Prevalence of Depression in Animal Model of High Fat Diet Induced Obesity – Pages 208-215

Prevalence of Depression in Animal Model of High Fat Diet Induced Obesity
Pages 208-215
Muhammad Farhan, Hamna Rafiq and Hira Rafi

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.03.6
Published: 25 August 2015

Abstract: The prevalence of obesity is substantially increased in developing countries and it is considerably associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), dyslipidemia, and hypertension. These symptoms are clustered to form metabolic syndrome. In accordance with the Researchers opinion, obese people are more likely to suffer from depression, a mental affliction that appears due to chronic stress, disturbs thoughts, behavior, and feelings. It has been addressed that the physiological impairments which are undergoing due to obesity can affect the metabolic activities which in turn give impact on brain and affect it’s functioning, because obesity itself seems to constitute a chronic stressful state thus, exacerbates the risk of depression. Present study intended to illuminate the anticipated links between obesity and stress. To make possible the study, animal model of obesity was accomplished by subjecting the Albino wistar rats with energy-dense diet (high fat diet) for 5 weeks; later on, chronic mild stress paradigm was implemented along with high fat feeding for 2 weeks. As expected, high fat feeding increased the adiposity in rodents. Obese animals presented the depressive symptoms more prominent than normal fat feeding rats. Present findings suggest that obesity could increase the depressive symptoms potentially involve in the recruitment of depression.

Keywords: High fat diet, Obesity, CMS, Depression.

Lycopene Potentiates the Protective Effect of Aliskiren on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Rats – Pages 199-207

Lycopene Potentiates the Protective Effect of Aliskiren on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Rats
Pages 199-207
Vinay Kumar, Surama Chauhan, K. Nagarajan and Bhulan Kumar Singh
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.03.5
Published: 25 August 2015

Abstract: Objective: The present study was designed to explore the combination therapy of lycopene with aliskiren in doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy.

Methods: Cardiomyopathy was induced in Wistar rats by i.p. administration of Doxorubicin (DOX) (15 mg/kg, single dose). Haemodynamic parameters (Systolic, diastolic blood pressure, Heart rate), heart weight, heart weight/body weight ratio, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), oxidative stress (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes (Glutathione, SOD and catalase) as well as transmission electron microscopein heart tissue were carried out.

Results: There was significant increase in blood pressure, serum, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), oxidative stress (TBARS) and significant decrease in heart weight, heart weight/body weight ratio and antioxidant enzymes in cardiomyopathic rats. Combined therapy of lycopene (2 and 4mg/kg) with aliskiren (100 mg/kg) treatment showed pronounced beneficial effecton above parameters.Furthermore lycopene with aliskiren significantly improves the antioxidant defense by increasing reduced glutathione, SOD, catalase, heart size and heart weight/body weight ratio. It is clearly observed from Transmission electron microscopic slides of DOX treated rats, there was swelling of mitochondria with disruption of cristae, rupture of nuclear membrane, condensation and margination of nuclear chromatins which were well protected by lycopene along with aliskiren treatment.

Conclusion: Therefore, combination therapy of lycopene with aliskiren offers better treatment for DOX-induced cardiomyopathy than ALK alone.

Keywords: Aliskiren, lycopene, doxorubicin, cardiomyopathy, antioxidant enzymes.

Linoleic Acid Blocks the Inhibitory Effects of Caffeine on Tumour Promotion by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate in Two-Stage Carcinogenesis in Mouse Skin – Pages 194-198

Linoleic Acid Blocks the Inhibitory Effects of Caffeine on Tumour Promotion by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate in Two-Stage Carcinogenesis in Mouse Skin
Pages 194-198
Ken Yasukawa
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.03.4
Published: 25 August 2015


Abstract: The present study assessed the in vivo effects of fatty acids on inflammation and carcinogenesis in mice. Fifteen fatty acids were examined for their effects on the inhibitory effect of caffeine on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear oedema in mice. Furthermore, linoleic acid was studied for its effects on the inhibitory effect of caffeine on carcinogenesis in mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by TPA. Among fatty acids, linoleic, γ-linolenic and oleic acids most strongly blocked the inhibitory effect of caffeine on TPA-induced ear oedema. Furthermore, linoleic acid also markedly blocked the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the tumour-promoting activity of TPA. This is the first report to suggest that fatty acids, such as linoleic, γ-linolenic and oleic acids, block the anti-inflammatory activity of caffeine on TPA-induced inflammation in mice. Linoleic acid blocked the inhibitory effect of caffeine on tumour promotion by TPA in the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. These results suggest that intake of linoleic acid requires attention.

Keywords: Caffeine, fatty acid, linoleic acid, tumour promotion, two-stage carcinogenesis.

