Pulse Phytonutrients: Nutritional and Medicinal Importance – Pages 160-171

Pulse Phytonutrients: Nutritional and Medicinal Importance
Pages 160-171
Jagdish Singh, Rajni Kanaujia and N.P. Singh
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.04.5
Published: 28 November 2016

Abstract: Pulses are important food crops which offer significant nutritional and health advantages due to their high protein content and a unique nutritional profile, i.e., low fat source of digestible protein, dietary fibre, complex carbohydrates, resistant starch and a number of essential vitamins, especially, the B-group vitamin B9 (folate). In addition to these vitamins and minerals contributing to a healthy diet, pulses contain a number of non-nutritive bioactive substances including enzyme inhibitors, lectins, saponins, phytates, phenolic compounds and oligosaccharides. The latter contributes beyond basic nutritional value and is particularly helpful in the fight against non-communicable diseases often associated with diet transitions and rising incomes. Phytic acid exhibits antioxidant activity and protects DNA damage, phenolic compounds have antioxidant and other important physiological and biological properties, and galacto-oligosaccharides may elicit prebiotic activity. Research findings on different phytochemicals in pulse seeds and their role in preventing the lifestyle diseases has been discussed. Encouraging awareness of the nutritional value of pulses can help consumers adopt healthier diets and also could be an important dietary factor in improving longevity.

Keywords: Pulses, polyphenols, carotenoids, saponins, tocopherols, folates.

Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link: Chemical Bioactive Compounds and Pharmacological Activities – Pages 153-159

Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link:Chemical Bioactive Compounds and Pharmacological Activities
Pages 153-159
Do Hai Lan, Nguyen Thi Kim Thu, Pham Thi Lan, Pham Van Nha and Bui Thanh Tung
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.04.4
Published: 28 November 2016

Abstract: Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link is an important medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for treatment of many diseases and improving human health. C. militaris are now widely used in many modern pharmaceutical dosages. It contains many bioactive compounds such as cordycepin, adenosine, sterols, polysaccharides, etc. These compounds provided many beneficial biological activities such as anticancer, antiproliferative, pro-sexual, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory and others for C. militaris. The present review highlights the chemical bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities of this medicinal mushroom C. militaris.

Keywords: Cordyceps militaris,cordycepin, bioactive compound, pharmacological activity, traditional medicine.

Prevalence of under Nutrition and Associated Factors among Khat Chewers in Khat Chewing Shops at Gulalle Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – Pages 144-152

Prevalence of under Nutrition and Associated Factors among Khat Chewers in Khat Chewing Shops at Gulalle Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Pages 144-152
Tesfaye Girma Legesse and Debela Gemeda Bedane
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.04.3
Published: 28 November 2016

Abstract: There is studies limitation regarding the effect of khat chewing on nutritional status. Community based comparative cross-sectional study had been conducted from March to June, 2015; with cluster sampling and systematic random sampling techniques for khat chewers and non-khat chewers respectively. The data was collected by using interview administered questionnaire, observation and weight scale measurement among 504 study participants.The study revealed that from entire khat chewers 52(20.5%) of them and of non-khat chewers 34(13.5%) of them were underweight. Khat chewers were 2.102 times more likely underweight compared to those non-khat chewers. khat chewers who had meal twice per day were 2.856 time more likely underweight. Khat chewers who used animal and animal products as their main meal component daily were 0.413 times less likely to be underweight; Whereas the odds of underweight was 26% times less likely among khat users who intake two liters of fluid per chewing session. In other case, those who chewed khat for 2-3 hours per session were 0.231 times less likely to be underweight.Under nutrition is a public nutritional status problem in which khat chewers are more affected. Khat chewing conditions and meal conditions including amount of fluid consumed per chewing session are factors that affect the nutritional status of the khat chewers. Minimizing amount of khat consumed per session, shortening of khat chewing session length and increasing amount of fluid intake more than two liters per chewing session and nutritional management with nutritionist advices are important points.

Keywords: Khat, under nutrition, khat chewers, non-khat chewers, Gulelle sub-city.

Biomedical Application of Carbon Nanotubes for Proteins Extraction and Seperation – Pages 126-143

Biomedical Application of Carbon Nanotubes for Proteins Extraction and Seperation
Pages 126-143
Hartmut Schlüter and Mohammadreza Saboktakin
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.04.2
Published: 28 November 2016

Abstract: Measurement science and technology continue to play vital roles in biomedical research and in routine healthcare. Over recent decades there has been a steady evolution of sensors for biomedical measurement aimed at clinical care in hospitals, fundamental biomedical research in the laboratory, or even self-care in the home. The measurements of interest are diverse, ranging from pressure, force, flow and displacement to electrical field/charge, magnetic flux, and molecular species, such as gases, ions, proteins, bacteria, viruses, and DNA. In this review, we have studied several biomedical applications of nanotubes and nanowires for proteins measurements in cells. Also, These materials have a wide application as protein carriers and transporters. The wide applications of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the serious concerns about their safety on human health and environment have been studied.

Keywords: Nanotubes, Proteins, Extraction, Seperation, biomedical application.

Metformin Reduces Oxidative Stress Status and Improves Plasma Insulin Level in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats – Pages 120-125

Metformin Reduces Oxidative Stress Status and Improves Plasma Insulin Level in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Pages 120-125
Umar Zayyanu Usman, Ainul Bahiyah Abu Bakar and Mahaneem Mohamed
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.04.1
Published: 28 November 2016

Abstract: Background: Oxidative stress induced by hyperglycaemia plays a crucial role in the development of diabetic complications and metformin is commonly used in treating diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether metformin at the dose of 100 mg/kg/day could ameliorate oxidative stress and improve plasma insulin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Twenty one rats (8-10 week old; weighing 190-220 g) were assigned into three groups (n=7 rats per group) i.e. non-DM, DM and DM+metformin (100 mg/kg/day metformin) groups. DM was induced using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally and treatments were given daily by oral gavage for four weeks. The levels of plasma biomarkers such as fasting blood glucose, oxidant-antioxidant markers and insulin levels were analysed.

Results: Fasting blood glucose, malonyldehyde and protein carbonyls levels were significantly higher while insulin, total antioxidant capacity, catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly lower in DM group compared to non-DM group. The levels of fasting blood glucose, malonyldehyde and protein carbonyls were significantly lower while levels of total antioxidant capacity, catalase and insulin were significantly higher in DM+metformin group compared to DM group.

Conclusion: This study may suggest that metformin at the dose of 100 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks reduces oxidative stress status and improves plasma insulin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats possibly through its antihyperglycaemic action.

Keywords: Oxidative stress, rats, diabetes, metformin, insulin.