Evaluation of Ovulation Inhibition Properties of a Phytoestrogen Isolated from Momordica charantia Linn. Seeds – Pages 215-221
Sharanabasappa A. Patil
Reproductive Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-585 106, Karnataka, India
Abstract: Background and objectives: Momordica charantia Linn. has been used as a dietary / medicinal supplement for health care. The plant has a long history in worldwide people for the usage of vaginal discharge, to promote menstruation and to induce abortions. However, the mechanism of action for its ovulation inhibition effects is not clearly known. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the ovulation inhibition properties of phytoestrogenic molecule isolated from M. charantia seeds in albino rats as an experimental model.
Methods:Ovulation inhibition properties of fractions of ethanol extract and phenolphthalein a phytoestrogenic molecule isolated from seeds of Momordica charantia Linn. were evaluated in fertile female albino rats. In the first batch of animals having groups I, II, III, IV were treated with 15 and 25mg/100g oral doses of Fraction I and Fraction II and group V served as control. In the second batch of animals having groups I, II, III was treated with 10, 15 & 20mg/100g isolated phenolphthalein and group IV served as control.
Results:At autopsy on day 31st, decrease in ovarian weight and histological studies shows highly significant decrease in number of developing follicles, Graafian follicles, corpora lutea and significant increased in number of atreatic follicles is observed in Fraction I and phenolphthalein treatment. There are no appreciable changes are observed in the above parameters when both the doses of Fraction II administration.
Interpretation and Conclusions:The study results suggested that M. charantia seed fractions and phenolphthalein possess ovulation inhibition properties in experimental animals. Interestingly, in recent years, the popularity of different kinds of pharmaceutical preparations containing phytoestrogens has constantly increasing. Therefore, studies of the influence of the above mentioned plant components on female reproduction have become more and more important. This leads to discovery of newer phytoconstituents with better activities and provide source of new biomolecules for biologists to work on. The studies explore the utilization of medicinal plants for effective management of contraception. It gives a larger platform for the medicinal plant growers by providing scientific support and data to the traditional invalidated herbal drugs. Taking account of all these facts, the present study was undertaken in albino rats.
Keywords: Momordica charantia, phytoestrogen, phenolphthalein, ovary, ovulation, contraception.
Low Dose β-Carotene Supplementation Diminishes Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetics and Healthy Individuals – Pages 206-214
José M. Moreno1, Irene Leets1, Rafael J. Puche1, Ana M. Salazar1, Jham F. Papale2, Gloria Alvarado2 and María N. García-Casal1
1Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC) Centro de Medicina Experimental, Laboratorio de Fisiopatología, Caracas, Venezuela and 2Universidad Centro-Occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Laboratorio de Bioquimica Nutricional, Estado Lara, Venezuela
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, multifactorial disease, and oxidative stress one of the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with its appearance and development. The objective was to determine the effect of supplementation with β-carotene to type 2 diabetics and healthy individuals, on iron metabolism, oxidative balance, and antioxidant plasma capacity, using doses similar to the daily nutritional requirement. A total of 117 randomly selected non-smoker volunteers participated in the study. Type 2 diabetics (34) and healthy individuals (24), received 6 mg β-carotene for 45 d, and were compared to similar non-supplemented diabetic (33) and control (26) groups. Blood samples were taken at the beginning, end and 30 days after finishing supplementation, to determine hemoglobin, hematocrit unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, ferritin, glycemia, glycosilated hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, oxidized LDL, copper, zinc, TBARS, FRAP, nitrites, GPx, SOD, folates, retinol and β-carotene. In supplemented diabetics, there was a significant diminution in copper concentrations (24.8%), and TBARS (9.5%), associated with a non significant increase in FRAP. Also, hemoglobin decreased and oxidized LDL augmented in supplemented diabetics. All the changes were still present one month after finishing the supplementation. In conclusion, supplementation with β-carotene had a positive effect on the oxidative balance of both, type 2 diabetics and healthy individuals, which makes the inclusion of β-carotene rich foods, part of the prevention and/or treatment strategies in type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, β-carotene, oxidative balance, copper, zinc, FRAP, TBARS.
Inhibitory Effect of a Combined Treatment of Glycyrrhizin and Caffeine on Tumor Promotion by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate in Two-Stage Carcinogenesis in Mouse Skin – Pages 202-205
School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, Japan
Abstract: Cancer prevention is an important problem in the field of public health. Glycyrrhizin, a natural sweetening agent, is one of the components of licorice and caffeine in coffee and tea. Glycyrrhizin and caffeine were found to inhibit tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Furthermore, the combined treatment of glycyrrhizin and caffeine is more effective than their single treatment on tumor promotion by TPA in mice following initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene.
