Determination of Ground Water Quality for Agriculture and Drinking Purpose in Sindh, Pakistan
Benish Nawaz Merani, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Shafi Muhammad Nizamani, Aasia Akbar Panhwar and Mahvish Jabeen Channa
Published: 30 April 2014
Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the quality of ground water from different Talukas of district Tando Muhammad Khan for drinking and agriculture purpose. Water samples for determining the water quality were collected in one liter polyethylene bags by observing standard sample collection method. It was ensured that sample collection sites must be at least 500 feet away from each other.Physical and chemical parameters of ground and surface water samples such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Turbidity, Colour, Taste, Odour, Alkalinity as CaCO3, Bicarbonate (HCO3), Carbonate (CO3), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Hardness, Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Chloride (Cl), Phosphate (PO4), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Arsenic (As) were determined.
The study clarified that pH and odour was within the permissible limits in majority of samples whereas, Arsenic (As),Hardness, Sodium (Na),Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Taste, Chloride (Cl) and turbidity were beyond the permissible limits set by WHO.
The groundwater status in Tando Muhammad Khan district, TDS in 50% samples, Chloride in 54.16% samples, Sulphate in 44.8% samples, Calcium in 38.5% samples, Sodium in 54.16% samples, hardness in 21.88% samples were beyond the WHO’s permissible limits for human consumption.
Keywords: Ground water, physical composition, chemical composition.
Gastrografin Enemas for Treatment of Distal Intestinal Obstruction Syndrome in Children and Adults with Cystic Fibrosis
Mahmoud Zahra, Carla Frederick, Richard Thomas, Vaseem Iqbal and Drucy Borowitz
Published: 30 April 2014
Abstract: Background: Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) presents in both children and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). When DIOS is characterized by bilious vomiting or when washout therapy with polyethylene glycol has failed, radio-opaque hypertonic enema (ROHE) is recommended as the next therapeutic option. Techniques for use of ROHE in infants with meconium ileus are described in the literature but have not been reported for children and adults with DIOS.
Methods: We described the technique, volume, and results of Gastrografin enema usage for DIOS in children and adults with CF at our institution between 2006 and 2011. We reviewed the incidence of DIOS reported to the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) between 2001 and 2011
Results: The mean amount of dilute Gastrografin used was 1220ml or 31 ml/kg, (range 240 – 3500ml; 19 – 59 ml/kg). Three patients had incomplete resolution after an initial enema and underwent repeat enemas on consecutive days. The incidence of DIOS in the CFFPR increased from 223 to 498 cases in children <18 years and 380 to 813 cases in adults >18 years over the ten year period studied.
Conclusions: Large volume radio-opaque hypertonic enemas can resolve episodes of acute DIOS and can be repeated on subsequent days if needed, without complications. The incidence of DIOS reported to the United States CF Foundation Patient Registry has increased in both children and adults over the past decade.
Keywords: Therapeutic intervention, radio-opaque hypertonic enema, DIOS.