Phytochemical Screening and In-Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Various Extracts of Leaves and Stems of Kalanchoe crenata – Pages 104-114

Phytochemical Screening and In-Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Various Extracts of Leaves and Stems of Kalanchoe crenata – Pages104-114
Manisha Bhatti1, Anjoo Kamboj1 and Ajay Kumar Saluja2
1Chandigarh College of Pharmacy, Landran, Mohali, Punjab, India; 2A.R. College of Pharmacy, VV Nagar, Gujarat, India

Abstract: Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Current research is directed towards finding naturally occurring antioxidants of plant origin. Kalanchoe crenata Andr. (Crassulaceae), commonly known as “never die” or “Dog’s liver,” has been traditionally used for the treatment of ailments, such as, earache, smallpox, headache, inflammation, pain, asthma, palpitations, convulsion, and general debility. The aim of present research deals with phytochemical screening and in-vitro evaluation of antioxidant activities of the leaves & stems of K.crenata.

Method: Successive extracts of leaves & stems was subjected for phytochemical screening. The preliminary screening reports the presence of saponins, phytosterols, flavanoids, phenols and alkaloids in the extracts. Various extracts of K.crenata leaves & stems was studied in-vitro for total antioxidant activity, for scavenging of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, the antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum, reducing power determination and determination of phenolic and flavonoid content in the extracts. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydryzyl (DPPH) scavenging activity or the hydrogen donating capacity was quantified in presence of stable DPPH radical on the basis of Blois method. Nitric Oxide (NO) radical scavenging method was performed in the presence of nitric oxide generated from sodium nitroprusside using ascorbic acid as standard in both methods. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and flavonoid content was determined by aluminum chloride.

Result: The radical scavenging activity was found to dose dependent. Thus extract has been established as an antioxidant. The reducing capacity serves as significant indicator of antioxidant activity. The reducing power was found to increase with the increasing concentration of extract. The 100mg plant powder yielded 0.34, 0.49, 0.72, 0.98%w/wand 0.15, 0.23, 0.39, 0.56%w/w phenolic content in the benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol extracts of leaves and stems respectively using gallic acid as standard. Plant contains about 0.19, 0.29, 0.48, 0.64%w/w and 0.11, 0.17, 0.32, 0.47 %w/w of flavonoid content in the benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol extracts of leaves and stems respectively using quercetin as standard.

Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that different extracts of K.crenata leaves and stems is potential source of antioxidant activity. The extracts were found to contain phenolic compounds which could be responsible for the antioxidant properties. So K. crenata traditional use is justified in the present research work.

Keywords: Kalanchoe crenata, DPPH scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, phytochemical screening

Development of Bittergourd Fermented Beverage Using Response Surface Methodology – Pages 94-103

Development of Bittergourd Fermented Beverage Using Response Surface Methodology – Pages94-103
C.S. Devaki and K.S. Premavalli
Food Preservation Discipline, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore – 570 011, Karnataka, India

Abstract: Bittergourd (Momordica charantia) is used as a vegetable by the Asian community and is commonly used as an antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic agent. The aim of the present study was to develop nutritionally strengthful, highly acceptable, shelf stable bittergourd beverage by fermented process using statistical software on Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimization of the fermentation process with reference to curd concentration and the period has been attempted by using RSM with more emphasis on nutritional and functional considerations. The statistical design gave 13 formulations, where the fermentation process period varied from 6 to 34 hours and curd concentration was from 6.6 to 16.4%. The standard methodology was followed for the analysis of all the parameters studied. The product varied formulations had quinine range of 119 to 327.5 mg%, antioxidants 40.2 – 64.5%, total phenols 30.5 to 42.5 mg%, water soluble vitamins; B1 – 0.07 to 0.81 mg%, B2 – 0.02 to 0.28 mg%, B3 – 0.4 to 1.08 mg%, B6 – 0.04 to 0.32 mg% and vitamin-C – 17.2 to 34.6 mg%. Fermentation time for 30 hours and curd concentration of 15% was the optimized composition with the best fit of desirability 0.80. The product with the good taste and flavour was acceptable with 6.7 score on 9-pont hedonic scale. The fermented bittergourd beverage was preferred to fresh bittergourd juice.

