Lactic Acid Bacteria in Pharmaceutical Formulations: Presence and Viability of “Healthy Microorganisms” – Pages 66-75

Lactic Acid Bacteria in Pharmaceutical Formulations: Presence and Viability of “Healthy Microorganisms”
Pages 66-75
Mariantonietta Succi, Elena Sorrentino, Tiziana Di Renzo, Patrizio Tremonte, Anna Reale, Luca Tipaldi, Gianfranco Pannella, Antonio Russo and Raffaele Coppola

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.01.10
Published: 18 February 2014

Abstract: Many probiotic formulations are available in the market and are advertised for several preventive or curative roles. The aim of this study was the identification of microorganisms composing different lactic acid bacteria based pharmaceutical formulations and the ascertainment of their ability to survive gastro-intestinal (GI) stresses, the main requisite to produce beneficial effects. For this purpose, viable bacteria were enumerated by plate counts in different media. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR-DGGE) analysis was applied on pure isolates and on crude formulations to confirm the composition in species. Also, crude formulations were subjected to stresses characteristic of the GI tract (GIT) to assess cell survival. Results highlighted concentrations lower than those reported in the labels in almost all the formulations. Moreover, some discrepancies were observed between reported species and those ascertained through the identification, and the use of an erroneous nomenclature was highlighted. The GI stress test revealed that bacteria are strongly injured, and this fact was evidenced by a marked reduction in viable counts after the stress. In conclusion, a widespread number of lactic acid bacteria based formulations are sold as probiotics, but their probiotic requisites are not adequately observed.

Keywords: Probiotic, PCR-DGGE, gastro-intestinal stress, survival, dietary supplement, antidiarrheal drug, lactic acid bacteria.

Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Skins and Seeds of Foreign and Iranian Grapes – Pages 60-65

Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Skins and Seeds of Foreign and Iranian Grapes
Pages 60-65
S. Neshatia, F. Rahmania and H. Doulati-Banehb

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.01.9
Published: 31 January 2014

Abstract: Grape skins and seeds are sources of phenolic compounds that contribute to the sensory characteristics and beneficial bioactivity of wines and other processed foods. Grape seed and skin extracts from foreign, wild and Iranian cultivars were assayed for their antioxidant properties and phenolic compositions. Finally, the results were compared with those of Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Alexandria and V.labrusca. Among the skins of grape cultivars analyzed, those of Lalsiyah contained the highest amount of total phenolics (1067.5 mg 100g-1 gallic acid equivalent of fresh weight) and antiradical activities (0.79 m mol g-1 trolox equivalent of fresh weight). In contrast, Dedeskiramfi contained highest amount of seed total phenolics (2277.3 mg 100 g-1 GAE of fresh weight). The phenolic content of different grapes depends mainly on the grape skin color. The total phenolic content of W8 and W11 with white skins was significantly different from grapes with dark skins. Lalsiyah skin contained the highest amount of total flavonoid, total anthocyanins content, total procyanidin monomers and antiradical activity. Since, total phenolic content is an index of potent antioxidant capability; Lalsiyah will be good resource of antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: Vitis, Grape skin, Grape seed, Phenol, Antiradical activity.

Bioavailability of Magnesium Salts – A Review – Pages 57-59

Bioavailability of Magnesium Salts – A Review
Pages 57-59
Ragnar Rylander

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.01.8
Published: 31 January 2014

Abstract: Background: Magnesium supplementation is of value in several different medical disorders. Several kinds of Mg-salts are commercially available.

Purpose: This review evaluates their bioavailability criteria such as solubility, urinary excretion, and plasma levels of magnesium from studies of different Mg-salts.

Conclusion: Although methodology differences were large, the results consistently demonstrate a better bioavailability for Mg-citrate.

Keywords: Magnesium, citrate, oxide, bioavailability.

Anticancer Effects of Combined γ-Tocotrienol and PPARγ Antagonist Treatment are Associated with a Suppression in Adipogenic Factor Expression – Pages 43-56

Anticancer Effects of Combined γ-Tocotrienol and PPARγ Antagonist Treatment are Associated with a Suppression in Adipogenic Factor Expression
Pages 43-56
Abhita Malaviya, Parash Parajuli and Paul W. Sylvester
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.01.7
Published: 31 January 2014

Abstract: Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to meet the demands of accelerated growth. Glucose is the primary source of energy for cancer cells, but under conditions of high-energy demand lipids and free fatty acids become increasingly important. PPARγ is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and acts to regulate adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. However, in many types of cancer, PPARγ activity is elevated in order to increase production of adipogenic factors [1, 2]. γ-Tocotrienol is an isoform of vitamin E that displays potent anticancer activity [3]. Previous studies have shown that the antiproliferative effects of combined treatment of ã-tocotrienol with PPARγantagonists was associated with a reduction in PPARγ activity, expression of PPARγ and RXR, and suppression in Akt activation in MCF-7 and MBA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells [4]. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of combination treatment with these agents on adipogenic factor levels in rapidly proliferating human breast cancer cells. Western blot and qRT-PCR studies showed that combined treatment of γ-tocotrienol with PPARγantagonists not only suppressed the adipogenic proteins, C/EBPβ and SREBP-1c, but also decreased their target lipogenic enzymes, ap2, FAS, and HMGCoR. However, treatment effects were also observed in PPARγ silenced breast cancer cells, indicating that these effects are mediated through PPARγ-independent mechanism. These findings suggest the combined treatment of γ-tocotrienol with PPARγ antagonist may have potential as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of breast cancer. .

