Investigation of Measurement Methods of Antioxidant Activity and Involved Mechanisms
Samira Berenji Ardestani and Mohammad Ali Sahari
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract: Bioactive food components are active ingredients in food or dietary supplements proven to have a role in health and they are safe for human consumption. These compounds exert their antioxidant effects by different mechanisms such as hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) or single electron transfer (SET) and their efficiencies can be evaluated by several methods such as ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), dipheny-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), Folin-Ciocaltue method (FCM), etc. In this review, these mechanisms and methods will be discussed in details.
Keywords: Bioactive compounds, Antioxidant, HAT, SET, Mechanisms of antioxidant action.
In VitroMembrane Stabilizing and Thrombolytic Activities of Ophirrhiza mungos, Mussaenda macrophylla, Gmelina philippensis and Synedrella nodiflora Growing in Bangladesh – Pages71-75
Farhana Islam1, Sharmin Reza Chowdhury2, Tasnuva Sharmin2, Md. Gias Uddin1, Mohammad A. Kaisar1 and Mohammad A. Rashid1
1Phytochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh; 2Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh
Abstract: The methanol extracts and their pet-ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates of Ophirrhiza mungos, Mussaenda macrophylla, Gmelina philippensis and Synedrella nodiflorawere subjected to assays for membrane stabilizing and thrombolytic activities. The extractives inhibited heat- as well as hypotonic solution-induced haemolysis of human erythrocytes in vitro. The pet-ether soluble fraction of O. mungos, M. macrophylla and S. nodiflora demonstrated 61.16 % & 24.75%, 52.55% & 23.35% and 60.24% & 22.85% inhibition of hemolysis of RBC caused by hypotonic solution and heat, whereas the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of G. philippensis showed 49.05% and 21.25% inhibition of hypotonic and heat induced hemolysis of RBC, respectively. Here, acetyl salicylic acid was used as reference standard at 0.10 mg/mL. Among the four plants, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of O. mungos, methanol extract of M. macrophylla, carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of G. philippensis and chloroform soluble fraction of S. nodiflora revealed highest thrombolytic activity with clot lysis value of 50.09%, 49.50%, 47.14% and 46.37%, respectively. Standard streptokinase and water were used as positive and negative controls which showed 65.00% and 3.84% lysis of clot, respectively.
Keywords: Hypotonic solution, haemolysis, acetyl salicylic acid, streptokinase, clot lysis.
The Role of Modified Mediterranean Diet and Quantum Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Primary Prevention – Pages59-70
Sergio Stagnaro1 and Simone Caramel2
1Honorary President of SISBQ, International Society of Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics, CP 18- 31020 Lancenigo, Via Erasmo Piaggio, 23/8, Riva Trigoso, Genova, Italy; 2President of SISBQ, International Society of Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics, CP 18 – 31020 Lancenigo, Via Doberdò, 3, 31020 Fontane di Villorba, Treviso, Italy
Abstract: The Authors provide an overview of useful treatments such as ‘Modified Mediterranean Diet’, CoQ10, melatonin, carnitine and ‘Quantum Therapy’, testing their effects in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) primary prevention, performed possibly in the three first stages of T2DM. This is done through ‘Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics’ biological evaluation, clinically monitoring the results and efficiency of ongoing therapies aimed at improving mitochondrial and endothelial function, when it is impaired in any biological systems. This clinical method allows physicians to bedside assess tissue acidosis, before and during different preventive therapies, testing their respective efficacy and utility.
All the investigated treatments have firstly ameliorated and then normalized tissue microcirculatory pattern, showing a physiological functioning. Furthermore the tested ‘Quantum therapy’ generates virtuous genetic feedbacks.
‘Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics’ theory is an extension of medical semeiotics. It is grounded on a multidisciplinary approach that involves chemistry and biology, genetics and neuroscience, chaos theory and quantum physics.It is based on the method of ‘Auscultatory Percussion’, through which by means of the common stethoscope, it is possible to listen to the signs that the body gives us when appropriately stimulated.The stimuli are used to induce consistent behavior in precise and welldefined biological systems of the human body, thus giving local qualitative information on the state of health or disease, whether potential, being developed but not yet evident by usual clinical trial, effective or even in chronic phase. The ‘Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics’ theory provides very detailed case studies based on the latency time, duration, and intensity of the reflexes, which play a central role in such a diagnostic method.
Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, T2DM Inherited Real Risk, CoQ10, Primary Prevention, Mediterranean Diet, Melatonin, Carnitine, Quantum Therapy, Clinical Diagnosis, Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics.
Yo Jyo Hen Shi Ko (YHK) Modulates the Expression of Proteins Involved in de novo Lipogenesis and Lipid Exportation in Experimental Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) – Pages48-58
Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira1, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza de Oliveira1, José Tadeu Stefano1, Victor Debas2, Nathalia Cavalheiro Halla1, João Avancini Ferreira Alves1, Francisco Rafael Martins Laurindo2 and Flair José Carrilho1
1Department of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Clinical Division, Hepatology Branch (LIM-07), Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Heart Institute, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Abstract: Previous study by our group showed the protective effect of Yo Jyo Hen Shi Ko (YHK) a natural compound in experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether YHK modulates lipid metabolism.
