Lectin-Like Binding of Four Animal Lactobacilli Considered for their Use in Probiotical Preparations – Pages 78-82

Lectin-Like Binding of Four Animal Lactobacilli Considered for their Use in Probiotical Preparations
Pages 78-82
I. Štyriak and I. Štyriaková
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.02.6
Published: 27 April 2016

Abstract: Four gut lactobacilli (Lactobacillus plantarum L5, Lactobacillus paracasei L81, Lactobacillus fermentum L 670 and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum L.c.) were examined by particle agglutination assay (PAA) for their lectin-like binding activity after their cultivation on Rogosa agar and in MRS broth. Seven ECM (extracellular matrix) molecules (bovine mucin, porcine mucin, bovine fibronectin, porcine fibronectin, fetuin, bovine lactoferrin and heparin) were selected for this assay. Moreover, haemagglutination tests with pig, cattle, sheep, and hen erythrocytes were performed. However, none of the four Lactobacillus strains examined did react with any of the erythrocytes tested. The differences between individual strains were observed in their binding to immobilised ECM molecules. The best adherent were the Lactobacillus plantarum L5 and Lactobacillus paracasei L81, however, the other two strains showed also good ECM binding of some ECM proteins. With regard to an influence of cultivation medium on lectin-like binding activity, binding of all ECM molecules was expressed in Lactobacillus paracasei L81 to significantly higher degree after cultivation on Rogosa agar than in MRS broth. Similarly, strains Lactobacillus fermentum L670 and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum L.c. displayed significantly higher binding of fibronectin and mucin after growth on Rogosa agar in comparison with MRS broth cultivation. The influence of cultivation medium on fetuin binding by Lactobacillus fermentum L670 was also not significant while Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarumL.c. bound fetuin significantly better after growth on Rogosa agar.

Heparin pretreatment increased the binding of the ECM molecules by the Lactobacillus fermentum L 670 strain significantly with the exception of porcine fibronectin when the strain was cultivated in MRS broth. Similar positive effect of heparin was observed also in the other three lactobacilli. This result is important especially in the connection with the observations that heparin decreased ECM binding of enteropathogens as staphylococci or clinical enterococcal isolates. Following up on some earlier strain characteristics, these results confirm that the selected lactobacilli are suitable for probiotic purposes.

Keywords: Lactobacillus, ECM proteins, extracellular matrix, collagen, fibronectin, albumin, vitronectin, lactoferrin, fetuin, mucin, probiotic use.

To Determng the Serostatus and Frequency of HIV Exposed Infants in Ishaka Adventist Hospital – Pages 72-77

To Determng the Serostatus and Frequency of HIV Exposed Infants in Ishaka Adventist Hospital
Pages 72-77
B.M. Ambrose, G.O. Mauti, M. Nansunga, E.M. Mauti, B.M. Mabeya and G.R. Neel
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.02.5
Published: 27 April 2016

Abstract: Background: Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome was first reported in the United States in 1981 and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. An estimated 34 million people are living with HIV, according to UNAIDS estimates released early December 2011. This study determined the serostatus and frequency of ill health of HIV exposed infants in Ishaka Adventist hospital.

MethodStudy Design: The study design was descriptive cross sectional study to determine the serostatus and frequency of ill health among HIV exposed infants and the feeding options chosen by mothers.

Study Population: The study focused on HIV exposed infants brought in the EID clinic from Bushenyi, Mitooma, Rubirizi, Sheema and Buhweju districts. According to the incharge EID clinic, the clinic gets about 10 patients per day and runs from Monday to Friday. The prevalence rate of HIV among mothers attending antenatal care in Bushenyi district is 7.2%. “Incharge EID clinic said” This gives a reflection of HIV exposed infants. The majority of people in Bushenyi district are small scale subsistence farmers, earning less than 1 dollar per day. The main cash crop is coffee and food crop is matooke. Other food crops include; Millet, cassava, potatoes, beans, groundnuts and peas. The animals kept mainly are; cows, goats, sheep and hens (District records 2014).

Sampling Procedure: To determine the prevalence of HIV, a systematic random sampling method using EID numbers was used. To determine the feeding options and frequency of ill health, a ballot paper was used to determine the participants among the clients who attend to the clinic.

Results: A total of 100 respondents were used. Majority of the mothers 51(51%) said PMTCT offers services like HIV counseling and Testing especially pregnant mothers for safe delivery after knowing your serostatus, 20 (20%) said it involves health education to pregnant mothers on safe motherhood, while minority 2(2%) said it involves breastfeeding, most of the mothers 80 (80%) had an idea about breast feeding options among mothers who are HIV positive, 4 (4%) were confused and16 (16%) did not know about any option. Majority of the mothers 55 (55%) said that ARV’s should be taken for PMTCT to be possible, 12(12%) said attending ANC and delivering in hospital, 17 (17 %) said feeding well, 2 (2%) said abstaining, and 2(2%) didn’t know.

Keywords: PMTCT, Serostatus, HIV, Ishaka Adventist, Uganda.

