Abstract:Keti Bunder is a small coastal community situated at about 200 km south east of Karachi. It has four major creeks namely Chann, Hajamro, Kangri (Turchhan) and Khober with an arid subtropical climate and temperature remaining moderate throughout the year. This paper reports the application of an integration of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for analysis and monitoring of the relationship of land surface temperature (LST) with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the area. LST is one of the critical elements in the natural phenomena of surface energy and water balance at local and global extent. [1-5]. Remote sensing in accord with tradition utilizes the NDVI to provide specific information on vegetation abundance to the LST–vegetation relationship. For mapping purposes, satellite images of Landsat-5 ETM+, Landsat-7 TM and Landsat-8 OLI / TIRS images, acquired on March 08, 2000, April 29, 2010 and April 08, 2014 respectively, were used. The results indicate that the maximum land surface temperature increased gradually from 39°C in 2000, to 42°C in 2010 and 45°C in 2014. Due to global warming and climatic changes. Keti Bunder of the Indus delta has experienced a serious condition over the past few years; the local communities have suffered badly from climate change impacts as heavy rainfalls, floods and cyclones have forced people to migrate to other places for their livelihood and shelter. However, mean NDVI value increased to -0.009 in 2014 as compared to 2010 (-0.165), due to several plantations of mangroves being established by the government. In the past, the mangrove forest was degraded due to lack of freshwater and seawater intrusion. The rate of degradation of mangrove forest in the delta was approximately 6 percent per year between 1980 and 1995 and only a small percentage of mangroves are now considered to be healthy [6-7].
Keywords: GIS, Remote Sensing, Land surface emissivity, vegetation abundance, Thermal Infrared, Atmospheric correction.