Keywords: γ-Tocotrienol, PPARγ, Breast Cancer, C/EBPβ, SREBP-1c, FASN.

Synthesis of Amphiphilic Blockcopolymer Using Mechanically Produced Macromonomers Possessing Anhydrate as a Terminal Group and Its Application to Polymeric Micelles – Pages 37-42

Synthesis of Amphiphilic Blockcopolymer Using Mechanically Produced Macromonomers Possessing Anhydrate as a Terminal Group and Its Application to Polymeric Micelles
Pages 37-42
Shin-ichi Kondo, Machi Omoto, Yuka Sawama, Yasushi Sasai, Kenjiro Tatematsu, Yukinori Yamauchi and Masayuki Kuzuya

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.01.6
Published: 31 January 2014

Abstract: We have synthesized macromonomers by mechanochemical reaction of poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) and maleic anhydride (MA). The ESR spectrum of the fractured sample of PBzMA and MA showed a broad singlet, which was apparently different from the spectrum of PBzMA mechanoradical. The amphiphilic blockcopolymer was synthesized with macromonomer of PBzMA and amino-terminated polyethyleneglycol (a-methyl-w-aminopropoxy polyoxyethylene, MEPA). The number average molecular weight of the produced amphiphilic blockcopolymer was 33,000. Polymeric micelles were readily prepared from the present amphiphilic blockcopolymer by a dialysis method. The mean diameter of the micelles measured by dynamic light scattering was about 146 nm. It was shown that the present macromonomer mechanically produced can be used for the synthesis of amphiphilic bockcopolymer to form polymeric micelles.

Keywords: Polymeric micelle, macromonomer, maleic anhydride, mechanoradical.

Evaluation of Supplementation of Bittergourd Fermented Beverage to Diabetic Subjects – Pages 27-36

Evaluation of Supplementation of Bittergourd Fermented Beverage to Diabetic Subjects
Pages 27-36
C.S. Devaki and K.S. Premavalli
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.01.5
Published: 31 January 2014

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine diseased condition reflected by higher level of blood glucose which is due to less insulin production, insulin action or both. Bittergourd juice consumption is being traditionally practiced for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in developing country such as India, but not supported through clinical data and highly bitter juice is difficult to drink. Therefore bittergourd fermented beverage with improved nutritional strength and taste was developed and supplemented to diabetic subjects and the evaluation was carried out. The evaluation of the bittergourd fermented beverage, in the first stage was carried out by supplementing the beverage to 30 diabetic subjects as an early morning drink in fasting conditionand the control group was asked to drink water. The fasting and post prandial blood sugar levels were studied and diabetic symptoms were noted. The impact of supplementation of bittergourd fermented beverage on diabetic subjects showed that subjects had significant improvement in reducing the symptoms of diabetes, as well reduced the fasting and post prandial glucose levels by 31% and 25% respectively when compared with the control group. Further 16 diabetic subjects who expressed their consent were given the bittergourd fermented beverage for a period of 5 months and the results of the long duration supplementaion indicated that there was a reduction of fasting blood glucose by 43% and post prandial blood glucose by 41% reflecting advantage of continued consumption of the beverage. In order to understand the direct action of the beverage on blood lipid profile–serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol as measured before and after supplementation showed the changes by 4-7% which is not considerable. However the glycoslated haemoglobin indicated encouraging results after the supplementation showing good control from fair control. Therefore, the study clearly reflected the positive effect of bittergourd fermented beverage in reducing and controlling blood sugar levels.

Keywords: Bittergourd fermented beverage, diabetes, supplementation, biochemical parameters.

Evaluation of Antitumor and Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Extract on Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma Xenografted Mice – Pages 20-26

Evaluation of Antitumor and Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Extract on Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma Xenografted Mice
Pages 12-19
Mukesh Kumar Das, K.Mukkanti, G. Srinivasa Rao, Prafulla Kumar Sahu and L. Silpavathi
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.01.4
Published: 31 January 2014

Abstract: Objective: Indigenous herbs alone or in combination are widely used in Indian system of medicine to treat innumerable ailments since time immemorial. Many strategies has been adopted to enhance anticarcinogenic responses and to establish therapeutic benefits. Poly herbal extracts (PHE), one of the emerging trends of modern medicine, where the assorted active principles work vibrantly to produce a maximum therapeutic activity with minimal toxicity by virtue of its additive, potentative, synergistic, agonistic or antagonistic effects. Though, Withania somniferaOroxylum indicum and Calotropis gigentia are independently established as potent antineoplastic agents, their antitumor and antioxidant perspective in combination is yet to be studied. The proposed study ascertains the assorted antineoplastic and antioxidant potential of the said potent herbs in PHE.