Use of Information Parameters as Criterion for Determination of Biological Activity of Hepatoprotective Preparations – Pages 61-71

Use of Information Parameters as Criterion for Determination of Biological Activity of Hepatoprotective Preparations
Pages 61-71
David Areshidze, Lyudmila Timchenko, Maria Kozlova, Igor Rzhepakovskyand Ivan Syomin
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.02.4
Published: 27 April 2016

Abstract: Possibility of use of the information parameters characterizing adaptational and regenerative opportunities of tissue system of an organ as potential criteria for an assessment of biological activity of hepatoprotective preparations is investigated in this research. Influence of enzymatic hydrolyzate of Chlorophytum comosum (L.) on a morphofunctional condition of a liver of rats at experimental toxic damage of organ and in norm was studied. The assessment of morphofunctional condition of a liver under the influence of a preparation was carried out as with use of traditional morphological, biochemical and histologic parameters, and by means of information parameters, which were earlier used for an evaluation of the adaptative and regenerative opportunities of organs of mammals. As a result of research the hepatoprotective effect of enzymatic hydrolyzate of Chlorophytum comosum (L.) is confirmed both by dynamics of change of results of traditional techniques of an assessment and by informational parameters, that allows to draw a conclusion on possibility of use of information parameters as criterion for assesment of effectiveness of biostimulation.

Keywords: Liver, hepatoprotector, biological activity, entropy.

Influence of Deuterium Depleted Water on Rat Physiology: Reproductive Function, Forming and Posterity Development – Pages 55-60

Influence of Deuterium Depleted Water on Rat Physiology: Reproductive Function, Forming and Posterity Development
Pages 55-60
Lilia V. Fedulova, Stepan S. Dzhimak, Elena A. Kotenkova, Ekaterina R. Vasilevsky and Irina M. Chernukha
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.02.3
Published: 27 April 2016

Abstract: Reproductive function and postnatal progeny development of rats in four generations treated with deuterium depleted water (40 ppm) were investigated. The targeted generations were parent (F0), first (F1), second (F2) and third (F3). Replacement of tap water to deuterium depleted water did not influence on fertility index as well as on survival and postnatal offspring development. Reproductive function, physical parameters and reflexes development in rats and pups consumed DDW was similar or more intensive in comparison with control group. Therefore, DDW consumption did not possess any toxic effects and may enhance general postnatal development.

Keywords: Fertility, deuterium depleted water, rats, generation, adaptation.

Myths and Facts about Placebo – Pages 43-54

Myths and Facts about Placebo
Pages 43-54
Hans-Joachim Kremer

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.02.2

Published: 27 April 2016

Abstract: Many patients, physicians, and sometimes even academics have questionable perceptions of placebo and the so-called placebo effect, Many believe that placebo have its own effects. Although psychological aspects, namely expectations of patients or the persuasive power of the physicians, might sometimes be substantial, such aspects may have little or even no relevance in other situation where placebo control is essential nevertheless. Even in settings where psychological effects should be envisaged, their extent is usually highly variable, indicating that other factors might still exceed the importance of psychological effects. Placebo is defined in US regulations as an inactive preparation designed to resemble the test drug as far as possible. This means that placebo itself cannot be effective. If it would, its correctness is challenged and it should be replaced if still possible. And as placebo is not effective, it can also not have secondary effects, vulgo side effects. Placebo is always used for two reasons: To control bias and to provide the reasonably largest delta, i.e. the difference between two treatments. Placebo should never be interpreted as being able to cause effects.

Keywords: Placebo-effect, definition, bias, delta, nocebo.

Inhibitory Effects of the Aerial Parts of Epimedium koreanum on TPA-Induced Inflammation and Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Carcinogenesis in Mouse Skin – Pages 35-42

Inhibitory Effects of the Aerial Parts of Epimedium koreanum on TPA-Induced Inflammation and Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Carcinogenesis in Mouse Skin
Pages 35-4288×31
Ken Yasukawa, Sung-Kwon Ko and Wan-Kyunn Whang
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.02.1
Published: 27 April 2016

Abstract: Cancer prevention by supplements offers the most cost-effective long-term health strategy. Methanol extracts from the aerial parts of Epimedium koreanum were previously found to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammatory ear oedema and tumour promotion by TPA in the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Four prenyl flavonol glycosides (1‒4) were isolated from the active fraction of this extract, and were identified. The isolated compounds showed inhibitory activity against TPA-induced ear inflammatory ear oedema. The 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) of icariin (1), epimedin A (2), epimedin B (3) and epimedin C (4) for TPA-induced inflammation ranged from 114 to 255 nmol/ear, suggesting greater potency than indomethacin (ID50: 908 nmol/ear), an anti-inflammatory drug. Thus, the epimedium herb may be useful in cancer prevention.

Keywords: Cancer chemoprevention, antitumour-promoting activity, two-stage carcinogenesis, prenyl flavonol glycosides, Epimedium koreanum.