Keywords: Bittergourd, Curd, Fermentation, RSM, Quinine, Vitamins.

Concentrations of Bioactives and Functional Factors in Destoned Virgin Olive Oil: The Case Study of the Oil from Olivastra di Seggiano Cultivar – Pages 83-93

Concentrations of Bioactives and Functional Factors in Destoned Virgin Olive Oil: The Case Study of the Oil from Olivastra di Seggiano Cultivar – Pages83-93
Federico Ranalli1, Alfonso Ranalli2,Stefania Contento2, MariaCasanovas3, Mariangela Antonucci2 and Guido Di Simone2
1Director of the Fharmacy of Nocciano, Via Roma 34/a, 65010 Nocciano, Pescara, Italy; 2CRA OLI – Centro di Ricerca per l’Olivicoltura e l’Industria Olearia, Sede Scientifica di Città Sant’Angelo, Viale Petruzzi 76, 65013 Città Sant’Angelo, Pescara, Italy; 3Department of Food Technology, XaRTA-UTPV, Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria Agrària, Universitat de Lleida, Avda/Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain

Abstract: This work reports on the composition and bionutritional value of destoned (vs. whole) virgin olive oil from Olivastra di Seggiano cultivar, one having wild features, which is cultivated in olive areas of Tuscany Region, Italy. Removal of the stone from fruit before processing is an innovative technique that strongly enhanced the already high quality level of this oil variety. There was for this product marked interaction between genetic background and destoning. An in-depth analytical investigation from 2008 to 2010 showed how the innovated olive extraction process led to an improved product standing out for its peculiar features, related mainly to the improved biophenol and volatile composition, as well as to higher concentrations of the lipophilic and vitamin antioxidants (tocopherols and tocotrienols). It had slowly higher levels of oleocanthal (p-HPEA-EDA), which was found to be a nutraceutical factor. Its head-space aroma even displayed new volatile phytomolecules and also had higher levels of green volatiles from the LOX-pathway (having as precursors the polyunsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-cis-1,4-pentadiene system). Among the other bioactives are to be highlighted the significant levels of trans-β-carotene and xanthophylls (lutein, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and other minor carotenoids), whose amount however was not higher with respect to reference oil. Its enhanced bionutritional value was confirmed by the increased intensity of valuable tasting notes, among which stood out the artichoke flavour. Finally it showed higher resistance to autoxidation and longer shelf-life.

Keywords: Destoned olive oil,. Olivastra di Seggiano variety, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants, aromas, fingerprinting, chemometrics.

Influence of Parmigiano Reggiano Diet on Male Sexual Behavior in Rats: Behavioral and Neurochemical Study – Pages 77-82

Influence of Parmigiano Reggiano Diet on Male Sexual Behavior in Rats: Behavioral and Neurochemical Study- Pages77-82
V. Di Viestia, G. Carnevaleb, M.M. Carrozzoc, M. Zavattib and M. Baraldid
Departments of aBiomedical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 287; bPathological Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Del Pozzo 71; cPharmaceutical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 183; dFoundation Mario Baraldi for Sciences, via Rossini 80, 41100 Modena, Italy

Abstract: The influence of Parmigiano Reggiano (P.R.) cheese on copulatory behavior was studied in male rats. Sexually naїve, sluggish and potent rats were chronically fed with a diet of P.R. cheese for 10 d. Mount, intromission, ejaculation latencies and the percentage of mounting and ejaculating animals were recorded during the mating test. Microdialysis technique was used to detect the extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in rat brain following the P.R. diet. The P.R. diet was able to improve sexual behavior in naїve rats increasing the percentage of mounting and ejaculating animals. Moreover it was able to reduce latencies of mounts, intromissions and ejaculations and to increase the percentage of mounting and ejaculating animals in sluggish rats. Finally, in the microdialysis study an increase in DA and its metabolite DOPAC was found in P.R. fed naїve rats in comparison with control group.

Keywords: Parmigiano Reggiano, male rat, sexual behavior, cerebral microdialysis, dopamine.


