A Review on Phytochemicals from Some Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh – Pages 87-95

A Review on Phytochemicals from Some Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh – Pages 87-95
Mohammad A. Kaisar1, Mohammad S. Rahman1, Mohammed Z. Rahman2, Choudhury M. Hasan1and Mohammad A. Rashid1
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh; 2Department of Pharmacy, The University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.14

Abstract: Natural products, especially those derived from higher plants, have attracted scientists from ancient time because of their potential therapeutic values. Drug development from natural sources showed that natural products or natural product-derived drugs comprised about 28% of all new chemical entities launched to the market. These are originated from terrestrial plants, microbes, marine organisms, etc. However, until recently an insignificant part of the plants has been scientifically evaluated for their medicinal properties. Bangladesh is a rich repository of medicinal plants, many of which are widely used in the Ayurvedic, Unani, herbal and other traditional systems of medicines. In our laboratory, we have extensively investigated over 48 medicinal plants and several microbial strains that have resulted in the isolation and characterization of 133 compounds, including 33 new molecules. Terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides were the major classes of constituents. The crude extractives and several purified molecules demonstrated statistically significant inhibition of growth of microorganisms. On the other hand, usnic acid obtained from the lichen, Parmelia kamtschandalis, demonstrated even better of inhibition of microbial growth as compared to the standard antimicrobial agents, whereas dehydroaltenusin extracted from a Streptomyces sp. exhibited significant HIV-inhibitory activity.

Pesticides and Associated Impact on Human Health: A Case of Small Farmers in Southern Sindh, Pakistan – Pages 82-86

Pesticides and Associated Impact on Human Health: A Case of Small Farmers in Southern Sindh, Pakistan – Pages 82-86
S.A. Sheikh1, S.M. Nizamani2, A.A. Jamali2and M.I. Kumbhar1
1Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam-70060, Pakistan and 2NCEAC, University of Sindh, Jamshoro
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.13

Abstract: The unbridled use of pesticides in agriculture sector poses a serious environmental degradation problem besides, being intimately associated with public and workers health hazard. Although the use of pesticides help to considerably control diseases, hence reduce crop losses and result in better yield of the crops. Pesticides are particularly under use to improve production of crops like corn, vegetables, potatoes and cotton, although their unfavourable effects on environmental quality and human health have frequently been reported and well documented. Pesticides mismanagement starts at the local area but always exhibits local and global impacts.with universal dimensions. The study aimed at determining the extent of pesticide use and farmers’ knowledge of the pesticides and their use on the field. One hundred farmers were interviewed concerning pesticides usage patterns from amongst farmers in vegetable production area in Lower Sindh, Pakistan. Information was obtained through structured Questionnaire coupled with personal interviews. The results revealed that 27 different pesticides were used by farmers and majority of pesticides were insecticides. All pesticides used were registered by Government of Pakistan. Toxicity class of majority pesticides belonged to Class-II, which WHO classifies as moderately hazardous and one highly hazardous pesticide with the class- Ib was also being used. Okra and tomato were more affected by the insect pests. Majority of farmers relied on nicotinoid and organophosphate groups of pesticides. A considerable number of farmers had received education at middle school level only. The source of farmers knowledge of pesticide use was the pesticides dealer who advised them when to spray the crops (s). Half of farmers had no safety protection gears/tools during pesticide application and vegetable harvesting. The survey has shown some overuse, misuse and abuse of pesticides. Farmers were not aware of pesticide hazards and they lacked appropriate knowledge on safe handling and use of pesticides, which can be attributed to inadequate agriculture extension services and state of art trainings to the farmers at their door steps along with lack of education. Since these pesticides were being traditionally used by the farmers in the near by fields and on the same fields with out their deleterious effect knowledge to the farmers, soil and environment combined together as most of the farmers were not educated but also ill equipped about the knowledge of the kind/type of pesticide being used/sprayed what to talk of its chemical nature leading to harmful effects.Keywords: Pesticide, farmers, vegetables

Cellular Trafficking and Subcellular Interactions of Cationic Gene Delivery Nanomaterials – Pages 68-81

Cellular Trafficking and Subcellular Interactions of Cationic Gene Delivery Nanomaterials
– Pages 68-81
Jaleh Barar and Yadollah Omidi
Research Centre for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran and Ovarian Cancer Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.12

Abstract( ): Various cationic nanobiomaterials have been widely used as gene delivery nanosystems (GDNSs) in vitro and in vivo. Various cellular machineries are involved in trafficking of GDNSs, whose surface functional moieties and architectural properties confer great potential to interact with cell membranes and subcellular biomolecules. It appears such intrinsic inadvertent biological functionalities may impact the outcome of the biomedical applications of these nanobiomaterials. Various advanced materials used as GDNSs may display selective phenotypic effects in target cells/tissues as a result of initiation of various signaling pathways perhaps due to its cellular interactions with plasma cell membranes and/or intracellular compartments including genetic materials. Thus, better understanding about cellular/molecular impacts of GDNSs may maximize their clinical outcomes and accordingly minimize their inevitable undesired consequences. The main focus of this review is based on the cellular trafficking and interactions of cationic gene delivery nanobiomaterials with target cells or subcellular compartments.

