Assessment of Anti-Oxidant Potency of Small Chain Glycopeptides Using DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Assay – Pages 178-190
Kandasamy Nagarajan1, Sneha Singh1, Taleuzzaman1, Sadaf J. Gilani1 and A. Mazumder2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, KIET School of Pharmacy, 13 Km. Stone, Ghaziabad Meerut Road, Ghaziabad-201206, India; 2Noida Institute of Engg. & Technology, Greater Noida, India
Abstract: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) in-vitro assay was employed to determine the antioxidant potency of test compounds I to VII [Arg-Thr-Starch (RTStr); Ser-Arg-Lac (SRLac); Asn-Arg-Mannose (NRMs); Arg-Asn-Lac (RNLac); Arg-Thr-Lac (RTLac); His-Asn-Mannose (HNMs); Asn-His-Lac (NHLac)] using ascorbic acid as the standard drug. The percentage scavenging activity of the test drugs were determined at different concentrations and the IC50 value of the test compounds were subsequently compared with that of ascorbic acid. Among the compounds tested, compound II (SRLac) showed highest antioxidant activity with an IC50value of 14.2 mg/ml whereas compounds I (RTS), VII (NHLac) and IV (RNLac) revealed the IC50 value of 14.3 mg/ml, 14.5 mg/ml and 15.7 mg/ml, respectively when compared with ascorbic acid (IC50 = 15.8 mg/ml). All the synthesized glycopeptides were further characterized by TLC, Melting point, IR, NMR and Mass spectral datas. Based on the above results, Ser-Arg-Lac could be considered as a lead compound for the development of new antioxidant drug for prevention of human diseases.
Keywords: 1.1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, Antioxidant, Glycopeptides, Ascorbic acid, Potency.
Phytochemical Investigations and Nutritive Potential of Eight Selected Plants from Ghana – Pages 172-177
Rita A. Dickson1, Kofi Annan1, Theophilus C. Fleischer1, Isaac K. Amponsah1, Kwabena Nsiah2 and J.A. Oteng1
1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; 2Department of Biochemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Abstract: In Ghana and most parts of Africa, traditional vegetables and herbs are important sources of proteins, minerals and vitamins for the general population. In order to meet the daily recommended nutritional requirements for the betterment of health and general well being, these vegetables and herbs are seen as an integral part of the diet of the people. In this study, the phytochemical constituents, mineral content and nutritive potential of eight selected plants, Amaranthus incurvatus (Amaranthaceae), Launaea taraxacifolia (Asteraceae), Manihot utilissima (Euphorbiaceae), Ceiba pentandra (Malvaceae), Manniophyton fulvum (Euphorbiaceae), Corchorus olitorius (Malvaceae), Talinum triangulare (Portulacaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae), were evaluated using standard methods. The results showed that, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, phytosterols and tannins are present in almost all the plant samples. Vitamin C is the abundant vitamin present in the selected plants followed by vitamin A. The crude protein ranged from 7.44 – 31.5% with A. incurvatus and T. triangulare providing the highest amount. The elemental analysis in mg/100g of dry matter revealed H. sabdariffa calyx contained the highest amount of magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe), providing about 43.48% and 72% of the respective daily value of these minerals. The sodium (Na) and potassium (K) contents of the samples were within recommended daily values except H. sabdariffa which exceeded it daily value for potassium (K). The selected plants may therefore be considered asviable and cheap sources of dietary nutrients and their incorporation in diets may be said to be scientifically justifiable.
Keywords:Secondary metabolites, haematinic agents, proteins, minerals, vitamins.
Effect of Short Term Sibutramine Supplementation on Appetite Suppression and Related Metabolic Responses – Pages 165-171
Swati Jain, Saroj K. Verma, Vijay K. Singh and Som Nath Singh
Nutrition Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054, India
Abstract: The appetite suppressing property of Sibutramine is well reported. The present study was undertaken to investigate the appetite regulatory mechanism and associated metabolic changes induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by its short term supplementation. The effect of the drug on the regulatory hormones and biochemical variables was studied at an oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. There was a decrease in food intake of rats by 35.5% in comparison to their basal food intake as well as untreated controls. There was an increase in plasma levels of adiponectin, serotonin and a decrease in IGF-1 and corticosterone in the treated animals. The circulating levels of ghrelin marginally decreased with a corresponding increase in leptin and CCK in case of treated rats. These may be responsible for the anorectic effect of the drug.
Keywords: Sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate, obesity, appetite, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin.
