Studies on the Nutritional Characteristics of some Commercial Wheat Varieties of Dry Land and Wet Land Grown in Sindh Province – Pages 263-267

Studies on the Nutritional Characteristics of some Commercial Wheat Varieties of Dry Land and Wet Land Grown in Sindh Province
Pages 263-267
Aasia Akbar Panhwar, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Benish Nawaz Mirani, Mahvish Jabeen Channa and Samia Khanzada
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.04.5
Published: 11 November 2014

Abstract: The present research was carried out to investigate the nutritional characteristics of some commercial wheat varieties of dry land and wet land grown in Sindh province during 2011-12 at Institute of Food Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. Four irrigated land (Inqulab, TD-1, Sarsabz and kherman) wheat varieties and four dry land (TK-3, Marvi, PK-85, Sassi) wheat varieties were collected from their respective areas and subjected to chemical analysis.

The bio-chemical characteristics of dry land and wet land wheat varieties differed significantly. Chemical analysis indicate that moisture (13.06%), protein (14.83%), dry gluten (9.03%), wet gluten (35.66%), gluten index (73.8%), starch (75.83%) and zeleny (68.66%) contents were recorded higher in wet land wheat varieties than those of dry land wheat varieties with moisture (12.66%), protein (11.9%), dry gluten (8.2%), wet gluten (32.93%), gluten index (64.53%), starch (68.66%) and zeleny (58.33%). This study reveals that availability of water and environmental factors are directly related with the nutritional characteristics of wheat varieties. This study clarify that wet land wheat varieties are better in the context of nutritional qualities.

Keywords: Nutritional characteristics, starch content, zeleny content, protein, gluten index.

Improved Serotonergic Tone Contributes to the Mechanism of Action of St John’s Wort in Nicotine Withdrawn Mice – Pages 255-262

Improved Serotonergic Tone Contributes to the Mechanism of Action of St John’s Wort in Nicotine Withdrawn Mice
Pages 255-262
Shabana Saeed and Samina Bano
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.04.4
Published: 11 November 2014

Abstract: Present study aims to investigate the acute effects of St John’s Wort (SJW) on nicotine withdrawal syndrome and serotonergic hypo activity in mice. Adult male Albino mice weighing 20-25g were housed 6 per cage under light and dark conditions at 22±3oC and maintained on lab chow and water ad libitum under standard housing conditions. Nicotine was administered at the concentrations of 3.08mg (1mg of free base) in 100 ml of drinking water for 4 weeks. Nicotine withdrawal was achieved by substituting nicotine containing water with drinking water. Nicotine withdrawn (NW) mice were evaluated for locomotor activity and abstinence signs at 72 h. Whole brain tryptophan (TRP). 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured using high performance liquid chromatography connected to fluorescence detector. St John’s Wort (SJW) (500mg/kg) was given intraperitonially 3 h prior to completion of 72 h of nicotine withdrawal period. Behavioral analysis in SJW administered NW mice showed attenuation in nicotine abstinence signs (shaking, scratching, chewing and facial tremors) and locomotor activity when compared with respective controls. NW mice showed decrease in plasma TRP, brain TRP and 5-HT concentrations while increase in 5-HT turnover and corticosterone concentrations as compared to respective controls. SJW administrated NW mice showed decrease in corticosterone levels and 5-HT turnover while plasma TRP, brain TRP and 5-HT synthesis were increased when compared with similarly treated saline injected group. Our findings warrant SJW’s therapeutic efficacy to alleviate nicotine withdrawal associated depression by virtue of its ability to improve serotonergic activity by increasing brain TRP, 5-HT concentrations and decreased turnover.

Keywords: Nicotine withdrawal, Mice, Tryptophan, 5-HT, St John’s Wort.