Key Words: Cellular trafficking, gene delivery systems, cationic gene therapy, nanobiomaterials.

Detection of Outliers in Bioequivalence Studies Data Analysis with Williams Design – Pages 61-67

Detection of Outliers in Bioequivalence Studies Data Analysis with Williams Design – Pages 61-67
A. Rasheed1, S. Junaid2and T. Ahmad3
1Department of Research, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi; 2Department of Statistics, University of Karachi, Karachi 3Center for Bioequivalence Studies at ICCBS, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.11

Abstract: Drug Regulatory agencies all over the world generally discourage exclusion of outliers in a BE (BE) study; on the other hand in routine bio-statistical work we take these into the account. If the decision rules for identifying the outliers are clearly mentioned before the start of the study and laid down in protocol by the responsible biostatistician in collaboration with clinicians, the problem of outliers can be dealt smartly without jeopardizing the whole study for redoing. The purpose of this article is to introduce procedure for reliably detecting outlier subject(s) with Williams design. Literature review reveals many different methods for the detection of outlier values in BE studies; most of them are for BE of two treatments. For BE studies with more than two treatments use of Williams design seems imperative; but inclusion and deletion of outlying subjects may lead to profound effect on conclusion of BE which in turn may be dangerous for the health. The suggested method is an adjustment to a previously introduced method using exploratory data analysis technique such as principle component analysis and Andrews curves.

Keywords: Bioequivalence, outliers, Williams design, exploratory data analysis, principal, component, Andrews curves.

Metabolic and Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Swim Stressed Mice – Pages 54-60

Metabolic and Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Swim Stressed Mice – Pages 54-60
Zehrah Bibi, Shabana Saeed and Samina Bano
Department of Biochemistry, Clinical Biochemistry and Psychopharmacology Research Unit, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 Pakistan
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.10

Absract: Nicotine, in the form of tobacco smoking, is the most commonly abused drug throughout the world. It contributes to the harmful tobacco smoking habit leading to high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The drug has addictive properties and causes drug dependence. Apart from these effects, nicotine alters a number of metabolic pathways such as lipid profile and glucose homeostasis leading to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Present study investigated the metabolic and behavioral effects of nicotine in stressed mice. For this purpose adult male mice were subjected to chronic nicotine treatment(3.08 mg/100 ml in drinking water) for 3 weeks followed by forced swim test (FST) and serum glucose, lipid profile and tryptophan were investigated. When swim stressed mice were compared with chow control, it was found that serum glucose (P<0.001), total cholesterol (P<0.001), triglycerides (P<0.01), and LDL cholesterol (P<0.01) were increased. Similarly glucose concentration (P<0.05), total cholesterol (P<0.05), triglycerides (P<0.01) and LDL cholesterol (P<0.05) were increased in drug treated swim stressed mice. However HDL remained unaltered in both groups. Serum tryptophan was decreased (P<0.01) in swim stressed and nicotine treated swim stressed mice. During FST, swimming behavior was significantly increased at the cost of climbing with no change in immobility in nicotine treated mice as compared to controls. It is concluded that nicotine worsens lipid profile and glucose homeostasis in stressful situations thereby increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in chronic smokers and the drug induced behavioral alterations may be related to the serotonergic pathway.

Keywords: Nicotine, forced swim test, lipid profile, glucose, tryptophan, antidepressant.

Structural Characterization of ZS – 2A: An Antiplasmodial Compound Isolated from Zizyphus spina-christi Root Bark – Pages 48-53

Structural (… )Characterization of ZS – 2A: An Antiplasmodial Compound Isolated from Zizyphus spina-christi Root Bark – Pages 48-53
Bulus Adzu1,2, Abdu Kaita Haruna2, Mohammad Ilyas2, Umar Usman Pateh2, Florence David Tarfa3, Ben Ahmed Chindo1and Karniyus Shingu Gamaniel1
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and 3Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abuja, Nigeria

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.09

Abstract: Zizyphus spina-christi (Rhamnaceae) is a popular medicinal plant that grows wildly in Asia and Tropical Africa.The plant is widely used in ethnomedical practice for the treatment of fever. As a step towards the isolation of biologically active constituents of this plant, we carried out a bioassay guided extraction of the root bark using solvents of varying polarity including, hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol. An antiplasmodial compound, designated as ZS-2A, was isolated from the chloroform extract and the chemical structure of the compound was characterized using UVvisible, IR, 13C and 1H NMR and thermo-analytical techniques. Our analysis established ZS – 2A as a betulinic acid.

