Estimation Spatial Distribution of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) in Groundwater of Tando Muhammad Khan Pakistan – Pages 162-169

Estimation Spatial Distribution of Sodium AdsorptionRatio (SAR) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) in Groundwater of Tando Muhammad Khan Pakistan
Pages 162-169
Benish Nawaz Merani, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Mahvish Jabeen Channa, Aasia Akbar Panhwarand Aijaz Hussain Soomro
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.02.12
Published: 14 May 2014

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality in an area with agriculture as main use. Water samples for determining the water quality were collected in one liter polyethylene bags by observing standard sample collection method. It was ensured that sample collection sites must be at least 500 feet away from each other.

Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) were determined from the collected water and it was observed that in Tando Muhammad Khan taluka, the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) in the samples ranged from 11.06 to 53.29, the highest (53.29) SAR was in UC Tando Saindad, while lowest (11.06) in the sample collected from UC-2 of Tando Muhammad Khan. The Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) in 36 collected groundwater samples ranged from 0.61 to 5.15 meq/l, the highest (5.15 meq/l) was in UC Tando Saindad, while lowest (0.61) in the sample collected from UC-3 of Tando Muhammad Khan.

It was concluded that the SAR levels of groundwater samples indicated an alarming situation and most of the ground-water samples had SAR (<7.5 meq/l) and RSC (<2.0 meq/l) above permissible limits of WHO for agriculture use therefore, it is not suitable for agriculture as well as drinking.

Keywords: Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Ground water.

Effects of Long-Term Administration of Freeze-Dried Chokeberry Juice to Rats – Pages 154-161

Effects of Long-Term Administration of Freeze-Dried Chokeberry Juice to Rats
Pages 154-161
Teresa Adamska, Małgorzata Ewertowska, Ewa Ignatowicz, Małgorzata Kujawska, Marcin Kidoń, Arleta Matuszewska, Jan Oszmiański, Hanna Szaefer and Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.02.11
Published: 14 May 2014

Abstract: Polyphenolics can act as prooxidants leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and electrophilic metabolites which bind to DNA, protein and glutathione. The aim of the present study was to evaluate potential adverse effects of the long-term dietary administration of freeze-dried chokeberry juice to rats.

Groups of 8 males and 8 females were exposed via diet to 0; 2; 6; 10 g juice/kg feed for 90 days. Mean food consumption and mean body weight gain of treated animals were comparable with controls. Changes in some hematological parameters were sporadic and non-dose-responsive. Several statistically significant changes in clinical chemistry parameters were considered no toxicologically relevant since they were of small magnitude and lacked correlating findings in histopathology. Histopathological examination did not reveal any changes that could be attributed to chokeberry juice intake. Determination of oxidative damage markers in the liver demonstrated no damage of lipids, proteins and DNA. Chokeberry juice intake improved antioxidant status of rats as evidenced by a decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation, an increase in reduced glutathione concentration and an increase in some antioxidant enzymes activity.

It could be concluded that freeze-dried chokeberry juice is safe at doses tested and can be used as a component of food supplements.

Keywords: Chokeberry, antioxidant activity, hematology, clinical chemistry.

Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, Docking Studies and QSAR Screening of 4-amino-benzenesulfonamides/N-acetyl 4-amino-benzenesulfonamide Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents – Pages 135-153

Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, Docking Studies and QSAR Screening of 4-amino-benzenesulfonamides/N-acetyl 4-amino-benzenesulfonamide Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents
Pages 135-153
Ajeet, Laxmi Tripathi and Arvind Kumar
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.02.10
Published: 30 April 2014

Abstract: A series of substituted 4-amino-benzenesulfonamides / N-acetyl-4-amino-benzenesulfonamide were designed & synthesized keeping in view the structural requirements of pharmacophore and were evaluated for in-silicoantimicrobial activity. For establishing the structure, spectral characterization like FT-IR, 1H NMR, GC-MS and elemental analysis (CHNS) has been performed. The antimicrobial activity of the titled compounds was assessed using in-silico studies (QSAR screening and Docking). It was carried out for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and to study the binding properties of drugs with molecular targets. Titled compounds exhibited good binding properties with molecular target. It could be concluded that molecular target responsible for the antimicrobial activity of substituted 4-amino-benzenesulfonamides / N-acetyl-4-amino-benzenesulfonamides may be pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A.

