Rama Mousleh and Shaza Al Laham

DOI: http://dx.doi.org//10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.02.5
Published: 25 April 2017

Abstract: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains as a problem of radiographic procedures with high incidence and mortality rates. This study aims to histologically assess the ability of Iohexol to induce nephropathy in rats injected with Glycerol; then investigate the Pioglitazone renoprotective effect on this CIN model in rats. 35 male Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=7/group): healthy (A), Glycerol (B), Glycerol+ Iohexol (C), Glycerol + Iohexol + Pioglitazone (D), Pioglitazone alone (E). Groups (B), (C), and (D) were intramuscularly injected with Glycerol 25% (10 ml/kg). Iohexol (350 mg I/ml, 8,6 ml/kg) was injected through a caudal vein in groups (C) and (D). Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) was orally administered for 4 days, to groups (D) and (E). Rats were sacrificed on the fifth day. Kidney samples were collected for histological assessment. The results show that the histopathological scores and kidney weight / body weight ratio in group (C), were significantly increased compared with group (B) and (A). These changes were significantly reversed in rats treated with Pioglitazone (group D).

In conclusion, Iohexol could cause renal injury in rat kidneys previously damaged by Glycerol. Pioglitazone was able to protect the kidneys from histological alterations.

Keywords:Kidney, Contrast-Induced Nephropathy (CIN), Contrast medium, Iohexol, Pioglitazone.

Nutritional Properties, Phytochemicals and In Vitro Antioxidant Assessment of Two Wild Edible Fruits from Assam of North-East India – Pages 55-63

Nutritional Properties, Phytochemicalsand In Vitro Antioxidant Assessment of Two Wild Edible Fruits from Assam of North-East India
Pages 55-63
Anuck Islary, Jatin Sarmah and Sanjay Basumatary
DOI: http://dx.doi.org//10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.02.4
Published: 25 April 2017

Abstract: The aim of present study was to ascertain the nutritional properties, phytochemical contents and in vitro antioxidant capacities of two wild edible fruits viz. Aporosa dioica (Roxb.) Muell.-Arg. and Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers. found in Assam of North-East India. Nutritional properties, phytochemical screening, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were investigated employing standard methods. Antioxidant properties were assessed following DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2´-Azinobis (3-ethylbenothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt), H2O(Hydrogen peroxide) and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. The results obtained in this study were presented and discussed. A. dioica fruit extract exhibited lower IC50 (DPPH, ABTS and H2O2) values in contrast to O. alismoides fruit extract indicating stronger antioxidant capacity in A. dioica fruit. Higher FRAP value of 106.583 ± 5.204 μM trolox equivalent (TE)/g dry extract (DE) was found in the methanol extract of A. dioica fruit compared to that of O. alismoides fruit (44.083 ± 7.637 μM TE/g DE). The TPC found in the methanol extracts of A. dioica and O. alismoides fruits were 146.710 ± 2.807 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DE and 93.860 ± 1.172 mg GAE/g DE, respectively, while the TFC was found to be 72.510 ± 8.833 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g DE in A. dioica fruit and 43.270 ± 5.361 mg QE/g DE in O. alismoides fruit. These fruits are good sources of nutrients and natural antioxidants and may find applications in formulation of various pharmaceutical drugs.

Keywords:Wild edible fruits, Aporosa dioica, Otteliaalismoides, phytochemicals, antioxidant.