Method: The antitumor potency of the PHE at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight was screened on Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma (EAC) xenografted swiss albino mice. The in-vivo anti-oxidant activity was investigated on the basis of hepatic anti-oxidant enzymes’ levels.

Result: The PHE at the aforementioned dose showed a restoring effect on altered hematological parameters (***P< 0.05 considered to be significant), down turn in ascitic tumor volume and increase in mean survival time. A significant improvement in biochemical parameters (Enzymic antioxidants) was too observed.

Conclusion:The study epitomizes the PHE (400 mg/kg body weight) as a potent anti tumor and anti-oxidant preparation with synergistic effects on EAC bearing mice.

Keywords: Anti-oxidant activities, polyherbal extract (PHE), antitumor activity, EAC.

Effect of Fermentation Process on Ashgourd Juice – Pages 12-19

Effect of Fermentation Process on Ashgourd Juice
Pages 12-19
C.S. Devaki and K.S. Premavalli
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.01.3
Published: 31 January 2014

Abstract: Ashgourd (Benincasa hispida) is valued for its nutritive and medicinal properties and further value addition is being attempted by fermentation process. In the present study, effect of fermentation was studied by using ashgourd as a substrate for nutrients and flavour components formation. Ashgourd fermented beverage was developed by using commercially available wet yeast and the changes in vitamins profile and flavouring compounds were evaluated after the fermentation process and it was compared with the raw ashgourd juice. Fermentation showed positive response indicating that, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine and vitamin C were increased by 76µg, 7µg, 171µg, 459µg and 1.5mg respectively per 100 ml of the beverage in comparison to fresh juice. Fermentation showed many flavour components development in comparison to raw ashgourd juice and the fermentation process had a positive response on volatile component formation. Therefore fermentation improved the formation of nutritional and flavour components.

Keywords: Ashgourd, fermentation, vitamins, flavour compounds.

Inhibitory Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Lipid Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Cells – Pages 6-11

Inhibitory Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Lipid Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Cells
Pages 6-11
Yasuhito Nobushi, Naoki Oikawa, Yuzo Okazaki, Shigetoshi Tsutsumi, Yong Kun Park, Masahiko Kurokawa and Ken Yasukawa
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.01.2
Published: 31 January 2014

Abstract: We here investigated the inhibitory effect of Brazilian propolis on intracellular lipid accumulation. Seven ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis were tested for their inhibitory effect on intracellular lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among the seven Brazilian propolis, the extracts AF-08 and AF-18 had inhibitory effects on intracellular lipid accumulation. In particular, the Brazilian propolis AF-08 exhibited a potential inhibitory effect on intracellular lipid accumulation.Thus, these results suggest that the Brazilian propolis AF-08 contributes to the prevention of metabolic syndrome. In addition, five known triterpenoids were isolated from the Brazilian propolis AF-08: betulonic acid, moronic acid, 3-oxo oleanolic acid, masticadienonic acid, and anwnweizonic acid. Four of the triterpenoids exhibited an inhibitory effect on intracellular lipid accumulation. Thus, these triterpenoids may be important as antiobesity agents that inhibit the metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: Brazilian propolis, 3T3-L1 cells, lipid accumulation, triterpenoids

Association between Visceral Fat and Body Mass Index in Patients with Cirrhosis – Pages 1-5

Association between Visceral Fat and Body Mass Index in Patients with Cirrhosis
Pages 1-5
Kenichiro Yasutake, Motoyuki Kohjima, Yusuke Murata, Manabu Nakashima, Makoto Nakamuta and Munechika Enjoji
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.01.1
Published: 31 January 2014

Abstract: Obesity has recently become a critical problem in patients with cirrhosis in Japan; however, its true prevalence and prognosis remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated abdominal fat areas, including subcutaneous and visceral fat areas (VFA), in 49 cirrhotic patients and analyzed the association between VFA and body mass index (BMI). Fat areas were examined by computed tomography. Patients were classified as somatometric obesity and visceral obesity based on their BMI (cut-off value: 25 kg/m2) and VFA (cut-off value: 100 cm2), respectively. The mean BMI was 23.5±3.3 kg/m2 (<25 kg/m2, 35 cases; ≥25 kg/m2, 14 cases) and mean VFA was 108.5±118.8 cm2 (<100 cm2, 25 cases; ≥100 cm2, 24 cases). Thirteen out of 14 patients with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 had a VFA ≥100 cm2, and 11 of 35 patients with BMI <25 kg/m2 had a VFA ≥100 cm2. Thus, almost half of the cirrhotic patients in this study had visceral obesity, including a high proportion of patients with BMI <25 kg/m2. These results suggest that visceral obesity, as well as BMI, should be considered in patients with cirrhosis, and individual nutritive management regimes should be designed according to the results.

Keywords: Liver cirrhosis, abdominal fat, visceral obesity, chronic hepatitis, malnutrition, overnourishment.