Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Geodorum densiflorum Roots in Swiss Albino Mice – Pages 284-289

Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Geodorum densiflorum Roots in Swiss Albino Mice
Pages 284-289
Mominur Rahman, Razibul Habib, Mohammed Aktar Sayeed, Muhammad Erfan Uddin, Rasheduzzaman Chowdhury, Mohammad A. Rashid, Amir Hassan and Mansoor Ahmed

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.04.11
Published: 31 October 2013

Abstract: Fresh root of Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) (Orchidaceae) has applications in regularizing menstrual cycle and as topical aids in insect bites and wounds. The tuber extracts of some plants belonging to Geodorum have folkloric reputation in the management of transient anxiety. The current study was undertaken to investigate the sedative/ anxiolytic effects of G. densiflorum root extracts using rodent behavioral models, such as open field, hole cross, thiopental sodium-induced hypnosis and elevated plus maze test. Present data shows that the organic extracts of G. densiflorum root increase the thiopental sodium induced sleeping time and reduce the time for the onset of sleep. A statistically significant reduction in motor activity and exploratory behavior were observed in the open field and hole cross tests. The results of the current studies provide scientific evidence for its uses in traditional medicines as sedative and anxiolytic agents.

Keywords: Neuropharmacology, locomotor activity, thiopental sodium, transient anxiety.

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Echinophora platyloba DC – Pages 270-283

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Echinophora platyloba DC
Pages 270-283
Zahra Pilevar and Hedayat Hosseini
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.04.10
Published: 31 October 2013

Abstract: The existence of artificial additives in food seems to be unhealthy from the consumers’ point of view, and it is why scientists are looking for some solutions to reduce the unhealthy varieties of additives in manufactured products. This article presents a revision of studies published in recent years on this topic and looks at possible future trends in the sector on one of the indigenous plant activities, which is used as a food seasoning in Iran. Echinophora platyloba DC has a high potency to act as an antimicrobial and antioxidant at the same time. In 3 sections this article explains the subject as follows. The first part includes determination of chemical constituents of isolated fresh and dry aerial parts by different extraction methods. They were analyzed by Gas Chromatography. In the second part antibacterial and antifungal activity of both plant extracts and its essential oil were evaluated against gram positives and gram negatives followed by fungus. Finally in the last part, antioxidant properties of the plant are mentioned. The essential oil and the crude extracts from E. platyloba species are of active candidates which can be used as antioxidant, antimicrobial agents so they still would be the novel ones for further researches.

Keywords: Echinophora platyloba DC, natural preservative, essential oil, plant extract, antibacterial, antifungal.

Lymphocytes from Peyer’s Patches and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes Proliferation in a Model of Oral and Systemic Sensitization with Ovalbumin – Pages 266-269

Lymphocytes from Peyer’s Patches and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes Proliferation in a Model of Oral and Systemic Sensitization with Ovalbumin
Pages 266-269
Miguel Vinuesa and Norberto Bassan
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.04.9
Published: 31 October 2013

Abstract: Background: In previous works we demonstrated that subcutaneous sensitization with Ovalbumin (OVA) induce generation of specific IgE antibodies and modifications of immune cells populations in different mucosal sites in rabbit. The aim of the study was the evaluation of OVA specific lymphoproliferation in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen and Peyer’s patch from OVA orally and subcutaneous sensitized and challenged rabbits.

Methods: New Zealand white rabbits were divided into six groups: G1 (n=8): orally sensitized and challenged with OVA; G2 (n=10): subcutaneous sensitized with OVA and oral challenged (OVA); G3 (n=10): subcutaneous sensitized and oral challenged with PBS (phosphate buffer saline). G4-G5 and G6 (n=9 each) controls. Four hours after challenge animals were sacrificed and obtained samples were processed for lymphoproliferation studies: isolated cells from MLNs, spleen and Peyer’s patch from the different groups were suspended in culture media containing OVA or Concanavaline A and were cultured for 48, 72 and 120 hours. Proliferation was measured as incorporation of radioactive element as counts per minute (CPM).