Keywords: Glycyrrhizin, caffeine, combination therapy, antitumor promotion, two-stage carcinogenesis
On the Potential Effect of Increased Dietary Intake of Fruits and Vegetables on Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients- Pages 191-201
J. Pincemail1a, N. Paquot1b, J. Cillard2, I. Hininger3, L. Iuliano4, M. Cazaubiel5, F. Guéraud6, J.P. Chapelle1c, C. Kevers7, C. Charlier1d, A. Albert1e and J.O. Defraigne1a
1CHU – University of Liège: 1aDept of Cardiovascular Surgery and CREDEC; 1bDivision of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases; 1cService of Clinical Biology; 1dDept of Toxicology; 1eDept of Medical Informatic and Biostatistics; Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgium; 2University of Rennes I, Laboratory of Cellular and Vegetal Biology, Movement, Sport and Health Team, Rennes, France; 3LBFA/INSERM884 UFR of Pharmacy, La Tronche, Grenoble, France; 4University La Sapienza, Dept of Internal Medicine, Roma, Italy; 5Biofortis, Nantes, France; 6INRA UMR1089 Xenobiotics, Toulouse, France; 7University of Liège, Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Unit, Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgium
Abstract: The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables up to 600 g per day in type 2 diabetes patients can reduce oxidative damages to lipids. After a clinical examination, 29 type 2 diabetes patients were divided into two groups: the first one did not receive any special instructions about the diet while the second one received fruits and vegetables consumption advices thanks to a picture catalogue describing types of fruits and vegetables as well as quantities to be eaten every day. After two months of intervention, plasma concentrations in vitamin C, b-carotene and polyphenols remained unchanged in both groups when compared to baseline values. No significant decrease in lipid peroxidation as evidenced by nine biomarkers (malonaldehyde as TBAR’s, lipid peroxides, oxidized LDL, antibodies against oxidized LDL, isoprostanes, 7-keto-cholesterol, 7b-hydroxycholesterol, 4-hydroxynonenal metabolite, LDL size) was also noted. In conclusion, our findings confirmed the fact that the effect of high intake of fruits and vegetables on reducing oxidative damage to lipids remains largely controversial even in patients having an oxidative stress profile. Moreover, the present leaves open the question of the most appropriate markers of lipid peroxidation since only small correlations were evidenced between the large battery of tests investigated.
Keywords: Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, fruits, vegetables.
Current Management of Obesity in an Infertile Female-Recent Advances and Future Prospective Drugs – Pages 178-190
Kulvinder Kochar Kaur1, Gautam Allahbadia2 and Mandeep Singh3
1Dr kulvinder Kaur Centre For Human Reproduction, 721,G.T.B. Nagar, Jalandhar-144001, Punjab, India; 2Rotunda-A Centre for Human Reproduction, 672, Kalpak Garden, Perry Cross Road, Near Otter’s Club, Bandra(W)-400040, Mumbai, India; 3Swami Satyanand Hospital, Near Nawi Kachehri, Baradri, Ladowali Road, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
Abstract: With obesity having grown to epidemic proportions, nearly half of women of reproductive age are overweight and obese and this is a major public health problem. Due to unfavourable ovarian stimulation protocols, higher gonadotropin consumption and poor results most insurance companies are reluctant to sponsor treatment for such patients .Since diet and exercise are inadequate treatments and bariatric surgery maybe too extreme, treatment in the model of other chronic diseases by combination therapies has prompted the development of novel combination therapies like Qysmia (topiramate/phentermine)/Contrave (Bupropion SR/Naltrexone SR) which simultaneously target multiple physiological pathways that regulate energy homeostasis to overwhelm endogenous compensatory mechanisms as opposed touse of monotherapies to maintain weight loss. The only concern is the slight risk of teratogenicity with topiramate hence it is better to use contraception while using topiramate/bupropionSR/naltrexoneSR. In obese diabetics the GLP-1 receptor agonists like exenatide/liraglutide remain the drugs of choice incombination with insulin, while combination of lixisenatide and insulinglargine are in the pipeline for the future.
Keywords: Obesity, infertility, Qnexia, topiramate, phentermine, contrave, bupropion SR, Naltrexone SR, Combination drugs.
Effect of Fermentation on Nutrient and Antinutrient Contents of Cocoyam Corm
– Pages 171-177
Adegbehingbe Kehinde Tope1 and Fakoya Soji2
1Department of Microbiology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa, Nigeria
Abstract: Objective: Cocoyam corms were fermented with the aim of enhancing and reducing its nutrient and antinutrient contents respectively.
Methods: Cocoyam corm was fermentated naturally by submerged fermentation method in a sterile medium (distilled water) for four days. Microbial examination of the fermenting corms was carried out at 24hours interval for four days.
Results: Twenty bacterial strains were isolated within the fermentation periods. They include the general: Micrococcus species, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. fermentum, Enterobacter, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The total bacteria count increased from 5.70 log cfu/ml to 8.97 log cfu/g while fungal count increased from 3.33 log cfu/g to 4.84 log cfu/g. Temperature and the total titratable acidities increased from 27oC to 35oC and 1.13% to 3.72% respectively while the pH values decreased from 5.68 to 3.75. The result of the proximate analysis showed that the fermented sample had higher protein (12.00%), ash (2.84%) and fat (4.84%) contents than the unfermented sample which contained 7.30%, 2.4% and 4.55% respectively. However, moisture, fibre and carbohydrate contents decreased from 9.70%, 3.00% and 73.04% in unfermented sample to 8.94%, 2.78% and 67.60% in fermented sample respectively. All the antinutrient contents decreased at the end of the fermentation [phytate (1.32-0.38) g/100DM, oxalate (0.72-0.21) g/100DM, tannin (0.18-0.07) g/100DM, saponin (0.45-0.22) g/100DM, hydrocyanide (22.27-10.22)g/kg of the fermented sample than the unfermented one.
Conclusion: If properly fermented cocoyam corm could be a potential substitute or supplement for fermented tubers for preparation of food for infants and adults.
Keywords: Cocoyam, fermentation, nutrient, antinutrient, phytochemicals.