Quercetin Enhances Endurance Capacity via Antioxidant Activity and Size of Muscle Fibre Type 1 – Pages 160-164
N. Leelayuwat1,5, S. Laddawan2, Y. Kanpetta3,5, M. Benja3, D. Wongpan1,5, O. Tunkamnerdthai1,5, J. Wattanathorn1,5, S. Muchimapura1,5 and J. Yamauchi6,7
1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Naresuan University Phayao Campus, Phayao, Thailand; 3Queen Sirikit Heart Center of The Northeast, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 4Graduate School, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Exercise and Sport Sciences Development and Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 6Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan; 7Future Institute for Sport Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
Abstract: This study aimed to examine effects of quercetin on 1) endurance capacity 2) malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in skeletal muscle and 3) muscle fibre density and size in mice after an intense exercise. There were 5 groups: control, vitamin C (250 mg/kg body weight), quercetin 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg body weight respectively once a day for 28 days. Endurance capacity was measured by exhaustive swimming exercise test which was done 24-h after swimming at high intensity. Then muscles were analyzed for MDA, SOD activity, and muscle fibre density and size. After the 28-day treatment, endurance time in vitamin C and quercetin treated groups at dose of 150 mg/kg body weight were longer than the vehicle group (p<0.05). MDA concentration in extensor digitorum longus muscle was lower than vehicle group in vitamin C, Q150 and Q450 groups and in soleus muscle the highest was in Q300 group. SOD activity in soleus muscle in Q150 group was higher than vitamin C and Q450 groups. Significant increase in cell diameter of soleus muscle was found (p<0.05). Current findings suggest that ingestion of quercetin can improve endurance capacity, due probably to increased antioxidant activity and size of muscle fibre type 1.
Keywords: Quercetin, oxidative stress, time to exhaustion, slow twitch muscle fibre.
Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Blood Pressure in Subjects with Pre-Hypertension – Pages 155-159
M. Robinson, B. Lu, I. Edirisinghe and C.T. Kappagoda
Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA
Abstract: Pre-hypertension affects approximately 31% of the adult population of the United States over the age of 18 years. It is defined in the 7th report of the Joint National Committee (JNC – 7) on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure as a systolic blood pressure of 120-139 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure of 80-89 mmHg. JNC-7 also recommended that individuals considered to be prehypertensive require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent cardiovascular disease. This study was undertaken to determine whether a grape seed extract (GSE) which is a nutraceutical containing vasodilator phenolic compounds lowers blood pressure in subjects with pre-hypertension. The subjects were randomized into a placebo or an experimental group (GSE at a dose of 300 mg/day) and treated for 8 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end. The blood pressure was recorded using an ambulatory monitoring device at the start of the treatment period and at the end. Both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower after treatment with GSE. Treatment with the placebo had no effect on blood pressure. There were no significant changes in serum lipids or blood glucose values. These findings suggest that GSE could be used as a nutraceutical in a lifestyle modification program for patients with pre-hypertension.
Keywords: Grape seed extract, pre-hypertension, human, polyphenolics.
A Study on the Household Use of Iodised Salt in Sindh and Punjab Provinces, Pakistan: Implications for Policy Makers – Pages 148-154
Gul Nawaz Khan, Imtiaz Hussain, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Arjumand Rizvi and Zulfiqar A. Bhutta
Division of Women & Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract:Purpose: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices with respect to use of iodised salt, and to estimate its uptake at household level in Sindh and Punjab, Pakistan.
Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted between January and March 2007. A structured questionnaire was administered and household salt tested for iodine content across 9,701 households to identify current knowledge and practices towards use of iodised salt.
Results: Nearly 85% of the salt tested had no iodine, 8% had iodine levels of at least 75 ppm, whereas 7% of the salt contained between 15 and 50 ppm of iodine.The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that in comparison to urban areas, rural households were more likely not to use of iodised salt (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.62), and Province Sindh was less likely not to use of iodised salt as compare to Punjab (AOR =0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.96). In addition, results also revealed that illiteracy (AOR =1.61, 95% CI 1.28-2.04), no knowledge of iodised salt (AOR =2.09, 95% CI 1.44-3.04), unavailability of iodised salt (AOR =2.93, 95% CI 2.10-4.07), and unawareness about the advantages of use of iodised salt (AOR =1.97, 95% CI 1.65-2.36) were the main associated factors with non-use of iodised salt for cooking at household levels in Sindh and Punjab provinces, Pakistan.
Conclusions: Despite awareness of iodised salt,actual use of adequately iodised salt was much lower, hence collaborative efforts between public and private sectors are strongly recommended to increase the availability and salt iodization in Pakistan.
Keywords: Iodine deficiency, salt iodization, salt test kits, Sindh, Punjab.