Results: Spleen derived lymphocytes showed important proliferation at subcutaneous sensitized groups when incubated with OVA. Meanwhile, proliferation was significantly higher in lymphocytes originated in MLNs from subcutaneous OVA sensitized and oral challenged rabbits at 48, 72 and 120 hours of incubation. No significant proliferation was observed in Peyer’s Patch derived lymphocytes.

Conclusions: We conclude that proliferation of OVA-specific spleen originated lymphocytes was successful after systemic sensitization but after oral challenge with the antigen, only OVA incubated MLNs-originated lymphocytes showed proliferation as compared with Peyer’s patch. This fact evidence a main participation of MLNs in this model of food allergy.

Keywords: Rabbit, Mesenteric Lymph Nodes, Peyer’s Patch, Ovalbumin, Sensitization.

Evaluation of the Erosive Potential of Acidic Candies Consumed by Children and Teenagers – Pages 262-265

Evaluation of the Erosive Potential of Acidic Candies Consumed by Children and Teenagers
Pages 262-265
Jeison Gabriel da Silva, Maria Mercês Aquino Gouveia Farias, Eliane Garcia da Silveira, Silvana Marchiori de Araújo and Beatriz Helena Eger Schmitt
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.04.8
Published: 31 October 2013

Abstract: This research aims at investigating the acidity of candies commonly consumed by children and teenagers. Eight flavors of candy produced by the brand Halls Kraft Foods Brazil Ltda.®: cherry, extra strong, watermelon, strawberry, mint, menthol, wild strawberry and chantilly cream strawberry were analyzed. The candies were crushed. Five grams of crushed candy were added to 10 ml of doubly deionized water and stirred until all candy was dissolved. The pH was measured in triplicate using a potentiometer and combined glass electrode (Tec-2 Tecnal). Fifteen grams of crushed candy were added to 30 ml doubly deionized water. The titratable acidity was measured by adding 100 μl of 0.1 M NaOH to the solution under constant stirring until a pH of 5.5 was reached. This procedure was performed for each of the flavors. Mineral water was used as a negative control and citric acid as positive control. The results were statistically analyzed by the Variance Analysis (ANOVA). Comparisons of means were performed by the Scott Knott Test, at a 5% level of significance (p <0.05). The results showed that all candies had pH values below 5.5, ranging from 3.6 to 5.2. These values were significantly different from the positive and negative controls. The flavors Chantilly Cream Strawberry and Wild Strawberry have shown to be the candies with highest erosive potential due to their lower pH values and higher intrinsic buffer capacity. It is concluded that the candies have erosive potential and their frequent use can contribute to the development of dental erosion.

Keywords: Candy, dental erosion, erosion potential, hydrogen-ion concentration, acidity.

The Effect of Fish Oil Supplement on Serum Antioxidant Level in Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis – Pages 258-261

The Effect of Fish Oil Supplement on Serum Antioxidant Level in Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Pages 258-261
Sousan Kolahi, Amir Ghorbanihaghjo, Ali-Reza Khabbazi, Mehrzad Hajialilo and Hale Farzin
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.04.7
Published: 31 October 2013

Abstract: Purpose:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and over-growth of the synovium. RA is accompanied with increased levels of free radical and stress oxidative. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in nutritional factors on disease and autoimmune system. More recently literatures have emerged that offers contradictory findings about fish oil on antioxidant levels. So far however, there has been little discussion about fish oil as antioxidant on Rheumatoid arthritis. This paper will focus on effect of fish oil over serum antioxidant levels and activity disease of RA.

Methods: A randomized double blinded control trial 90 patients from a population of Rheumatoid Arthritis who were selected. Forty five patients received Fish oil (FO) (1gr /day) in addition of conventional therapy for RA versus 45 patients received placebo. And serum levels of plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxides (GPX) were measured.

Results:There was no statistically difference between groups in plasma antioxidant capacity and the activity of superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxides. There weren’t any correlation among DAS and antioxidant serum levels.