Influence of Biologically Active Substance “STEMB” on a Morphofunctional Condition of a Liver and Kidneys of Rats at an Experimental Hepatorenal Syndrome – Pages 186-193

Influence of Biologically Active Substance “STEMB” on a Morphofunctional Condition of a Liver and Kidneys of Rats at an Experimental Hepatorenal Syndrome
Pages 186-193
D.A. Areshidze, L.D. Timchenko, M.A. Kozlova, I.A. Syomin, I.V. Rzhepakovsky, S.I. Piskov and V.N. Vakulin
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.03.3
Published: 25 August 2015

Abstract: In this investigation, we revealed that application of the biostimulating tissue preparation based on chicken embryos (“STEMB”) at experimental hepatorenal syndrome showed improvement of the morphofunctional parameters of a liver. Under the influence of a biostimulator the relative mass of a liver considerably decreased and biochemical markers of a condition of a liver (total bilirubin, ALT, AST) returned to normal. Besides, under the influence of “STEMB” the tendency to normalization of mitotic, apoptotic and binuclear cells index of liver tissues and considerable decrease in a necrotic index is observed. Results of the research conducted by us allow to make a conclusion on possibility of inclusion of “STEMB” in a complex therapy of HRS for treatment of the injuries of a liver which are its main reason.

Keywords: Hepatorenal syndrome, liver, kidney, biogenic stimulants, tissue therapy, chicken embryo.

Beetroot Juice Supplementation Increases High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol and Reduces Oxidative Stress in Physically Active Individuals – Pages 179-185

Beetroot Juice Supplementation Increases High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol and Reduces Oxidative Stress in Physically Active Individuals
Pages 179-185
Archana Singh, Saroj Kumar Verma, Vijay Kumar Singh, Chindalaga Nanjappa, Nagraj Roopa, Pakalpati Srinivas Raju and Som Nath Singh
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.03.2

Published: 25 August 2015

Abstract: Beetroot juice contains a high level of biologically accessible antioxidants, beneficial phytochemicals and dietary nitrate, which seem to exert beneficial effects in human health. Dietary nitrate, from beetroot has been reported to lower blood pressure. However the impact of beetroot on lipid profile and oxidative stress is unknown. In present study, the effect of supplementation with beetroot juice for 15 days was investigated. Plasma lipid profile, antioxidant status, oxidative stress and body composition changes were evaluated at baseline and after 15 days of beetroot juice supplementation. Beetroot juice supplementation beneficially influenced the lipid profile by significantly increasing the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) from 42.9 ± 8.3 mg/dl to 50.2 ± 9.8 mg/dl and decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from 129.7 ± 82.3 mg/dl to 119.5 ± 79.2 mg/dl compared with baseline values. Beetroot juice supplementation increased (P < 0.05) plasma nitrite level and guanosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (c-GMP) levels. A significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C levels was observed after beetroot juice intake for 15 days. There was no significant change in the body fat mass and lean body mass of participants with the beetroot juice supplementation. Beetroot juice supplementation significantly decreased the stress markers plasma hydroperoxides and cortisol levels. Beetroot juice acts as a potent vasodilator by increasing plasma c-GMP levels and nitrite levels. Beetroot juice consumption improves plasma lipid profile and antioxidant status, encouraging further evaluation on a population with higher cardiovascular disease risk.

Keywords: Antioxidants,Lipid profile,Cortisol, Supplementation, Cardiovascular health.

Can Plants’ Ability for DNA Repair and Stress Defense be Used against Patients’ Circulating Tumor Cells? – Pages 157-178

Can Plants’ Ability for DNA Repair and Stress Defense be Used against Patients’ Circulating Tumor Cells?
Pages 157-178
C.D. Volko and U.D. Rohr
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.03.1
Published: 25 August 2015

Abstract: Introduction: It was suggested that specific plants may reduce cancer’s resistance to chemotherapy. Resistance inhibits apoptosis, as well as other fundamental anti-cancer protective mechanisms. Soy bean has been found to reduce cellular stress and repair DNA damage caused by drought or parasites, and can transfer this defense mechanism to other plant species as well. The aim of this study is therefore to conduct a systematic comparison of the effect of soy bean formulation (FSWW08) on gene expression in in vitro human breast cancer cell line, and in in vivo in blood circulating tumor cells (CTC), after oral consumption of FSWW08 by patients suffering from breast-, ovarian-, and prostate cancer.

MethodIn vitro gene expressions studies were conducted with the human breast cancer cell line BT-474 that was exposed to doxorubicin or FSWW08, either alone or in combination. Ovarian-, prostate-, and breast cancer patients received FSWW08 for 30 days. CTC were extracted from their blood according to an established protocol. Gene expression evaluations were conducted before and after treatment.

ResultsIn vitro,the multi-drug resistance (MDR) protein was reduced by FSWW08, but was increased by doxorubicin. The combination of FSWW08 and doxorubicin, however, showed a protective effect against the increase of MDR in physiologic concentrations, increased, however, also in high experimental concentrations of both agents. The expression of several cancer-related protective genes, such as tumor suppressor factors p21, p38 and p53, was improved by FSWW08 in vitro and in vivo, which helped cell differentiation and new tissue formation. Additionally, the BAX/Bcl2 ratio was improved, in vitro, as well as gene expression of estrogen receptor beta, NF-κB, MAP kinase, c-JUN, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, together with an increase of VEGF expression in vivo in CTC.

Conclusion: It was demonstrated that FSWW08 improved the gene functions related to DNA repair and stress in human blood CTC and resistance marker, in vitro, when applied in combination with doxorubicin. As such, larger in vitro and in vivo clinical studies that investigate single botanical compounds from other plants, are warranted.

Keywords: Tp53, Tp21, Bax/Bcl2, MAP kinase, VEGF, CTC, circulating tumor cell, fermented soy, MDR protein, estrogen receptor beta, NF-κB, RT-PCR technique, human breast cancer cell line BT-474, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer.