Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Membrane Stabilizing and Antimicrobial Activities of Bark and Seed of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.: A Medicinal Plant from Chittagong Hill Tracts – Pages 171-176

Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Membrane Stabilizing and Antimicrobial Activities of Bark and Seed of Entada phaseoloides(L.) Merr.: A Medicinal Plant from Chittagong Hill Tracts – Pages171-176
Fahima Aktar1, Md. Ruhul Kuddus1, Sk. Omar Faruque2, Farhana Rumi3, Mohiuddin Abdul Quadir1 and Mohammad A. Rashid1
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh; 2Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmosjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh; 3Department of Pharmacy, Manarat International University, Mirpur-1, Dhaka-1217, Bangladesh

Abstract: The methanolic crude extract of the bark and seed of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. and its different organic soluble partitionates were screened for antioxidant, cytotoxic, membrane stabilizing andantimicrobial activities. The crude extract and carbon tetrachloride and aqueous soluble fractionsof both bark and seed showed higher level of total phenolic content (TPC, 245.59, 240.22, 240.03 & 117.0 mg of GAE/gm of dried extract). In the DPPH assay, the crude extract of bark and its chloroform and aqueous soluble fractions demonstrated strong antioxidant property with the IC50 of 3.24, 1.55 and 3.6 μg/ml, respectively whereas all the fractions of seed extract revealed mild antioxidant activity. The petroleum ether soluble fractionof both seed and bark exhibited significant cytotoxicity (LC50 = 1.54 & 5.4 mg/ml) which confers the presence of bioactive metabolites in this plant. On the other hand, the crude extract of seed and petroleum ether soluble fraction of bark inhibited the hemolysis of RBC of rat’s blood by 78.89 and 57.43%, respectively as compared to 84.44% exerted by acetyl salicylic acid (0.10 mg/ml). In antimicrobial screening, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of bark showed significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (zone of inhibition = 17.0 mm) with MIC and MBC values of 7.81 mg/ml and 125 mg/ml, respectively.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC).

Dietary Calcium Intake Assessment by Short Food Frequency Questionniare in Thais Adults Living in Chiang Mai, Thailand – Pages 166-170

Dietary Calcium Intake Assessment by Short Food Frequency Questionniare in Thais Adults Living in Chiang Mai, Thailand – Pages166-170
Chuleegone Sornsuvit, Pennapa Saowapichart, Suchavadee Meechai and Apiradee Longlaloeng
Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Suthep Road, Maung, Chiangmai 50200, Thailand

Abstract: The aims of this study were to develop and validate the short food frequency questionnaire (sFFQ) to assess calcium intake from food in Thais person for use in clinical practice or community pharmacy.
Data collection was performed during November 2009 to January 2010. The sFFQ consisted of 33 item of food. The frequency of food intake in sFFQ food list was interviewed by investigator. Seven day after subject were interviewed by sFFQ, subjects were asked to fill out the Three Day Dietary Record (3DR) for 3 day. Daily calcium intake assessed by both methods was calculated by using INMUCAL software, which was developed by the Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University.
The 131 subjects who completed sFFQ and 3DR had mean age of 24.4 years, 71.3% were female. The mean daily calcium intake assessed by sFFQ and 3DR were 692.0 + 524.9 mg and 477.4 + 261.9 mg, respectively. The mean daily calcium intakes assessed by sFFQ were significantly higher than 3DR (p < 0.05). The Spearman’s correlation coefficient between calcium intakes assessed by the two methods was 0.18 (p <0.05).
In conclusion, the newly developed sFFQ was a suitable tool for the determination of calcium intakes in Thais adults. The next step in assessing the validity of this sFFQ will be its use in clinical setting such as community pharmacy or out-patient clinic.

Keywords: Calcium, short food frequency questionnaire, intake, dietary record.

Genus Allium: The Potential Nutritive and Therapeutic Source – Pages 158-165

Genus Allium: The Potential Nutritive and Therapeutic Source – Pages158-165
Ghazala H. Rizwani and Huma Shareef
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

Abstract: The two Allium species, Onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) are the most edible and oldest cultivated plants. These two species have not only beneficial effects against disease also they have nutritive potential. They are very rich sources of several phytonutrients, electrolytes, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins and documented to have a significant identical pharmacological characteristic including hypocholestremic, hypotensive, hypoglycecmic, antithrombotic and anti allergic as well as wide range of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidants. This review article will scan the nature with understanding, thinking, realizing and utilization of these two herbs for their therapeutic source in adding together their nutritive potential. In this review we focused on the nutritional attributes along with their curative potential of species of Allium genus (onion and garlic) belonging to the family Alliaceae.

Keywords: Phytonutrients, food value, chemical and therapeutic significance.

Nutritional Genomic: A Multi-Directional Approach to Address Complex Diseases with Multi-Functional Nutrition – Pages 147-157

Nutritional Genomic: A Multi-Directional Approach to Address Complex Diseases with Multi-Functional Nutrition- Pages147-157
Marta González-Castejón and Arantxa Rodriguez-Casado
Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies (IMDEA) – Food, Madrid, Spain

Abstract: Nutritional genomics describes the biological interactions between genes and diet, their effects on the metabolism, and susceptibility to develop diseases. This approach covers both nutrigenomics that explores the effects of nutrients on the genome; and nutrigenetics that explores the effects of genetic polymorphisms on diet/disease interactions. These interactions vary because individuals have unique combinations of common genetic polymorphisms that are differentially affected by diet. Diseases causality is associated to certain genetic polymorphisms providing predictive biomarkers for diagnostic accuracy. Specific nutrient can modify the expression of genes through the interaction with receptors that activate the transcription of target genes and affect signal pathways. Nutritional genomics is aimed to prevent onset of diseases and maintain human health, identify individuals who are responders and can benefit from specific dietary interventions, and identify how genetic variation affects human nutritional requirements. Nutritional genomics has many potential therapeutic and preventive applications: in individuals with a genetic predisposition to complex diseases including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders; in those already suffering from these diseases; and in those with memory impairment during aging. This review describes nutritional facts linked to genomic aspects to manage multigenic diseases. It presents some notable example of nutrients with proven modulating gene activity, and the role of nutrition associated with nutritional genomics. Hereafter we briefly review the health-promoting properties of two well-known edible plants, i.e. dandelion and artichoke whose presence in the diet could simultaneously exert positive influence on molecular genomic mechanisms related to risk factors for chronic diseases.

Keywords: Food, gene-nutrient interaction, dandelion, artichoke, phytochemicals, minerals.

Pioglitazone Ameliorates Lipid Metabolic Disorder in KKAy Mice – Pages 140-146

Pioglitazone Ameliorates Lipid Metabolic Disorder in KKAy Mice – Pages140-146
Sifan Chen1,2, Qing Wei3, Yanshuang Sun1,2, Xincai Xiao1,2,4, Zili Zhang1,2, Liangru Ke5, Niman Zhou5, Zhiming Shan5, Xiang Feng1,2 and Wei Zhu4
1Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China; 2Faculty of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 3Faculty of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, PR China; 4Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 5Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China

Abstract:Pioglitazone (pio) has been used as an effective hypoglycemic drug in medicine, however, the effects and mechanisms of pio on lipid metabolic disorder are still largely unknown. To explore the effects of pio on serum and liver lipid level and antioxidant ability of mice with lipid metabolic disorder, KKAy mice were treated with pio for 12 weeks and their lipid and antioxidant indices were compared to those of KKAy mice without pio treatment. C57BL/6J mice were used as control animals. The results show that pio treatment reduces serum and liver TG, elevates serum HDL-C level, increases serum and liver SOD activity, attenuates serum MDA content, ameliorates liver steatosis, induces liver PPARγ expression and enhances AMPKα phosphorylation level. In conclusion, the results indicate that pio could regulate blood lipid level, reduce liver lipid deposition and enhance antioxidant capacity of mice with lipid metabolic disorder, which is possibly through increasing AMPKα phosphorylation.

Keywords: Pioglitazone, lipid metabolic disorder, AMP-activated protein kinase.

Flavonoids of Neotorularia aculeolata Plant – Pages 134-139

Flavonoids of Neotorularia aculeolata Plant – Pages134-139
Fatma A. Ahmed1, Inas M. Abd El–Wahab Khamis1 and Samar Y. Desoukey2
1Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Dept., Desert Research Center, El–Matariya, Cairo, Egypt; 2Pharmacognosy Dept., Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Future University,New Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Neotorularia aculeolata belongs to the family Cruciferae that has several uses in the Egyptian folk medicine for many years. Nothing could be traced about the chemical composition of the plant. Extraction, isolation and purification of the air-dried plant material using different chromatographic techniques (PC, TLC & CC) provided seven flavonoids. Identification of the isolated compounds using different chemical and physical techniques (UV, 1H-NMR and C 13 NMR spectroscopy) allowed to characterize these compounds as kaempferol, kaempferol-7-O-rhamnoglucoside {Kaempferol-7-neohesperidoside}, quercetin, rutin, quercetin-3-O- β-D-glucoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside-3`-methylether, quercetin-3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnoside-3`-methylether and myricetin.

Keywords: Neotorularia aculeolata, Cruciferae, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, myricetin.

Quality Control of HDL: Nutrition and Not Numbers May Determine HDL Functionality – Pages 130-133

Quality Control of HDL: Nutrition and Not Numbers May Determine HDL Functionality – Pages130-133
Nathalie Nicod, Francesco Visioli and Ana Ramírez de Molina
Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies (IMDEA) – Food, Calle Faraday 7, 28049 Madrid, Spain

Abstract: The strong inverse relationship between high density lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has aroused a strong interest in the research of lifestyle and pharmacological agents capable of elevating plasma HDL levels. HDL is essential in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), thus its anti-atherogenic function. However, torcetrapib, a compound that increases plasma HDL-C levels, was unexpectedly associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. The findings led to consider that HDL functionality and quality might be more relevant to CVD than the total circulating HDL quantity itself. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is known to be associated with increased HDL-C and decreased risk of CVD. However, the mechanism by which this happens has been yet poorly investigated and the effect of nutrition on HDL functionality and quality needs further attention.

Keywords: HDL functionality, HDL quality, nutrition, cardiovascular disease, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), ATP-binding cassette transporters.

Novel Synthesis of Macromonomers by Mechanochemical Reaction for the Application to Polymeric Micelles – Pages 124-129

Novel Synthesis of Macromonomers by Mechanochemical Reaction for the Application to Polymeric Micelles – Pages124-129
Shin-ichi Kondo1, Masashi Tsukamoto1, Yasushi Sasai1, Yukinori Yamauchi2 and Masayuki Kuzuya2
1Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Physical Chemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-Nishi, Gifu 501-1196, Japan; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Physical Chemistry, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, 4-2 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8578, Japan

Abstract: We have presented the first example of the synthesis of macromonomers by mechanochemical reaction of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and maleic anhydride (MA). The mechanochemical reaction of PMMA and MA was carried out by vibratory ball milling under anaerobic condition. The ESR spectrum of the fractured sample of PMMA and MA showed a broad singlet, which was apparently different from the spectrum of PMMA mechanoradical. Therefore, PMMA mechanoradical would react with MA. We underwent the UV-labeling of the fractured samples of PMMA and MA to confirm the formation of macromonomers. The gel permeation chromatograms of UV-labeled compounds derived from this fractured sample showed a broad peak in a polymer region with refractive index detector and UV detector, which indicates that macromonomers bounding MA would be produced. This method seems to be applicable for a wide variety of polymers to synthesize macromonomers possessing MA.

Keywords: Mechanoradical, ESR, vibratory milling, maleic anhydride.

Fibromyalgia and Diet-Related Diseases: Does Health Professional Advice Make Sense? – Pages 119-123

Fibromyalgia and Diet-Related Diseases: Does Health Professional Advice Make Sense?- Pages119-123
Laura-Isabel Arranz1, Miguel-Ángel Canela2 and Magda Rafecas3
1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Joan XXIII, s/n. – 08028 Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Managerial Decision Sciences, IESE Business School, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Nutrition and Food Science. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona. Barcelona, Spain

Abstract: Many people in the world suffer from fibromyalgia (FM), a rheumatic disease of unknown ethiopathophysiology and without an effective treatment. Patients do not have a good quality of life and cannot maintain normal daily activity. FM commonly occurs with other diseases, some of them, like irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, or some food allergies or intolerances, are related or affected by diet. Non-scientific information addressed to patients regarding the benefits of nutrition is widely available, and they are used to trying non-evidenced strategies. The aim of this paper is to make a first reflection on the relevance of diet related diseases in FM patients, to reinforce investigation in this field and highlight the importance of health professional advice regarding diets and use of food supplements. An internet based survey was prepared and offered to answer in a specific FM website. Patients were asked about hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, irritable bowel syndrome, food allergies and intolerances, and overweight or obesity. Ninety seven persons answered to the survey, two men and ninety five women. Irritable bowel syndrome and excess weight (overweight and obesity) were the most reported diet-related diseases. In the third position were food allergies or intolerances, and in the fourth hypertension. Diet-related diseases are frequent in FM patients, who even sometimes suffer more than two. Therefore, more investigation and dietary advice seems to be necessary to these patients to improve their diets, taking into account FM but also other pathologies, to keep an optimum nutritional status and maintain a normal weight.

Keywords: FM, Nutrition, Diet-related diseases, Health advice.

Vitamin A, Nutrition, and Health Values of Algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella – Pages 111-118

amin A, Nutrition, and Health Values of Algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella- Pages111-118
Guangwen Tang1 and Paolo M. Suter2
1Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA; 2University Hospital, Department of Medicine, KPIM, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland

Abstract: Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro and micro nutrients have been studied and confirmed in various populations. The safety of human consuming these algae and products derived from these algae by humans has been widely studied. It is generally concluded that these algae and its products are safe if cultivated properly in a non-contaminated environment, and if consumed in moderation.

Keywords: Algae, spirulina, chlorella, dunalliella, nutrition, and functional foods.