The Effect of Mulberry Leaf Tea on Postprandial Glycemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study – Pages 33-37

The Effect of Mulberry Leaf Tea on Postprandial Glycemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study
Pages 33-37
Parivat Sukriket, Surapong Lookhanumarnjao and Akkarach Bumrungpert
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.01.6
Published: 23 February 2016

Abstract: Leaves of mulberry (Morus alba, L.) have been one of the prominent herbs widely used by traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mulberry leaf tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin sensitivity after the ingestion of sucrose solution in non-diabetic subjects. This study was conducted on 14 subjects, with a crossover design. Subjects were initially screened for non-diabetic status (FBS < 126 mg/dL). Subjects were randomized to either mulberry leaf tea or water as control. The drink was consumed 30 minutes prior to oral administration of 75 grams sucrose solution. Blood samples were collected before (time point 0) and after sucrose ingestion at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes. The treatment group which received mulberry leaf tea prior to the tolerance test tends to have a lower level of plasma glucose, serum insulin concentrations and AUC0-150 compared to the controlled group, but without significant difference. The mean difference of the incremental glucose level at each time point also tends to be lower for the mulberry group, with significant difference at 30-min time point (p = 0.04). No significant differences were found in insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the consumption of mulberry leaf tea may aid in postprandial glycemic control during the first 30 minutes after meal.

Keywords:Mulberry leaf tea, Blood glucose, Insulin Sensitivity, Oral glucose tolerance test, Diabetes.

Drug Release Profile and Cellular Uptake of Polymeric Prodrugs Synthesized from Amphiphilic Blockcopolymer Using Mechanically Produced Macromonomers Possessing Anhydrate as a Terminal Group – Pages 27-32

Drug Release Profile and Cellular Uptake of Polymeric Prodrugs Synthesized from Amphiphilic Blockcopolymer Using Mechanically Produced Macromonomers Possessing Anhydrate as a Terminal Group
Pages 27-32
Parivat Sukriket, Surapong Lookhanumarnjao and Akkarach Bumrungpert
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.01.5
Published: 23 February 2016

Abstract: In this paper, the polymeric micelle was fabricated with amphiphilic block copolymer which was synthesized by the condensation of mechanochemically produced PBzMA macromonomer with a-methyl-w-aminopropoxy polyoxyethylene. Although the polymeric micelles containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or rohdamine showed the narrow size distribution as well as blank polymeric micelles, the particle diameter of the polymeric micelles containing 5-FU or rohdamine was larger than that of blank polymeric micelle. Polymeric micelle containing 5-FU slowly released 5-FU and about 10 % of 5-FU was released within 72 h. The present polymeric micelle was uptaken by A549 cells, but HepG2 cells did not. Cytotoxicity of Polymeric micelle containing 5-FU was not observed against HepG2 and A549 cells in this experimental condition. It was considered that the slow release of 5-FU from Polymeric micelle might cause the insufficient cytotoxicity.

Keywords:Polymeric micelle, macromonomer, maleic anhydride, drug release.

Physical and Chemical Mutation for Enhanced Alpha-Amylase Production by Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 under Solid State Fermentation Conditions Using Agri-Residue Waste – Pages 22-26

Physical and Chemical Mutation for Enhanced Alpha-Amylase Production by Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 under Solid State Fermentation Conditions Using Agri-Residue Waste
Pages 22-26
Shalini Singh, Sanamdeep Singh and Jyoti Mangla
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.01.4
Published: 23 February 2016

Abstract: The search for better microbial sources of enzymes has long been an area of active research owing to the clear and distinct importance in todays’ world where exploration and application of environment friendly products has become a necessity. Though the natural, wild microbial strains, are continuously be searched and explored for their potential for amylase production yet, simultaneous attempts for improved enzyme production are necessary too. In the present study, a comparison between the influence of different mutational treatments (UV treatment and EMS-EtBr treatment) on amylase production was studied. Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222, an indigenously isolated amylase producer, which has shown an amylase activity of 341.7 U/mL under optimized conditions of SSF in our previous study, was subjected to UV- and EMS-EtBr- treatment for possible improved amylase production under optimized solid state fermentation conditions. The UV mutated strains yielded an amylase production of 614.2 U/mL while the chemically (EMS-EtBr) mutated strain produced 814.1 U/mL of amylase activity thereby indicating the successful enhancement in amylase activity for the test fungal strain.

Keywords:Aspergillus fumigatus, Amylase, UV-mutation, EMS-EtBr mutation.