Evaluation of Supplementation of Ashgourd Fermented Beverage to Geriatric Population – Pages 140-147
C.S. Devaki and K.S. Premavalli
Food Preservation Discipline, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore – 570 011, Karnataka, India
Abstract: Existing data indicates a significant morbidity among the aged and most may remain subclinical. Vegetables being good source of vitamins and minerals, further their concentration has been improved by fermentation process. In recent years elderly institutions are being more common and a need for nutritional studies to provide better service. Thus the present study was conducted on geriatrics population to see the effect of ashgourd fermented beverage on anthropometric, nutritional and biochemical status of institutional elderly inmates. Ashgourd Fermented beverage (180ml) was provided to inmates of experimental group with the instructions to drink in fasting condition as a first drink in the morning for 60 days and control group received no supplementation. The parameters which were selected to evaluate the effect of ashgourd fermented beverage were anthropometric data, nutritional status, dietary pattern, clinical, biochemical parameters such as fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels, lipid profile, haemoglobin level and medical histories of the inmates. The selected parameters were assessed before and after the supplementation to see the effect of fermented beverage. It can be concluded from the present study that supplementation of fermented beverage showed significant improvement in BMI grades, heamoglobin and reduced blood glucose level, triglycerides and improved HDL cholesterol levels in experimental group when compared with the control group.
Keywords: Ashgourd fermented beverage, geriatrics, supplementation, biochemical parameters
The Linares Addictive Potential Model – Pages 132-139
Oscar A. Linares
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA and PRS Wound Management, P.C., 20927 Kelley Road, Eastpointe, MI 48021, USA
Abstract: The Salerian Addictive Potential (SAP) hypothesis indicates that addictive potential may be calculated as , where A is addictive potency, E euphoric potency, Tmax (hr) is the time to reach peak plasma concentration, and t½ (hr) is the plasma elimination half-life. However, this approach is inconsistent with first-order linear pharmacokinetics. The units of the denominator of the equation are units of acceleration (hr2), not speed (the first derivative). Therefore, the present contribution presents a minimal-model hypothesis for quantifying a drug’s addictive potential. This model is superior to the SAP model because it is the simplest model, with the minimum number of parameters and assumptions, and it decreases variance through less loss of information.
Keywords: Addiction, modeling, pharmacokinetics, opioids, euphoria, drugs of abuse
Determination of Artepillin-C in Brazilian Propolisby HPLC with Photodiode Array Detector – Pages 127-131
Yasuhito Nobushi1, Naoki Oikawa1, Yuzo Okazaki2, Shigetoshi Tsutsumi2, Yong Kun Park3, Masahiko Kurokawa4 and Ken Yasukawa1
1School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, Japan; 2Amazon Food Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; 3College of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 4School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Miyazaki, Japan
Abstract: A method for the determination of artepillin-C using HPLC coupled with photodiode array (PDA) detector was developed. Artepillin-C is abundantly present in Brazilian propolis of Baccharis species origin. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Mightysil RP-18 GP II column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm; Kanto Chemical Company Limited), and column temperature was maintained at 40°C. The mobile phase was a linear gradient elution of 0.5% aqueous acetic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The chromatogram was monitored at 320 nm. The calibration range of artepillin-C was 0.75-2500 μg/ml (r2 = 0.9991). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.50 μg/ml and 0.75 μg/ml, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision of the assay (RSD) were in the range 1.28-5.60% and 1.45-6.75%, respectively. The artepillin-C content in Brazilian propolis is an important factor in ensuring the quality of Brazilian propolisof Baccharis species origin. This method was used to determine artepillin-C content in Brazilian propolis.
Keywords: Brazilian propolis, artepillin-C, HPLC, photodiode array detector.
Mango Modulates Blood Glucose Similar to Rosiglitazone without Compromising Bone Parameters in Mice Fed High Fat Diet – Pages 115-126
Edralin A. Lucas1, Angela Brown1, Wenjia Li1, Sandra K. Peterson1, Yan Wang1, Penny Perkins-Veazie2, Stephen L. Clarke1 and Brenda J. Smith1
1Nutritional Sciences Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA; 2HorticulturalScience, North Carolina State University Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
Abstract: Both consumption of high-fat diet and one of the commonly used pharmacological therapies for modulating blood glucose, rosiglitazone, are associated with negative effects on bone. Previously, we reported that a diet supplemented with freeze-dried mango modulated blood glucose similar to rosiglitazone in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. This study examined the effects of the addition of freeze-dried mango pulp or rosiglitazone to a HF diet on bone parameters in mice. Six week old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into one of five dietary treatment groups (n=8-9 mice/group): control (9.5% calories from fat), HF (58.9% calories from fat), HF+1% or 10% mango (w/w), and HF+rosiglitazone (50 mg/kg diet) for eight weeks. Bone parameters were assessed via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography. Both the HF and HF+rosiglitazone groups had lower whole body, tibial, and vertebral bone mineral density compared to the HF+1% mango group. Trabecular bone volume, number, and separation as well as bone strength were also compromised by HF+rosiglitazone while the mango diets maintained these bone microarchitecture parameters to that observed in the control group. These results suggests that addition of mango to the diet may provide an alternative approach to modulating blood glucose without negatively affecting skeletal health, though human studies are needed to confirm these findings. Additionally, the bioactive component(s) in mango and the mechanisms by which it modulates blood glucose and exerts potentially osteoprotective benefits warrants further investigation.
Keywords: Mango, high fat diet, rosiglitazone, bone.