Nanotechnology-An Overview – Pages 246-254

Nanotechnology-An Overview
Pages 246-254
A. Krishna Sailaja, A. Saritha Reddy, V. Sreelola, P. Swathi and Ch. Vineela
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.04.3
Published: 11 November 2014

Abstract: Nanotechnology provides a wide technological platform for varying range of potential applications. Nanotechnology is the design, characterization, synthesis and application of materials, structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale, 1-100nm. Nanotechnology is being employed in the pharmaceutical field to improve drug solubility, bioavailability and delivery to various sites of action. To overcome the limitations in cellular uptake of highly active molecules, the use of nano carriers is the focus of modern drug delivery. Strategies like Nanosponges for enhancing solubility of poorly water soluble drugs, Nanocantilevers for detection of biomarkers of cancer, Quantum dots for medical imaging, Dendrimers for photodynamic therapy and gene transfection, Solid lipid nanoparticles as cosmeceuticals are employed. Nanodevices like respirocytes and microbivore are used for temporary replacement for natural blood cells in case of emergencies. In this review, therapeutic applications of various nano-structured materials have been discussed.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanostructure materials, Nanodevices, Biomarkers.

Improvement of Weight and Body Composition in a Group of Women through a Weight Management Program Using Food Supplements with or without a Hypocaloric Diet – Pages 238-245

Improvement of Weight and Body Composition in a Group of Women through a Weight Management Program Using Food Supplements with or without a Hypocaloric Diet
Pages 238-245
Magdalena Rafecas, Laura-Isabel Arranz, Mireia García, Miguel-Ángel Canela and DIECA Group
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.04.2
Published: 11 November 2014

Abstract: Overweight is an increasing health problem characterised as a higher than normal body weight due to an abnormal increase in body fat. Body weight adequacy is categorized by using body mass index (BMI), however other parameters such as fat mass (FM), waist circumference (Wci) or waist to hip ratio, are relevant. Ideally, body composition should be calculated initially to evaluate changes during a dietary intervention of weight loss. Hunger experience is another parameter to take into account. The aim of this study was to assess the improvement of weight and body composition through the use of food supplements to control hunger, with and without a hypocaloric diet prescription. 252 women who wanted to lose weight were recruited in the program and splitted into two groups and were monitored for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index, fat mass, waist and hip circumference) were taken. The mean age was of 36.84±7.29 and most of them were within overweight or obesity values for BMI, FM, Wci and hip circumference. After 8 weeks, both groups got significant results, achieving not only weight loss but also reduction in body mass index, fat mass, and waist and hip circumferences. However, as expected, improvements were better in FS+diet than in FS group. There is a need to tackle overweight and obesity individually, taking into account the personal characteristics of the patient. Food supplements may be useful to manage hunger and professional individualised assessment is critical to succeed.

Keywords: Overweight, body mass index, anthropometric measures, food supplements, hunger, hypocaloric diet.

Amphotericin B-Deoxycholate is as Effective and Safe as the Costly Amphotericin B Colloidal Dispersion in the Treatment of Paediatric Invasive Fungal Infections – Pages 228-237

Amphotericin B-Deoxycholate is as Effective and Safe as the Costly Amphotericin B Colloidal Dispersion in the Treatment of Paediatric Invasive Fungal Infections
Pages 228-237
Jiafu Feng, Zhigui Zhang and Dixiao Yang
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2014.04.04.1
Published: 11 November 2014

Abstract: Amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBD) and amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (AmBCD) are the two most commonly used antifungals for invasive fungal infections (IFI) among paediatric patients. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the efficacy, adverse effects and cost-effectiveness between AmBD and AmBCD in the treatment of IFI among paediatric patients admitted at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC).

Methods: Secondary data analysis of the medical records of all paediatric patients with IFI was obtained and data extraction was performed for patients admitted between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2011. Efficacy of treatment was determined and reports of adverse effects were noted.

Results: Between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2011, thirty-five patients received AmBD-only treatment and five patients received AmBCD-only treatment. Twenty-four patients were males and the mean age was 7.18 (SD 4.59) years. On average, the AmBCD treatment course was significantly more expensive than AmBD (p<0.01). Patients on AmBD had more adverse effects compared to those on AmBCD. However, there was no significant difference in severe adverse events between these groups. There was no significant difference in efficacy between these groups, in terms of IFI resolution or treatment duration.

Conclusion: These findings imply that the use of AmBD instead of AmBCD in IFI treatment among paediatric patients is justified, given its cost-effectiveness, as there was no significant difference in the efficacy or in the incidence of severe adverse effects between these two treatments.

Keywords: Amphotericin B, Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion, Amphotericin B deoxycholate, Liposomal Amphotericin B, Paediatrics Invasive Fungal Infections (IFI), Antifungals.