Inhibitory Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Tumor Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis – Pages 71-76

Inhibitory Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Tumor Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis – Pages71-76
Ken Yasukawa1, So Yeon Yu1, Shigetoshi Tsutsumi2, Masahiko Kurokawa3 and Yong K. Park4
1School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, Japan; 2Amazon Food Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Miyazaki, Japan; 4College of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Abstract: Propolis is produced by honeybees and has many biological properties, including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-cancer actions. Five ethanol extracts of Brazilian propolis were tested for inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation in mice. The ethanol extract of Brazilian propolis AF-08 markedly inhibited TPA-induced inflammatory ear edema in mice. This extract suppressed tumor promotion by TPA following initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in mouse skin. Moronic acid, a major component of Brazilian propolis AF-08, markedly inhibited two-stage carcinogenesis by DMBA plus TPA. These results suggest that Brazilian propolis AF-08 contributes to the prevention of cancer.

Keywords: Propolis, moronic acid, cancer chemoprevention, tumor promotion, two-stage carcinogenesis

Cancer and Diet – Pages 63-70

Cancer and Diet – Pages63-70
Kenneth Lundstrom
Pan Therapeutics, Rue des Remparts 4, CH1095 Lutry, Switzerland

Abstract:  The substantial development of sequencing technologies has resulted in access to enormous amounts of genomics information, which resulted in the establishment of nutrigenomics as an emerging approach to link genomics research to studies on nutrition. Increased understanding has demonstrated how nutrition can influence human health both at genetic and epigenetic levels. Dramatic dietary modifications have proven essential in reducing risk and even prevention of cancer. Moreover, intense revision of diet in cancer patients has revealed significant changes in gene expression and also has provided therapeutic efficacy even after short-term application. Obviously, a multitude of diets have been evaluated, but probably the common factor for achieving both prophylactic and therapeutic responses is to consume predominantly diets rich in fruits, vegetables, fish and fibers and reduced quantities of especially red meat. Despite encouraging findings on how dietary modifications can prevent disease and restore health, there are a number of factors which complicate the outcome. There are variations in response to dietary changes depending on age and gender. Furthermore, ethnic, social and geographic circumstances play an important role.

Keywords: Nutrigenomics, epigenetics, DNA methylation, microRNA, dietary modifications, lifestyle changes, personalized nutrition, disease prevention, therapeutic nutrition.

Dietary Iron is Associated with Memory in Midlife: Longitudinal Cohort Study – Pages 57-62

Dietary Iron is Associated with Memory in Midlife: Longitudinal Cohort Study – Pages57-62
Anna P. Rickard1, Mark D. Chatfield1, Jonathan J. Powell1, Alison M. Stephen1 and Marcus Richards2
1MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, CB1 9NL, UK; 2MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, and MRC National Survey for Health and Development, London, UK

Abstract: This work examined associations between dietary iron and cognitive function in mid-life adults using data from the 1946 British Birth Cohort, a representative population-based sample of men and women born in England, Scotland or Wales. Linear regression was used to determine the association between dietary iron intake or a measure of available iron (calculated by adjusting iron intake for dietary modifiers that are known to inhibit or enhance iron absorption) at ages 36, 43 and 53 years and cognitive measures at ages 43 and 53 years. Cognitive measures included verbal memory, assessed by a three-trial 15-word learning task, and speed and concentration, assessed by a timed letter search task. Examining the data cross-sectionally; dietary iron at ages 43 and 53 years was positively and significantly associated with verbal memory after adjustment for potential confounders. Examining the data longitudinally; earlier dietary iron exposure was significantly associated with later verbal memory. No associations were observed between dietary iron and measures of speed and concentration when examining the data both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The current study shows that impaired cognition, specifically memory, resulting from inadequate iron intake may extend beyond childhood and also be present in midlife. This finding, coupled with the high prevalence of people reporting iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrition Intake in the UK, provide reason for concern.

Keywords: National Survey of Health and Development, 1946 Birth Cohort, Cognitive Decline, Midlife Adults, Nutrition.

