Protective Effects of Punicalagin on Caco-2 Intestine Cell Line under Oxidative Stress Caused by Tert-butyl hydroperoxide – Pages 249-256

Protective Effects of Punicalagin on Caco-2 Intestine Cell Line under Oxidative Stress Caused by Tert-butyl hydroperoxide
Pages 249-256
Ulfat Omar, Akram Aloqbi, Marwa Yousr and Nazlin Howell
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.04.5
Published: 08 January 2016

Abstract: Hydrolysable tannin polyphenols from pomegranate (punicalagin) have been reported to show a wide range of health properties correlated to their high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The objective of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of punicalagin on cell viability and redox status of cultured Caco-2 cells exposed to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. The production of malondialdehyde, and total glutathione levels, as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with 5 and 10 µM punicalagin for 24 hours significantly protected cell viability after exposure to tert-butyl hydroperoxide IC50 = 3 mM for 2 hours. The examined doses prevented the decrease of total glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in Caco-2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation provoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced at the same concnetrations. Finally, cell morphology with treatments before and after induction by tert-butyl hydroperoxide showed irreversible effect of the oxidizing agent. The results of the biomarkers analyzed showed that treatment of Caco-2 cells with the natural dietary antioxidant punicalagin protected the cells against oxidative stress.

Keywords: Polyphenols, Malondialdehyde, Glutathione, Reactive oxygen species, morphology.

A 0.123% Stevia/Aspartame 91/9 Aqueous Solution Balances the Effects of the Two Substances, and may thus be a Safer and Tastier Sweetener to be Used – Pages 236-248

A 0.123% Stevia/Aspartame 91/9 Aqueous Solution Balances the Effects of the Two Substances, and may thus be a Safer and Tastier Sweetener to be Used
Pages 236-248
Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Roger Cammaerts and Axel Dero
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.04.4
Published: 08 January 2016

Abstract: Sweeteners are presently largely consumed all over the world, essentially aspartame (North America, Europe) and stevia (South America, Asia). Aspartame has a pleasant taste but present some adverse effects; stevia has very few adverse effects but has not the sweetest taste. Using ants as biological models, we here examined if a 0.123% solution of stevia/aspartame 91/9 might have both a pleasant taste and nearly no adverse effects. We found that it did not change the ants’ food consumption while aspartame increased it and stevia slightly decreased it. It did not affect their locomotion, precision of reaction and response to pheromones as aspartame did. It did not increase their audacity as aspartame largely and stevia somewhat did. It did not affect the ants’ brood caring behavior and cognition as aspartame did, and it did not impact the conditioning ability and memory as aspartame drastically and stevia slightly did. Confronted to sugar water and a stevia/aspartame 91/9 solution, the ants equally drunk the two solutions, while having the choice between aspartame and sugar, they soon nearly exclusively chose the sugar, and while in presence of stevia and sugar, the ants progressively chose the sugar. Very probably aspartame enhanced the taste of stevia, and as the latter contains a true glycoside, a stevia/aspartame 91/9 solution did not affect the ants’ physiology and ethology as pure aspartame did. In front of sugar and a stevia/aspartame ca 96/4 solution, the ants chose the sugar. Thus, a 0.123% solution in which 9% aspartame (and no less) is mixed to 91% stevia (and no more) appears to constitute a safe and tasty sweetener which could be used instead of solutions containing only aspartame or stevia.

Keywords:
Ant, cognition, food additive, locomotion, memory.

Curcuma longa on the Metabolic Profile and Atherogenic Index of Rats Fed with a Hyper Caloric Diet – Pages 229-235

Curcuma longa on the Metabolic Profile and Atherogenic Index of Rats Fed with a Hyper Caloric Diet
Pages 229-235
Elen Landgraf Guiguer, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Adriano Cressoni Araújo, Maricelma da Silva Soares Souza, Patrícia Cincotto dos Santos Bueno, Claudemir Gregório Mendes, Sara da Silva Barbosa, Eliane Paschoal da Silveira and Daniel Pereira Coqueiro
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.04.3
Published: 08 January 2016

Abstract: The chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases have reached epidemic proportions in developed and developing countries. The high costs of the allopathic medicines represent a growing demand for non-allopathic alternatives. Curcuma longa is usually used as a spice in curries and as a dietary pigment and is considered a medicinal plant due important properties, with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-tumor action.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of Curcuma longa on the metabolic profile of Wistar rats treated with hyper caloric diet. Forty eight male rats were divided randomly into 4 groups (n=12) and treated for 40 days: G1 that received water (Control Group); G2 that received condensed milk solution ad libitum; G3 that received C. longa by gavage route and G4 that received condensed milk solution ad libitum and C. longa by gavage route. No significant differences for body weight and cholesterol were observed among the groups. Visceral fat, triglycerides and glycaemia were higher in the groups treated with condensed milk but did not differ when comparing G1 with G3 and G2 with G4. Analyzing our results it is possible to say that C. longa may not be efficient to promote benefits in lipid and glycemic profile as well as in the body weight and visceral fat of animals treated with hyper caloric diet.

Keywords: Curcuma longa, glycaemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c.

Dapoxetine Treatment Leads to Attenuation of Chronic Unpredictable Stress Induced Behavioral Deficits in Rats Model of Depression – Pages 222-228

Dapoxetine Treatment Leads to Attenuation of Chronic Unpredictable Stress Induced Behavioral Deficits in Rats Model of Depression
Pages 222-228
Muhammad Farhan, Hira Rafi and Hamna Rafiq
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.04.2
Published: 08 January 2016

Abstract: Stressful conditions possess a complex relationship with brain and body’s reaction to stress and beginning of depression. The hypofunctioning of Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is known to be established in unpredictable chronic mild stress exposure. UCMS is broadly taken as the most promising and favorable model to study depression in various animals, imitating many human depressive symptoms. With the class of selective serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is now considered as the most prescribed antidepressant that can reverse petrochemical and behavioral effects of stresses. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repeated administration of dapoxetine at dose 1.0 mg/kg could reversed the behavioral deficits induced by UCMS in rat model of depression. Rats exposed to UCMS revealed a significant reduction in food intake as well as growth rate. Locomotive activity in home cage and anxiolytic behavior in light/dark activity box were greater in animals of unstressed group as compared to animals of stressed group. The mechanism involved in the inhibition of serotonin reuptake at pre-synaptic receptors by repeated dapoxetine administration is discussed. The knowledge accumulated may facilitate an innovative approach for extending the therapeutic use of dapoxetine and the interaction between stress and behavioral functions.

Keywords: Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), Dapoxetine, 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), Depression, Locomotive activity.

Inhibitory Effects of Leaves of Guava (Psidium guajava) on TPA-Induced Inflammation and Tumor Promotion in Two-Stage Carcinogenesis in Mouse Skin – Pages 216-221

Inhibitory Effects of Leaves of Guava (Psidium guajava) on TPA-Induced Inflammation and Tumor Promotion in Two-Stage Carcinogenesis in Mouse Skin
Pages 216-221
Ken Yasukawa and Tomohito Kakegawa
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.04.1
Published: 08 January 2016

Abstract: Cancer prevention offers the most cost-effective long-term health strategy. The methanol extract of the leaves of guava(Psidium guajava) exhibits marked antitumor activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the methanol extract, five triterpene acids, uvaol (1), ursolic acid (2), corosolic acid (3), asiatic aci (4), and oleanolic acid d (5), were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice, and showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 117–657 nmol/ear. The leaves of guava may therefore be effective for cancer prevention.

Keywords: Guava, Psidium guajava, antitumor promotion, anti-inflammation, cancer prevention.