Keywords: Sulfonamide, in-silico studies, statistics, quantitative structure activity relationship.

Response to Ustekinumab in a Patient with Severe Psoriasis when Adalimumab Dose Escalation Fails – Pages 131-134

Response to Ustekinumab in a Patient with Severe Psoriasis when Adalimumab Dose Escalation Fails
Pages 131-134
Joaquín Borrás-Blasco, Luisa Obon, Isabel Hernández, Dolores-Elvira Casterá, Alejandro Gonzalez\, F. Javier Abadand J. Dolores Rosique-Robles
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.02.9
Published: 30 April 2014

Abstract: Objectives: To report a case of response to ustekinumab in a patient with severe psoriasis when adalimumab dose escalation fail.

Case Description: A 35-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed as having psoriasis. He was started on methotrexate followed cyclosporine. Despite these treatments, the patient experienced an abrupt deterioration of his psoriasis [PASI 35]. The patient started treatment with adalimumab: initial dose of 80mg followed by 40mg in week 2. At week 3 he continued on adalimumab 40mg/two weeks with significant reduction of psoriasis. After 8 months of adalimumab therapy, he referred that adalimumab was effective only during the first week of treatment. The patient gave his written informed consent for adalimumab dose intensification. He started adalimumab 40mg/week, with an improvement of psoriasis. After 7 months of adalimumab dose intensification, the psoriasis worsened [PASI score =25 and CDLQI score 20]. We discontinued adalimumab and started therapy with ustekinumab, 45mg subcutaneously, was administered at weeks 0, 4 and every 12 weeks. The clinical response was impressive; at week 12 a PASI 90 response was achieved while the CDLQI score fell to the scale of 7. Efficacy was maintained after a 12 months of ustekinumab therapy.

Conclusions: This case report provides valuable insight into the efficacy and tolerability of ustekinumab in a patient with severe psoriasis when adalimumab dose escalation fails. To our knowledge this is the first case published to date that describes the clinical efficacy of ustekinumab when adalimumab intensification dose escalation fails.

Keywords: Ustekinumab, adalimumab, psoriasis, dose escalation.

Investigation for the Effects of Omega 3 Fatty Acid and Glutamine-L-Alanine on Morbidity and Mortality in the Critically ILL Patients after Major Abdominal Surgery – Pages 124-130

Investigation for the Effects of Omega 3 Fatty Acid and Glutamine-L-Alanine on Morbidity and Mortality in the Critically ILL Patients after Major Abdominal Surgery
Pages 124-130
Kaya Bulut Gulsen, Ozgultekin Asu, Turan Guldem, Isıtmangil Gulbu, Terzioglu Ufuk, Kurt Nurettin and Ekinci Osman
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.02.8
Published: 30 April 2014

Abstract: Background & Objectives: This study investigated the effects for the addition of omega 3 fatty acids and glutamine-L-alanine to the standard enteral and/or parenteral nutrition regimen on infection and mortality in the critically ill patients after major abdominal surgery.

Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, single center study. A total of 43 patients (age range: 18-85 years), who were in the critical care unit after major abdominal surgery, were included. Patients were divided into two groups according to simple randomized selection [Control group, n=20; Study Group, n=23 (omega3 fatty acids and glutamine-L-alanine)] and were monitored for 21 days. Patients were examined for the assessment of APACHE II Score and existence of ALI (acute lung injury)/ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) requiring mechanical ventilation. In addition to standard enteral or parenteral nutrition, patients in the study group were given parenteral pharmaconutrition products for 10 days postoperatively. Groups were compared for the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of stay in the intensive care unit and hospitalization, and mortality. Laboratory parameters including CRP, TNFα, IL6, IL8, nitrogen balance, albumin, and total lymphocyte count were recorded.

Results:Although the mean APACHE score was higher in study group in which patients received omega-3 fatty acids and glutamine-L-alanine support, the clinical infection rate seemed to decrease insignificantly.

Conclusions: A clinically decreased rate of infection was observed in patients with a high APACHE II score, or who received omega-3 fatty acids, glutamine-L-alanine, are required to be administered more selectively and in larger patient groups in different doses and in combination protocols in accordance with the current pharmaconutritional support and in different timing combinations, including preoperative period.

Keywords: Omega-3, glutamine- L-alanine, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, ICU.

