In Vitro Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic activities of Polygonum orientale (Bishkatali) – Pages 112-119

In Vitro Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic activities of Polygonum orientale (Bishkatali)
Pages 112-119
Md. Tanjir Islam, Afrin Khan Priyanka, Tania Sultana, Md. Hassan Kawsar, Md. Helal Uddin Sumon and Md. Didaruzzaman Sohel
Published: 29 July 2016

Abstract: The aim of this present work is to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract of Polygonum orientale (Family: Polygonaceae). Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract of Polygonum orientale was tested by Disc Diffusion Method. Standard antibiotic discs of Kanamycin (30µg/disc) for bacterial species was used as standard and crude extracts were used at a concentration of (20mg/disc) and (40mg/disc) for leaves and (10mg/disc) and (20mg/disc) for shoot extracts. The methanol extracts of leaves and shoots showed mild activity against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and fungi. Most of the organisms were susceptible to the extract in various degrees. The extract showed highest zone of inhibition (13mm) against the Gram (+)ve Bacillus megateriumand and gram (-)ve Escherichia coli (zone of inhibition 10mm). Antioxidant property of the plant extracts against stable DPPH (1, 1-Dipheny1-2-picrydrazole) radical was investigated. Ascorbic acid was used as standard. The extract was found low in antioxidant property. The absorbance was taken at 517nm by UV Spectrophotometer. The IC50 values were found in leaf extract and shoot extract are (1244.58µg/ml and (1506µg/ml). For ascorbic acid IC50 value was (139.19µg/ml). Cytotoxic activity of the crude extract by using Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay. Vincristin sulphate was used as standard. LC50 value of leaf extract was found (6.85µg/ml) and (9.7104µg/ml) for the shoot extract. In conclusion, the extract of the experimental plants have mild antimicrobial, low antioxidant and good cytotoxic properties.

Keywords:In vitro, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, DPPH scavenging, Polygonaceae.

The Mechanisms of Immune System Regulation by Probiotics in Immune-Related Diseases – Pages 105-111

The Mechanisms of Immune System Regulation by Probiotics in Immune-Related Diseases
Pages 105-111
Parvin Bastani, Aziz Homayouni, Leila Norouzi-Panahi, Arash Tondhoush, Sharareh Norouzi, ElnazVaghef Mehrabany and Zahra Kasaie
Published: 29 July 2016

Abstract: Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts, may confer a health benefit on the host. Stimulation and regulation of immune system is among well documented benefits claimed for probiotics. Both innate and adaptive immune system can be regulated by these microorganisms. Effects of probiotics on immune system are significantly dependent on the strain, dosage and the investigated condition. In this article the mechanisms through which probiotics may regulate immune system were reviewed. These mechanisms are consist of blockage of adhesion sites for pathogenic bacteria, competition for nutrients, production of inhibitory compounds, degradation of the toxin receptors in the mucosa membrane, activation of phagocytic and natural killer cells as well as regulation of cellular and humoral immunity. Also the immune-related diseases including immune deficiency (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and hypersensitivity (allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus type 1 and rheumatoid arthritis) were discussed

Keywords:Probiotic, immune, regulation, mechanism, Food, disease.

Combination of Probiotics and Sublingual Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis: A Real-Life Study – Pages 98-104

Combination of Probiotics and Sublingual Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis: A Real-Life Study
Pages 98-104
Renato Rossi, Lucilla Rossi and Giorgio Monasterolo
Published: 29 July 2016

Abstract: Probiotics are increasingly recognized as capable of modulating immune responses. Some probiotic strains show the potential of inducing a different lymphocyte polarization, promoting the Th1 phenotype and inhibiting, at the same time, the allergy-prone Th2 phenotype. On this basis, we could expect that probiotics may act synergistically to improve the clinical efficacy of sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT).

In this study, 30 patients affected by allergic rhinitis undergoing SLIT, were concomitantly administered a probiotic supplement (n = 14) or not (n = 16), according to their preference.

Nasal symptom score, rescue medication score and ‘well-days’ were evaluated after 2 and 4 months of treatment.

Patients who were administered SLIT plus probiotics showed a trend toward reduction of the nasal symptoms (-7.1%, p = ns) with a significant reduction of medication score (-32.6, p = 0.02) and an increase of ‘well-days’ (35.1, p = 0.02).

These preliminary data, from a small study population, suggest that this combined approach with SLIT and probiotics could result in an increased efficacy of the SLIT treatment.

Keywords:Probiotics, allergy, allergic rhinitis, immunotherapy.

Synbiotic Adjuvant Therapy in Atopic Dermatitis: Our Experience – Pages 95-97

Synbiotic Adjuvant Therapy in Atopic Dermatitis: Our Experience
Pages 95-97
Rial Prado M.J. and Seoane Rodríguez M
Published: 29 July 2016

Abstract: BackgroundAtopic dermatitis is a disease with a lot of clinical interest because it is the point of attachment between allergic diseases and autoimmune diseases. Probiotics and synbiotics favor the expression of anti-inflammatory Th1 cytokines which produces therapeutic benefits in patients with atopic dermatitis as revealed by recent meta-analysis.

Material and Method: Six patients (3 women and 3 men) suffering from moderate atopic dermatitis aged between 16 and 28 years were treated with Bifidobacterium lactis BS01, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR05 and prebiotic fructo -oligosaccharides (2×109CFU) once daily in a period of four months added to their previously scheduled topical treatment. SCORAD index and atopic dermatitis quality of life test (QoLIAD) prior to treatment and four months after treatment were analyzed.

ResultsAfter 4 months of treatment we objectified clinical improvement by reducing the SCORAD index (average of 6 points) and better results in QoLIAD test in 5 of the 6 patients. Previously scheduled medical treatment remained unchanged and no side effect was observed in any of the patients treated.

Discussion: Most of our patients treated obtained clinical improvement and in quality of life without adverse effects, this fact support the results of recent papers concluding that the use of probiotics in diary clinical practice is a safe coadyuvant and possibly effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

Keywords:Atopic dermatitis, synbiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, Th1/Th2.

The Use of Probiotics in Respiratory Allergy – Pages 89-94

The Use of Probiotics in Respiratory Allergy
Pages 89-94
Gemma Vilà-Nadal, Elsa Phillips-Anglés and Javier Domínguez-Ortega
Published: 29 July 2016

Abstract: There is a high and steadily increasing prevalence of respiratory allergy throughout the world, especially in paediatric population and in industrialized and developing countries. A complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors has been implicated to explain this dramatic increase in prevalence of allergic diseases. It has been suggested that exposure to microbes plays a critical role in the development of the early immune system and may contribute to allergic diseases through their effect on mucosal immunity. Probiotics, microorganisms exerting beneficial effects on the host, are used in a great number of paediatric and adult diseases, mainly gastrointestinal disorders, but they have been proposed to be beneficial also in allergic diseases. Different trials have been published finding benefits in the use of probiotics in prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis, but to date, studies have yielded inconsistent findings to support a protective association between their use on prevention of allergic rhinitis or asthma. However, probiotics may be beneficial in improving symptoms and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis although it remains limited due to study heterogeneity and variable outcome measures. As a result of these controversies, future investigations with a better standardization are needed. In this review, we summarize recent clinical research to elucidate the mechanisms of probiotics and their effect in respiratory allergy. According to published data, probiotics could emerge as a novel, complementary treatment option for allergic rhinitis but not for asthma.

Keywords:Probiotics, respiratory allergy, allergic rhinitis, asthma.