Histological Assessment of Pioglitazone Preventive Effect in Glycerol Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Rats – Pages 64-72

Histological Assessment of Pioglitazone Preventive Effect in Glycerol Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Rats
Pages 64-72

Rama Mousleh and Shaza Al Laham

DOI: http://dx.doi.org//10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.02.5
Published: 25 April 2017

Abstract: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains as a problem of radiographic procedures with high incidence and mortality rates. This study aims to histologically assess the ability of Iohexol to induce nephropathy in rats injected with Glycerol; then investigate the Pioglitazone renoprotective effect on this CIN model in rats. 35 male Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=7/group): healthy (A), Glycerol (B), Glycerol+ Iohexol (C), Glycerol + Iohexol + Pioglitazone (D), Pioglitazone alone (E). Groups (B), (C), and (D) were intramuscularly injected with Glycerol 25% (10 ml/kg). Iohexol (350 mg I/ml, 8,6 ml/kg) was injected through a caudal vein in groups (C) and (D). Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) was orally administered for 4 days, to groups (D) and (E). Rats were sacrificed on the fifth day. Kidney samples were collected for histological assessment. The results show that the histopathological scores and kidney weight / body weight ratio in group (C), were significantly increased compared with group (B) and (A). These changes were significantly reversed in rats treated with Pioglitazone (group D).

In conclusion, Iohexol could cause renal injury in rat kidneys previously damaged by Glycerol. Pioglitazone was able to protect the kidneys from histological alterations.

Keywords:Kidney, Contrast-Induced Nephropathy (CIN), Contrast medium, Iohexol, Pioglitazone.

Nutritional Properties, Phytochemicals and In Vitro Antioxidant Assessment of Two Wild Edible Fruits from Assam of North-East India – Pages 55-63

Nutritional Properties, Phytochemicalsand In Vitro Antioxidant Assessment of Two Wild Edible Fruits from Assam of North-East India
Pages 55-63
Anuck Islary, Jatin Sarmah and Sanjay Basumatary
DOI: http://dx.doi.org//10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.02.4
Published: 25 April 2017

Abstract: The aim of present study was to ascertain the nutritional properties, phytochemical contents and in vitro antioxidant capacities of two wild edible fruits viz. Aporosa dioica (Roxb.) Muell.-Arg. and Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers. found in Assam of North-East India. Nutritional properties, phytochemical screening, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were investigated employing standard methods. Antioxidant properties were assessed following DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2´-Azinobis (3-ethylbenothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt), H2O(Hydrogen peroxide) and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. The results obtained in this study were presented and discussed. A. dioica fruit extract exhibited lower IC50 (DPPH, ABTS and H2O2) values in contrast to O. alismoides fruit extract indicating stronger antioxidant capacity in A. dioica fruit. Higher FRAP value of 106.583 ± 5.204 μM trolox equivalent (TE)/g dry extract (DE) was found in the methanol extract of A. dioica fruit compared to that of O. alismoides fruit (44.083 ± 7.637 μM TE/g DE). The TPC found in the methanol extracts of A. dioica and O. alismoides fruits were 146.710 ± 2.807 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DE and 93.860 ± 1.172 mg GAE/g DE, respectively, while the TFC was found to be 72.510 ± 8.833 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g DE in A. dioica fruit and 43.270 ± 5.361 mg QE/g DE in O. alismoides fruit. These fruits are good sources of nutrients and natural antioxidants and may find applications in formulation of various pharmaceutical drugs.

Keywords:Wild edible fruits, Aporosa dioica, Otteliaalismoides, phytochemicals, antioxidant.