Development and Shelf Stability of Natural Fibre Rich Retort Pouch Ready to Eat Products – Pages 114-123

Development and Shelf Stability of Natural Fibre Rich Retort Pouch Ready to Eat Products
Pages 114-123
C.R. Vasudish, S. Nataraj and K.S. Premavalli
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.02.7
Published: 30 April 2014

Abstract: The new frontier in the food research is the role of non nutritive components in human health. In the recent past, the importance of dietary fibre in the diet has been increased as a functional ingredient which has opened up a potential market for fibre rich products. The by products available during processing of plant foods are considered as promising source of functional fibres. The aim of the present study was to develop fibre rich products using the natural fibre such as ashgourd (Benincasa hispida) fibre, with high soluble fibre fraction. Ready-to-eat fibre rich Bisi bele bath and vegetable pulav were developed with the optimization of fibre using statistical design software. Fibre, fat and spice mixtures were independent variables with the other components as fixed factors. Since the product acceptance is more dependent on volatile compound form intern the flavour, as well as depends on the test, appearance, colour, texture which are the sensory attributes, total volatiles and sensory attributes were selected as responses. While in the fibre rich vegetable pulav water, fibre and spice mixtures were the independent variables. Both the products were showing good acceptability i.e. in the case of bisi bele bhath 7.1 and in the case of vegetable pulav 6.5 on a 9 point hedonic scale after 6 months of storage at room temperature. The dietary fibre profile of bisi bele bhath was 1.1% soluble fibre and 4.4% insoluble fibre while vegetable pulav had 6.2% insoluble and 1.54% soluble fibre fraction. The products were safe and had an established shelf life of 6 months.

Keywords: Natural fibre, RSM, Retort processing, dietary fibre, sensory analysis.

Diabetes Self-Care Activities (Diet & Exercise) and Adherence to Treatment: A Hospital –Based Study among Diabetic Male Patients in Taif, Saudi Arabia – Pages 106-113

Diabetes Self-Care Activities (Diet & Exercise) and Adherence to Treatment: A Hospital –Based Study among Diabetic Male Patients in Taif, Saudi Arabia
Pages 106-113
Abubaker Ibrahim Elbur
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.02.6
Published: 30 April 2014

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder that requires constant adherence to certain lifestyle measures and medication to achieve good glycaemic control. The main aim of this study was to measure adherence to self- care practices (diet, exercise and medication) among diabetic patients and to identify predicators of adherence. A hospital-based study was conducted in King Abdul Aziz Specialized Hospital, Taif, KSA during June – October 2013. Convenient method of sampling was adopted, whereby all adult (> 18 years) male diabetic patients were recruited. Data was collected through face-to-face interview method using structured questionnaire. Data was processed using the software Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) (Version 21). Overall 378 patients were eligible; 191 (50.5%) > 50 years old and nearly two third had secondary or university education. Overweight and obese patients constituted more than two third of the respondents. Generally adherence to diet, exercise was found to be low. Multivariate analysis showed that only presence of other diseases {adjusted OR 2.8 (1.3-6.0), P = 0.011} and marital status {adjusted OR 3.4 (1.0-11.7), P = 0.049} were found to be significantly associated with adherence to diet.Patients’ age was the only predicator for patients’ commitment to practicing exercise {adjusted OR 4.7(1.3-17.8), P = 0.020)}. Non adherence to medication was found to 80.6 % (n=305). In conclusion non-adherence to the studied self-care practices was suboptimal. Proper and continuous health education accompanied with patients’ motivation may improve patients’ adherence.

Keywords: Diabetes, self-care activities, diet, exercise, medication, adherence.

Investigation of Physical Quality Characteristics of Dry Land and Wet Land Wheat Varieties – Pages 100-105

Investigation of Physical Quality Characteristics of Dry Land and Wet Land Wheat Varieties
Pages 100-105
Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Benish Nawaz Merani, Aijaz Hussain Somro, Liaquat Jamali and Aasia Akbar Panhwar
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.02.5
Published: 30 April 2014

Abstract: The aim of this research study was to determine the physical characteristics of some commercial wheat varieties of dry land and wet land grown in Sindh province. Four irrigated land (Inqulab, TD-1, Kherman, and Sarsabz) wheat varieties and four drought tolerant (TK-3, Marvi, PK-85, Sassi) wheat varieties were collected from their respective areas and subjected to physical analysis.