Conclusion: The findings emerging from the present inquiry suggested that FO with 1 gram daily dose didn’t have effect on serum antioxidant level and activity of disease in RA.

Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, omega3, Fish oil, antioxidant.

Enrichment of Bio-Active Phthalides in Celery Seed Oil – Pages 250-257

Enrichment of Bio-Active Phthalides in Celery Seed Oil
Pages 250-257
Halagur B. Sowbhagya and Pullabhatla Srinivas
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.04.6
Published: 31 October 2013

Abstract: Objective: To develop an efficient process to obtain a phthalide-enriched nutraceutical fraction from celery seed oil.

Methods: Three approaches viz., fractional distillation, column chromatography and solvent-solvent partition, have been used.

Results: Fractional distillation of celery seed oil (13.7g) afforded i) a limonene-rich fraction (7.6g, 97% purity), ii) a fraction containing β-selinene (2.8 g, 90 % purity) and iii) one containing phthalides (2.9 g, 90 % purity). Solvent-solvent partition of celery seed oil gave limonene (87%) and a fraction containing phthalides (49%), which on further fractionation afforded a phthalide-enriched fraction (90%). By conventional silica gel column chromatography, a product rich in phthalides (53-74%) could be obtained.

Conclusion: Fractional distillation is shown to be a viable method to process celery seed oil into a phthalide-enriched product with high nutraceutical potential.

Keywords: Celery seed oil, enrichment, fractional distillation, phthalides, GC-MS.

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Entandrophragma angolense – Pages 241-249

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Entandrophragma angolense
Pages 241-249
Anthonia Ogheneruno Ugboduma, Francis Adu, Christian Agyare, Kofi Annan and Samuel Osei-Asante
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.04.5
Published: 31 October 2013

Abstract: Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC. (Meliaceae) is a deciduous plant commonly found on in west Africa and it is used for treatment microbial infections, wounds, rheumatic and arthritic painsThe methanol stem bark extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion method and macro-dilution technique and time kill kinetics. The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract and its fractions were evaluated against five bacteria species and a fungus including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Bacillus subtilis NCTC 10073, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 4853 and clinical strains of Candida albicans and some of the test bacteria. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The MICs of the methanol extract against the test organisms were: S. aureus (11.0 mg/mL), E. faecalis (9.0 mg/mL), B. subtilis (13.0 mg/mL) E. coli (17.0 mg/mL), P. aeruginosa (19 mg/mL) and C. albicans (15.0 mg/mL). The fractions of the methanol extract (pet ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions) exhibited varying antimicrobial activities, with the highest activity exhibited by the aqueous fraction. The extract exhibited bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity against all test organisms. Time kill studies showed that the extract exhibited an inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. The results indicate that the methanol stem bark of E. angolense has antibacterial and antifungal activities and may justify the medicinal uses of the plant in the management of bacterial and fungal infections.

Keywords: Phytochemical screening, antibacterial, antifungal, time kill kinetics.

IgE-Mediated Food Allergy; Complications & Implications – Pages 238-240

IgE-Mediated Food Allergy; Complications & Implications
Pages 238-240
Lotfollah Behroo
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.04.4
Published: 31 October 2013

Abstract: IgE-mediated allergic diseases are a major socio-economic problem caused by complex interactions between genes and the environment. In general, the production of IgE and allergic inflammation result from overexpression of T-helper 2[(Th2); IgE-producing T-lymphocyte lineage] type immune responses (type I hypersensitivity reactions) cytokines.

On the average, it is estimated that 30-40% of the world population are now, being affected by one or more allergic condition(s) of which food allergies, for the most part, account for this augmentation and consequently embrace a major portion of the affections(up to 20%). Of course, it should be noted that, the vast majority of reactions due to food allergy do not require hospitalisation and, thus, the true number of distinguished/reported cases is still, likely to be significantly higher.