Self-Efficacy, Self-Care Activities Management and Treatment Outcome among Type 2 Diabetes Saudi Patients: Across-Sectional Study – Pages 48-54

Self-Efficacy, Self-Care Activities Management and Treatment Outcome among Type 2 Diabetes Saudi Patients: Across-Sectional Study
Pages 48-54
Abubaker Ibrahim Elbur, Abdullah Salem AlMalki and Sultan Abdullah Alharthi
DOI: http://dx.doi.org//10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.02.3
Published: 25 April 2017

Abstract: The main aims of this study were to measure the level of diabetes management self-efficacy and adherence to self-care activities management and to identify the influence of self- efficacy on management of self-care activities and the outcome of treatment among type 2 diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Diabetes Clinic; King Faisal Medical Complex during the period of June –August 2016. Patients aged >20 years and diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for at least one year. Data was collected through face-to-face interview method using a pretested and validated questionnaire. Data was processed by the software SPPS (21.0 SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 300 patients were eligible. Slightly more than 50 % of them were females. Overall, 164 (54.7%) patients were classified as having high diabetes management self-efficacy. Living in the town (P = 0.006) and being married (P= 0.003) were found to be the significant predictors of high self-efficacy. There were significant associations between self-efficacy by domain and adherence to the specific self-care activity corresponding to that domain. Overall, 84 (28%) of the patients attained the target therapeutic goal for diabetes and the control was significantly more among females (33.6%) than males (22.3%), (P= 0.031).

The results of the study identified many gaps related to management self-efficacy of diabetes and adherence to self-care activities. Interventions targeting the patients and their families to improve this situation are urgently needed.

Keywords:Self-Efficacy, Self-Care Activities, Management, Treatment Outcome, Type 2 Diabetes.

Observational Cross-Sectional Study on Dietary Supplementation among Adults in Eastern Croatia – Pages 41-47

Observational Cross-Sectional Study on Dietary Supplementation among Adults in Eastern Croatia
Pages 41-47
Betilija Fadi Sekošan and Daniela Kenjerić
DOI: http://dx.doi.org//10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.02.2
Published: 25 April 2017

Abstract: The aim of the study was to gain insight into supplementation habits among adults in eastern Croatia. In cross-sectional study 466 adult participants were asked by anonymous survey about the type of supplement they take, the doses of the used supplement and the reasons and motivation for supplementation. Results revealed that participants most often chose essential nutrients (59 %) among which magnesium, multivitamins, B-complex vitamins, calcium and omega-3 fatty acids dominate. Supplementation is mostly aimed for disease treatment (46 %) and prevention (35 %) with musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases being the main cause followed by digestive system diseases. Most of the supplements were selected based on the recommendation of a health professional (76 %) and in line with recommendation by pharmacist or as stated at the product label (86 %).

Keywords:Dietary supplement, essential nutrients, non-essential nutrients, natural health products and extracts, adults

Influence of Different Polypeptides Fractions Derived from Sus Scrofa Immune Organs on the Rats Immunological Reactivity – Pages 35-40

Influence of Different Polypeptides Fractions Derived from Sus Scrofa Immune Organs on the Rats Immunological Reactivity
Pages 35-40
L.V. Fedulova, Е.R. Vasilevskaya, Е.А. Kotenkova, A.A. Elkina, M.G. Baryshev and A.B. Lisitsyn
DOI: http://dx.doi.org//10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.02.1
Published: 25 April 2017

Abstract: The influence of protein-peptide compounds, extracted with deuterium water as solubilizer agent from mixture of Sus scofa thymus, spleen and lymph nodes extracts, was carried out on Wistar rats with cytostatic-induced immunodeficiency model. Intragastric administration of extract fraction with molecular weight more than 30 kDa, did not lead to significant changes. Thus, polypeptide compounds with molecular weight less than 30 kD, extracted from Sus scofa immune organs, significantly increased T-lymphocytes amount, affected macrophages system by T-helper (CD4) stimulation and activated cycle of complementary cascade. Differences between the experimental results in T-helper synthesis activation (CD4) in animals treated with the medium and low molecular weight fractions can be explained by the ability of biomolecules having a molecular weight less than 30 kDa (in particular, isolated from the spleen, which, in its cellular structure contains key regulatory factors) to change the speed of cell differentiation.

Keywords:DDW, immunodeficiency, interleukin, CD3, CD4, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tissue-specific bioactive compounds