Key Words: ZS-2A, spectroscopy, thermo-analysis, betulinic acid.

Phenolic Contents and Antioxidants Activities in Jamman Fruit (Eugenia jambolana) Products – Pages 41-47

This manuscript RETRACTED by the authors.

Phenolic Contents and Antioxidants Activities in Jamman Fruit (Eugenia jambolana) Products

Pages 41-47

Saghir Ahmed Sheikh1, Muhammad Shahnawaz2, Shafi Muhammad Nizamani3, Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger3 and Ejaz Ahmed3

1Institute of Food Sciences & Technology, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan; 2Department of Food Technology, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan; 3Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.08

 

 

Investigations of In Vitro Digestibility of Proteins Bound to Food Colors – Pages 34-40

Investigations of In Vitro Digestibility of Proteins Bound to Food Colors – Pages 34-40
Syed Muhammad Ghufran Saeed, Syed Asad Sayeed, Seema Ashraf, Nassimunnisa, Fizza Batool, Rashida Ali, Shahina Naz and Rahmanullah Siddiqi
Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.07

Abstract: Colorants either synthetic or natural are commonly added to a variety of food systems to make them attractive and acceptable for the consumers. Our previous publications on Carmoisine, Allura Red, Sunset yellow and the present study showed that food colorants such as Erythrosine, Amaranth, Tartrazine, Quinoline yellow, Brilliant Blue bind with the proteins in variety of the food environments and the protein color complexes are digested by the proteolytic enzyme. The present study elaborates the active sites of the proteins involved in binding with various functional groups of food colors and on these sites modifies the tryptic digestibility of the different proteins. Colors show strong binding capacity with proteins which may block the active site for hydrolysis by the enzyme. The effect of the tryptic digestibility on color complexes of the protein such as the BSA a high molecular weight and nisin the low moleculer weight proteins are explored. The result shows the different color binding with protein have not similar effect on digestibility but in all cases digestibility decreases significantly as compared with blank.Keywords: Food dyes, food proteins, protein digestibility

Behavioral and Memory Boosting Effects of Intellan and Cyanocobalamin in Mice – Pages 28-33

Behavioral and Memory Boosting Effects of Intellan and Cyanocobalamin in Mice- Pages 28-33
Rahela Najam and Humera Anser
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.06

Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of selected drugs, Intellan and cyanocobalamin on some aspects of animal behavior, like effect on memory, depression, gross behavior and exploratory activity. Results of present investigations reveals cyanocobalamin ( )to be a good memory enhancer and intellan also showed memory boosting effects in addition to anti-anxiety activity which affects overall performance.

Keywords: Centella asiaticaBacopa monniera, neurotransmitter, acetyl choline, reactive oxidative specie.

Age-Related Decrease in Striatal DA Produces Cognitive Deficits in Male Rats – Pages 20-27

Age(… )-Related Decrease in Striatal DA Produces Cognitive Deficits in Male Rats – Pages 20-27
Saida Haider, Saiqa (… )Tabassum, Tahira Perveen, Sarmad Ali, Sadia Saleem, Aisha Karim Khan and Darakhshan J. Haleem
Neurochemistry and Biochemical Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Pakistan

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.05

Abstract: Aging is a process that presents various alterations in physiological, behavioral and neurochemical processes. It causes impairment of CNS functions which lead to changes in memory, cognition and other behavioral performances. Reports have shown that aging causes neurochemical alterations in various physiological functions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive changes in relation to process of aging. For this 20 male rats were taken, 10 young (4-6 months) and 10 old (18-22 months). Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was performed to monitor changes in learning and memory while Object-Recognition Task (ORT) was performed to evaluate changes in cognitive function. After behavioral assessment decapitation was done and rat brain was dissected to isolate striatum. Then neurochemical analysis was performed by HPLC-EC to monitor changes in striatal DA and DOPAC levels. Results of behavioral tests showed that aged rats exhibited a significant impairment of long-term memory. While cognitive ability assessed by ORT was also impaired in aged rats. Neurochemical results showed that there was a significant decline in striatal dopamine (DA) concentration while its metabolite DOPAC was significantly increased in aged rats. Hence aging has a significant negative influence on cognitive functions. Age-related behavioral deficits may occur as a result of decline in DA levels in striatum leading to changes in memory and cognitive performance.

Keywords: Memory, cognition, aging, striatum, DA.