The physical characteristics of dry land and wet land wheat varieties differed significantly. It was observed that dry land wheat varieties higher in length (7.29mm) as compared to wet land wheat varieties (7.05mm). Whereas, wet land wheat varieties higher in breadth (4.97mm), thickness(3.86mm), volume (59.7mm3), geometric mean (10.66mm) and sphericity (1.72%) than those of dry land wheat varieties with breadth (4.15mm), thickness (3.25mm), volume (45.3mm3), geometric mean (9.34mm) and sphericity (1.35%). It is also observed that TKW (47g) of wet land wheat varieties were higher than those of dry land wheat varieties TKW (40.2g). Moreover, falling number (419sec) were recorded higher in wet land wheat varieties than those of dry land wheat varieties falling number (387sec). While, dry land wheat varieties increased in its hardness (55.3%) than those of wet land wheat varieties hardness (51.3%). This study reveals that availability of water and environmental factors are directly related with the nutritional characteristics of wheat varieties. This study revealed that due to more moisture content in wet land wheat varieties TKW, breadth, thickness, volume, geometric mean, falling number and sphericity were recorded as higher than dry land wheat varieties. However, Length and hardness were observed higher in dry land wheat varieties which resulted in better yield of flour as compared with wet land wheat varieties.

Keywords: Dry land, wet land, wheat varieties, physical characteristics.

Effect of Selected Oligosaccharides on the Viability and Fermentation Kinetics of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in Cultured Milk – Pages 92-99

Effect of Selected Oligosaccharides on the Viability and Fermentation Kinetics of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in Cultured Milk
Pages 92-99
Seah Young Ng, Loo Wee Chia, Birdie Scott Padam and Fook Yee Chye
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.02.4
Published: 30 April 2014

Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the effect of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on the growth and fermentation kinetics of Lactobacillus casei LC-01 (LC) and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 (LA) in cultured milk. Two commercially available FOS with different degree of polymerization (DP), namely Fibrulose F97 (DP, 2-20) and Fibruline Instant (DP, 3-60) were used at 4% (w/v) and 8% (w/v) respectively during fermentation and storage of cultured milk. Physicochemical properties and acidification kinetic of milk were measured throughout the fermentation. The concentration and DP values of the FOS do not seem to affect the growth of both probiotics during fermentation. Nevertheless, the pH and total soluble solid of milk fermented by both probiotics supplemented with FOS decreased tremendously during fermentation. It is noted that the percentage of lactic acid produced in L. acidophilus is higher than L. casei owing to the metabolic characteristic of the strain. The kinetic of maximum acidification rate Vmax of cultured milk was significantly higher with the addition of FOSs at 4%. However, FOS with lower DP seemed to enhance (p<0.05) the stability of LA in cultured milk during cold storage, but no significant effect on LC. The results of this work indicate that FOS could significantly improve the survival of probiotics in cultured milk especially during refrigerated storage.

Accuracy Assessment of Classical Isothermal Experiment in Drug Storage Period Studies – Page 88-91

Accuracy Assessment of Classical Isothermal Experiment in Drug Storage Period Studies
Pages 88-91
Jiafu Feng, Zhigui Zhang and Dixiao Yang
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.02.3
Published: 30 April 2014

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to assessment the effect of change of dissolved oxygen concentration on accuracy of classical isothermal experiment in ascorbic acid solution storage period studies. The experiments were performed at temperatures 35 ˚C, 40 ˚C, 45 ˚C and 50 ˚C, the apparent rate constant (kA) and the adjusted apparent rate constant (kA,A) were determined, respectively. By plotting lnkA and lnkA,A against 1/T resulted two lines, respectively. Then the apparent rate constant at 25 ˚C, kA,25˚C=5.168×10-4(mol×L1×h1) and the adjusted apparent rate constant at 25 ˚C, kA,A,25˚C=5.157×10-4(mol×L1×h1), was extrapolated, respectively. Both the calculated storage period of the experimented ascorbic acid solution were all 55h by kA,25˚C and kA,A,25˚Crespectively. The results suggested that the change of dissolved oxygen concentration has no effect on the accuracy of classical isothermal experiment in ascorbic acid solution storage period studies.

Keywords: Classical isothermal experiment, accuracy, ascorbic acid, dissolved oxygen, storage period.