Cost Savings of Reduced Constipation Rates Attributed to Increased Dietary Fibre Intakes in Europe: A Decision-Analytic Model – Pages 14-23

Cost Savings of Reduced Constipation Rates Attributed to Increased Dietary Fibre Intakes in Europe: A Decision-Analytic Model
Pages 14-23
Jordana K. Schmier, Vanessa Perez, Susan Cloran, Carolyn Hulme-Lowe and Kathryn O’Sullivan
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.01.3
Published: 28 January 2015

Abstract: Mounting evidence shows that functional constipation contributes to increased healthcare utilization, impairment in quality of life, and lost work productivity. Among those with functional constipation, relatively small dietary changes may alleviate symptoms and result in considerable constipation-related healthcare cost savings. The study objective was to estimate the economic impact of increased dietary fibre consumption on direct medical costs associated with constipation from a payer perspective. A decision-analytic spreadsheet model was created to perform the analysis. Literature searches identified sources for input parameters, including prevalence of functional constipation, dietary fibre intakes, proportion of the population meeting recommended intakes, and the percentage that would be expected to benefit from increased dietary fibre consumption. The model assumes that 25% of adults make no change in fibre intake, 25% increase intake by 3 g/day, 15% increase intake by 4 g/day, 25% increase intake by 5 g/day, and 10% increase intake by 11 g/day. A dose-response analysis of published data was conducted to estimate the percent reduction in constipation prevalence per 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre intake. Annual direct medical costs for constipation were derived from the literature and updated to 2014. Sensitivity analyses explored robustness of the model. Under base case assumptions, annual cost savings were estimated at ₤127,037,383 in the United Kingdom, €8,791,992 / ₤7,244,513 in Ireland, and €121,699,804 in Spain. Increasing dietary fibre consumption is associated with considerable cost savings, with these estimates being conservative given the exclusion of lost productivity costs in the model.

Keywords: Constipation, public health, prevention, costs and cost analysis, dietary fibre.

Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation on Nutritional and Biochemical Parameters of Under Five Years Malnourished Children from an Orphanage in Douala, Cameroon – Pages 5-13

Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation on Nutritional and Biochemical Parameters of Under Five Years Malnourished Children from an Orphanage in Douala, Cameroon
Pages 5-13
Kana Sop Marie Modestine, Namadi Muhamadu, Tetanye Ekoe and Gouado Inocent
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.01.2
Published: 28 January 2015

Abstract: Malnutrition is the underlying cause of 50% of morbidity and mortality in the under-five age group. Its frequencies have been increasing in young Cameroon children during the past three decades (stunting ≥ 38%; anemia ≥ 58%; Zinc ≥ 69% and vitamin A ≥ 38%)

We carried out a prospective study to assess the supplementation effect of Spirulina platensis on moderate and mild malnutrition on children under five years old. Seven children (4-5 years) were enrolled in this study. Children were enrolled in nutritional rehabilitation for 25 days. Each child received 8g of supplement daily, 4g in the morning and 4g in the evening. Anthropometric and haematologic parameters were measured before and after rehabilitation.

Mild and moderate malnutrition, wasting and underweight was seen in 4 children anthropometrically (no child was stunted) and haematologically in all 7 children before rehabilitation started. The children were weighted four times (First week at enrollment (W1), week 2 (W2), Week 3 (W3), Week 4 (W4)). After 25 days, a significant gain in weight was observed and varying from 17.21 ± 2.00Kg (W1) to 18.45 ± 2.07Kg (W2) and from 18.143 ± 1.77Kg (W3) to 18.67 ± 1.93Kg (W4) with their respective P- values at 0.02 (W2), 0.02 (W3) and 0.04 (W4) after rehabilitation. The following biomarkers and their constants also showed a significant variation: calcium (73.91 ± 16.89mg/L vs 88.41 ± 14.83mg/L (p = 0.03), mean cell volume (86.14 ± 4.38 fl vs 83.86 ± 4.83 fl (p = 0.04) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (32.10 ± 0.38 g/dL vs 34.27 ± 3.35 g/dL (p = 0.03) respectively before and after rehabilitation. Other biomarkers (proteins, haemoglobin, haematocrit, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells, neutrophiles, eosinophiles, basophiles, monocytes, lymphocytes) had also increased in non a significant manner.

The study showed that spirulina platensis impact positively in the fight against malnutrition by improving weight and raising the blood content of biomarkers due to its high content of proteins (60-70%) and pigments.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Spirulina platensis, Supplementation, Rehabilitation, Biomarkers, children.

Toxicity of Sanguinaria canadensis L. as Compared to Aloe vera L. against Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Using the Probit Methodology – Pages 1-4

Toxicity of Sanguinaria canadensis L.as Compared to Aloe vera L. against Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Using the Probit Methodology
Pages 1-4
Mahwish Ahmed Karim, Ghazala H. Rizwani, Afaq Ahmed Sidddiqui, Muhammad Farhanullah Khan and Mansoor Ahmed
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.01.1
Published: 28 January 2015

Abstract: Toxicity study of Sanguinaria canadensis L. was determined as compared to Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Upon statistical analysis of obtained toxicity bioassay data through the method of probits, LC50 of Sanguinaria canadensis was estimated as 0.021 mg/ml, with (95% C.I : 0.0091-0.0485) whereas Aloe vera was found to be almost non-toxic showing relatively higher LC50 that is, 180783.7 mg/ml.

These results show that Aloe vera that is being used widely as an herbal medicine throughout the world, could be used safely for other various expected purposes for instance IPM etc. where the excessive amount is anticipated to drain into the sea ecosystem ultimately.

Keywords: Sanguinaria canadensis L., Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f., invitro toxicity assay, Artemia salina, Probit, LC50.