Comparative Study of the Nutritional Value of Four Types of Egyptian Palm Pollens – Pages 50-56

Comparative Study of the Nutritional Value of Four Types of Egyptian Palm Pollens – Pages50-56
Mokhtar Bishr1 and Samar Y. Desoukey2
1Plant General Manager and Technical Director of Arab Company for Pharmaceuticals and Medicinal Plants (MEPACO); 2Pharmacognosy Dept., Faculty of pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt

Abstract: Pollen grains are good sources of vitamins, minerals and amino acids with a high nutritional value that can be used as human food supplement. Date palm pollens are used in the Middle East especially Egypt in herbal mixtures as a folk medicine remedy for curing male infertility and promoting fertility in women .The raw materials purchased from the market are found to be a mixture of several palm pollens.

The main objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value of four local Egyptian date pollen grains {Amhat(A), Hiani(H), Sewy(S)& Zaghlol(Z)} by microscopical and chemical means. These differences could determine the quality of separate pollen grains and show to what extent they affect the quality of the natural products manufactured from them?

Each of the pollen samples were treated identically: collected from locations of similar clay loamy soils, in March 2011 at an early time of the day, subjected to electron microscope examination and chemical analysis of trace elements, amino acids & vitamins. The results showed that there are clear differences in the quality of the four Egyptian palm pollens which could be distinguished microscopically and chemically by the percentage of the trace elements, amino acids & vitamins.

Keywords: Egyptian date palm pollen grains, nutritional value, microscopic and chemical analysis

Kidney Injury, Insulin Therapy, and Hypoglycemia – Pages 43-49

Kidney Injury, Insulin Therapy, and Hypoglycemia – Pages43-49
Roland N. Dickerson
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA

Abstract: The intent of this review is to evaluate the literature with respect to increased risk for hypoglycemia for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease who are given insulin therapy. The unique pathophysiology of insulin and glucose metabolism during renal failure that predisposes patients for hypoglycemia is reviewed. Studies that contribute to the understanding and clinical relevance of renal dysfunction upon glycemic control during intensive insulin and continuous nutrition therapy are evaluated. Some practical suggestions for management of hyperglycemia with insulin therapy for critically ill patients with renal failure are given.

Keywords: Renal failure, parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, trauma, critical illness, hemodialysis, hyperglycemia.

Quantum Therapy: A New Way in Osteoporosis Primary Prevention and Treatment – Pages 34-42

Quantum Therapy: A New Way in Osteoporosis Primary Prevention and Treatment- Pages34-42
Sergio Stagnaro1 and Simone Caramel2
1Honorary President of SISBQ, International Society of Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics, CP 18, 31020 Lancenigo, Via Erasmo Piaggio, 23/8 – Riva Trigoso – Genova, Italy; 2President of SISBQ, International Society of Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics, CP 18, 31020 Lancenigo, Via Doberdò, 3 – 31020 Fontane di Villorba – Treviso, Italy

Abstract: The paper highlights the role played by quantum therapy in Osteoporosis Primary Prevention and treatment. We provide an overview of other useful treatments in Osteoporosis prevention such as CoQ10, Melatonin and Mediterranean Diet comparing their efficacy to that offered by the quantum therapy. This is done through ‘Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics’ bed-side evaluation, monitoring the results and efficiency of ongoing therapies aimed at improving mitochondrial and endothelial function, when it is unpaired in any biological systems.

‘Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics’ theory is an extension of medical semeiotics. It is grounded on a multidisciplinary approach that involves chemistry and biology, genetics and neuroscience, chaos theory and quantum physics. It is based on the method of ‘Auscultatory Percussion’, through which by means of the common stethoscope, it is possible to listen to the signs that the body gives us when appropriately stimulated. The stimuli are used to induce consistent behaviour -typical of dissipative systems far from equilibrium, according to Prigogine – in precise and well defined biological systems of the human body, thus giving local qualitative information on the state of health or disease, whether potential, being developed but not yet evident by usual clinical trial, effective or even in chronic phase.

The ‘Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics’ theory provides very detailed case studies based on the latency time, duration, and intensity of the reflexes, which play a central role in such a diagnostic method.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, primary prevention, semeiotics, quantum therapy.