In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity, Acute Oral Toxicity Studies and Preliminary Phytochemical Characterization of the Bark Extract of Terminalia arjuna (L.) – Pages 15-21

In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity, Acute Oral Toxicity Studies and Preliminary Phytochemical Characterization of the Bark Extract of Terminalia arjuna (L.)
Pages 15-21
Samadhan G. Patil, Bhushan S Bhadane, Mohini P. Patil, Sateesh Belemkar and Ravindra H. Patil
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.01.3
Published: 23 February 2016

Abstract: The free radicals and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to induce oxidative stress and it has been implicated in the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and ageing. The activities associated with ROS can bedelayed, prevented or removedby antioxidant compounds (natural or synthetic). The use of synthetic antioxidants restricted because of their known side effects such as liver damage and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia arjuna extracts. The present finding reveals that the purified fraction at100 µg/ml, showed maximum (91.32 ± 0.10 %,) DPPH radical scavenging effect in comparison with standard ascorbic acid (79.46 ± 0.10%) at the 10 µg/ml concentration. The reducing power of the purified extract was found to be dose dependent. Food and water intake of the animals in test and control groups was found normal during the 14 day acute oral toxicity studies and no apparent changes were observed in the internal organs of both, the test and control groups, after gross necropsy. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the crude acetone extract revealed dominant presence steroids, terpenoids, polyphenols, alkaloids and tannins. TLC profile of the purified fraction revealed a single band of Rf 0.38, a characteristic feature of triterpenoids. The UV absorption maximum of the purified fraction was recorded at 194nm. The FT-IR spectrum indicated presence of aromatic rings 3421 (COOH), 2957 (alkanes, CH2 and CH3), 1726 (carbonyl), 1599 (carboxylic acid), and region between 1000-1300 stretching of C-O, ester and ether carboxylic group. Thus, the isolated bioactive phytoconstituents form the bark extract of Terminalia arjuna could be used as natural anti-oxidants..

Keywords:Antioxidant activity, Acute oral toxicity, T. arjuna, TLC, Triterpenoids.

The Effect of Mulberry Fruits Consumption on Lipid Profiles in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial – Pages 7-14

The Effect of Mulberry Fruits Consumption on Lipid Profiles in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Pages 7-14
Anchalee Sirikanchanarod, Akkarach Bumrungpert, Wiroje Kaewruang, Tipanee Senawong and Patcharanee Pavadhgul
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.01.2
Published: 23 February 2016

Abstract: Mulberry (Morus alba) fruit is abundant nutrients and phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins. Mulberries have anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects both in vitroand animal models. However, the effect of mulberry fruits on lipid profiles in human is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of mulberry fruit consumption on lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic subjects. This study is an experimental study, with a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-eight hypercholesterolemic subjects (aged 30-60 years) were recruited. The intervention group received freeze-dried mulberry 45 g (325 mg anthocyanins) per day for six weeks. The control group had their usual dietary intake for the same period of time. After six weeks, mulberry consumption significantly decreased the level of total cholesterol (TC) (- 3.73 % vs. 3.33 %, p < 0.001) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (- 6.53 % vs. 0.15 %, p < 0.001) compared to the control group. No change in triacylglycerol (TAG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mulberry consumption ameliorates TC and LDL-C concentrations. The mulberry fruits may be an alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemia patients and a cardiovascular disease protective for people in general.

Keywords:Mulberry, Morus alba, Anthocyanin, Lipid profiles, Hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Evaluation of The Potential of Amaranth Flour for Lactic Acid Fermentation – Pages 1-6

Evaluation of The Potential of Amaranth Flour for Lactic Acid Fermentation
Pages 1-6
Z. Matejčeková, D. Liptáková and Ľ. Valík
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.01.1
Published: 23 February 2016

Abstract: Although cereals and pseudocereals are deficient in some basic components, fermentation process is the most economical and simple way, how to improve nutritional value, functional qualities and sensory properties of the final products. In our study, we focused on the evaluation of amaranth flour for preparation of new probiotic functional foods suitable for celiac patients. That is why the growth dynamics of several Lactobacillus sp. in amaranth mashes were evaluated. All the monitored strains showed sufficient growth in mashes (growth rates of lactobacilli ranged from 0.73 to 1.52 h-1). Based on the rates, only Lb. rhamnosus VT1 was able to grow with the values higher than 1.38 h-1 in both milk and water based mashes.

In the second part of our study, we described behaviour of Lb. rhamnosus GG in amaranth water- or milk- based mashes after 8 h of co-cultivation with Fresco DVS 1010 culture (37 ± 1 °C, 5 % CO2). Final counts after the fermentation reached values 10CFU.ml-1 and no decrease was recorded during 2-week storage period at 6 ± 1 °C. Thus we may conclude that densities of lactobacilli were able to maintain above the limit of >106 CFU.ml-1 essential from the legislation point of view.

Keywords:Amaranth, pseudocereal substrates, probiotics, lactic acid bacteria, celiac disease.