Virtually, any food protein can cause clinical syndrome in susceptible individual; however, only a small number of foods are responsible for more than 90 percent of allergic food reactions, and most patients are sensitive to fewer than three foods. In children, the most common foods causing reactions are egg, milk, peanuts, soy, wheat, tree nuts and fish. Adults most often react to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish.

Despite allergy to food proteins having been known for many years, there is little information on whether food antigens are increased in these conditions and how much antigen is absorbed as well as, the biological activity of the absorbed allergen. One explanation could be the limitations of sensitive analytic methods for analyzing food proteins in human serum.

On the other part, current curative cares under evaluation include strategies to block IgE or IgE synthesis and to interrupt the Th2-dependent allergic cascade.

Altogether, the thing of noteworthy is that, a determined effort using the best appropriate food allergy diagnostic technics would be certainly required in order to, produce the most clinically effective/safe patient results and, develop any effectual/promising therapeutic approaches for IgE-mediated food allergies owing to their epidemic worldwide increase in prevalence and morbidity.

Keywords: Allergenic Foods, Diagnostic Procedures, Pathomechanisms & Manifestations, Prevention & Treatment Strategies.

Biological Effects of Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles after Peroral Intake – Pages 231-237

Biological Effects of Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles after Peroral Intake
Pages 231-237
N.V. Zaitseva, M.A. Zemlyanova, V.N. Zvezdin and T.I. Akafieva
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.04.3
Published: 31 October 2013

Abstract: Nanodispersed manganese oxide is a unique substance with a high application potential in nanoelectronics and nanooptics. The scientific literature contains little information about the biological effects and toxic action of this substance after it enters a human body. The biological effects were studied in Wistar rats after intragastric administration of manganese oxide for 30 days. The effects included loss in the body mass, activation of oxidation processes (increased level of lipid hydroperoxides, MDA in the blood serum), decrease in the antioxidant activity (inhibited antioxidant activity in the blood serum), damaged hepatocyte membranes (higher serum AST and ALT levels), and protein synthesizing liver function abnormalities (low albumins, high gamma globulins in the blood serum).

Keywords: Manganese oxide, nanoparticles, hepatotoxity,digestive tract.

The Investigation of Benzoic Acid Amounts in Some Foodstuffs Consumed in Ankara Region – Pages 228-230

The Investigation of Benzoic Acid Amounts in Some Foodstuffs Consumed in Ankara Region
Pages 228-230
Gülderen Güzel, Buket Er, Burak Demirhan,Gülderen Yentürand Aysel Bayhan Öktem
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.04.2
Published: 31 October 2013

Abstract: Benzoic acid and its salts are commonly used as a preservatives in food products. Excess amounts of benzoic acid can be harmful to human health. Therefore, the determination of benzoic acid is important in routine analysis of foods. The aim of this study was to determine amounts ofbenzoic acids in some foodstuffs and to evaluate whether these amounts were within the Turkish Food Codex (TFC) values or not.

For this purpose, total number of 80 samples consisting of 20 ketchup (A, B firms), 20 sauce (C, D firms) and 40 jam samples (E, F, G, H, I, J, K firms) were collected from supermarkets, Ankara Region. In this research, spectrophotometric method was used for the quantitative determination of benzoic acid in ketchup, sauce and jam samples. Mean amounts (± S.E) of benzoic acidin ketchupsamples of A and B firm were found as 152.32±18.41 and 1008.21±30.74 mg/kg, respectively. Mean amounts (± S.E) of benzoic acidin sauce samples of C and D firm were determined as 990.85±26.00 and 1148.19±43.62 mg/kg, respectively. Also, mean amounts (± S.E) of benzoic acidwere found as 435.27±26.07mg/kg in 8 jam samples of E firm. Our data revealed that while mean amounts of benzoic acid of A and C firms were found within TFC values, benzoic acid amounts of B and D firms samples were higher than the TFC values. Furthermore, some jam samples of firm E was not found appropriate to TFC.

Keywords: Benzoic acid, food additives, food preservatives, food safety, spectrophotometric method.