NASH was induced in male ob/ob mice by methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks. YHK-treated animals (YHK) received YHK solution orally (20 mg/kg/day) by gavage while MCD (n=6) group received only vehicle. The control animals (CTRL; n=6) received standard diet. Liver fragments were collected for mRNA and protein isolation. The analysis of gene expression and protein was performed by RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively.
A significant decrease in srebp1c mRNA and protein expression and fasn mRNA expression was observed in MCD+YHK group. A significant increase in MTP protein expression was observed in the MCD+YHK vs MCD group while a decreased expression was observed in the MCD vs CTRL group. The expression of the scd1 in the MCD group was diminished. The Perilipin protein expression was augmented in the MCD group in comparison with MCD+YHK and CTRL groups.
YHK modulated genes involved in the synthesis and exportation of hepatic lipids, probably limiting hepatocyte lipid accumulation, reducing lipogenesis and upregulating lipid exportation suggesting that the YHK can be a promising drug for treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), Mice, ob / ob, Yo Jyo Hen Shi Ko (YHK).
Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Activities of Optimized Extruded Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) Flours – Pages38-47
José Antonio Garzón Tiznado1,2, Mar de Jesús Heiras Palazuelos2, Ramona Julieta Espinoza Moreno2, Mirta Cano Campos2, Francisco Delgado Vargas1,2, Roberto Gutiérrez Dorado1,2, Jorge Milán Carrillo1,2 and Cuauhtémoc Reyes Moreno1,2
1Maestría en Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas (FCQB), Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (UAS), Ciudad Universitaria, A.P. 1354, CP 80000, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México; 2Doctorado en Biotecnología (Programa Regional del Noroeste para el Doctorado en Biotecnología), FCQB-UAS, Ciudad Universitaria, A.P. 1354, CP 80000, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of optimized extrusion cooking process on antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of desi chickpea cultivars. Three desi chickpea cultivars (Brown-ICC3512, Red-ICC13124, Black-ICC3761) were studied. Extrusion was carried out in a single-screw extruder; the operation conditions were previously optimized to obtain maximum antioxidant activity in extruded chickpea flour: Extrusion temperature (ET) = 155°C, and screw speed (SS) = 240 rpm. The antioxidant activity (AOA) was evaluated using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Antimutagenic activity (AMA) of ground samples extracts was tested against 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) with the Kado microsuspension assay using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. The total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, AOA, and AMA of raw desi chickpea cultivars ranged from 1.31 to 1.35 mg GAE g-1 sample, dw, from 0.464 to 1.006 mg CAE g-1 sample, dw, from 54.9 to 57.3 mmol TE g-1 sample, dw, and from 57.8-62.3% inhibition, respectively. Brown-ICC3512 showed the highest TFC and AOA, while Red-ICC13124 had the highest AMA. The extrusion cooking process increased the TPC, AOA and AMA of whole desi chickpea grains in 5.3-9.2%, 9.9-12.2%, and 17.5-21.9%, respectively. The optimized extrusion cooking process is a recommended technology for increasing AOA and AMA in desi chickpea grains, which could be used as functional foods.
Keywords: Antioxidant activity, antimutagenic activity, phenolic content, desi chickpeas, extrusion cooking.
Rose, a Potential Nutraceutical: An Assessment of the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity – Pages30-37
Vui Fui Vun1, Siong Chin Poh1 and Hip Seng Yim2
1Department of Biotechnology; 2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Abstract: Rosa hybrida L. was reported to contain high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The scarce information on antioxidant properties of Malaysian cultivated R. hybrid L. had lead to the present study, which aimed to determine the effect of different solvent extraction on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of roses of different colours. All the 23 R. hybrida L. cultivars’ petals extracted with 70% ethanol had significantly higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity compared to the water extraction. The five cultivars (03, 203, 205, 402 and M203) that comprise the highest DPPH scavenging activity were subjected to various antioxidant assays. Cultivar M203 showed highest total phenolic content (TPC) at all concentration. Cultivar M203 and 402 gave higher DPPH radical scavenging ability (EC50=107.08 µg/ml) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging ability (EC50=258.13 µg/ml). In ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, cultivar M203 has the highest trolox equivalent value at 200, 300 and 500 µg/ml concentrations while in b-carotene bleaching assay, cultivars 03, 205, and M203 (at the concentration of 500 µg/ml) showed higher antioxidant activity than synthetic antioxidant (BHA). Strong positive correlations were found between TPC and antioxidant activities, hence, suggesting that the high antioxidant activity of selected R. hybrida L. petals might be mainly contributed by the phenolic compounds. In general, cultivar M203 showed the best antioxidant activity with nutraceutical potential.
Keyword: Scavenging ability, solvent extraction, reducing power, Rosa hybrida L., total phenolic.
Studies on Cisplatin and Etoposide Treated Liver Protein Extract Under SDS-PAGE Gel Separation- Pages26-29
Pratibha Kamble1and Dayanand A.Bhiwgade2
1Department of LifeSciences, University for Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz (E) 400098, Mumbai, India; 2Department of Biological Sciences, D.Y. Patil University, Belapur, Navi Mumbai, India
Abstract: Cytotoxic agents has been widely used for the treatment various human malignancies. Cisplatin and etoposide are chemotheraupeutic agents which are used for treatment of metastatic cancers, solid tumors and neoplasm. The drug is known to exert its toxic effect on hepatic and renal tissue by altering its antioxidant response of these organs. In the present study both the drugs Cisplatin and etoposide were analyzed for its effects on hepatic protein status. Cisplatin has shown to cause consequential alterations in protein levels as compared to etoposide treated hepatic tissue. The protein with molecular weight 44.46, 13.8, 51.2 kd was downregulated and other ranging from 16.98-38.9 kd did not show any expression as compared to controls. In addition etoposide studies revealed overexpression in protein level ranging from molecular weight 14.45-33.11 kd which might suggest significant role in organ protection. Some of protein bands ranging from 25.12 to 51.29 kd showed similar pattern of expression compared to controls. Present studies might provide us clues of important role of these protein in combating free radical induced oxidative stress on the tissue.
Keywords: Cisplatin, Liver, Etoposide, free radical, Oxidative Stress.
Health Concerns on Microbiological Quality of Bottled Drinking Water Sold in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania- Pages17-25
Kennedy D. Mwambete and Esther K. Sangwa
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health & Allied Sciences, School of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 65013, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Abstract: Background:Dar es Salaam City has over 10 million habitants, who are constantly circumvented by water-borne diseases. The city experiences humid and hot weather throughout a year, which lead to high consumption of bottled drinking water because of being perceived as safer than tap or well water. Waterborne disease outbreaks still create havoc among the city habitants. This study determines heterotrophic plate count (HPC) values in bottled water and performs antimicrobial resistance tests on isolated microorganisms.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Fifty-four samples of bottled water were randomly purchased from shops, supermarkets and streetvendors. HPC values were determined and microbial contaminants identified. The disk diffusion method was employed for testing antimicrobial resistance of microbial contaminants against four widely used antibiotics.
Results: HPC values were variable (4.7 x102 to 7.0 x105 cfu/ml). Majority (86.7%) of analyzed samples revealed high HPC values. Four bacterial species were isolated and identified from 47 samples. Predominant bacterial contaminants were Brevundimonasvesicularis (54.5%), while Pseudomonas thomasii was only isolated from one brand A sample.Brand E samples had the highest HPC values (2.2 x 104 to 2.16 x105cfu/ml) while F samples were free from microbial contaminants. A total of 21 (46.7%) bacterial isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics namely ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol.
Conclusion: Of 54 analyzed bottled water samples, 47 had high HPC values. High rates of antibacterial resistance was exerted against ciprofloxacin (68.2%) and ampicillin (56%). This calls for responsible authorities to impose more stringent measures on in-process quality control among bottled water producers and indefatigably conduct post- production surveillance to avert the endemic water-borne outbreaks resulting from consumption of such products.
Keywords: Heterotrophic plate count values, microbial contaminants, antibiotic resistance profiles
An Update on Treatments and Interventions for Male Infertility, and the Role of Nutriceutical Food Supplementation- Pages1-16
Frank H. Comhaire1 and Ahmed Mahmoud2
1Professor Emeritus Ghent University, Brakelmeersstraat, 18, B 9830 Sint Martens-Latem, Belgium; 2Head of Andrology Laboratory, Department of Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan, 185, 9000 Gent, Belgium
Abstract: Congenital factors have been thoroughly explored in recent years revealing the role of genetic mutations and polymorphisms, and highlighting the contribution of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of certain forms of infertility. Acquired male infertility is commonly due to varicocele, male accessory gland infection, immunological infertility, and idiopathic oligozoospermia. The mechanisms by which these causes interfere with male reproduction are endocrine deregulation, inflammation through prostaglandins and cytokines, and oxidative overload damaging the cell membrane, inducing mutagenesis of the DNA, and impairing mitochondrial energy production. Causal treatment includes (non-surgical) interruption of spermatic venous reflux in varicocele, adequate antibiotic treatment with third generation Quinolones in accessory gland infection, assisted reproduction techniques in immunological infertility, and the anti-estrogen Tamoxifen for idiopathic oligozoospermia. In addition, a novel nutriceutical food supplement (NFS) has been formulated that aims at correcting the pathological mechanisms and at reducing the influence of detrimental environmental factors. Complementary NFS-treatment also may improve the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa in some patients with a congenital cause of sperm deficiency. The efficiency of adding this NFS to causal therapy, or in assisted reproduction is expressed as numbers of couples needed to treat (NNT) to obtain one additional pregnancy.
Keywords: Male infertility, causes, treatment, antioxidants, food supplements.