Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae): Botany, Uses, Phytochemical Properties and Pharmacological Potential – Pages 101-115

Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae): Botany, Uses, Phytochemical Properties and Pharmacological Potential

Pages 101-115

Collen Musara1, Elizabeth Bosede Aladejana1, Silas M. Mudyiwa2 and Charles Karavina3

1Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; 2Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; 3Department of Crop Science, Bindura University of Science Education, P Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29169/1927-5951.2020.10.03.4

Abstract: Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. ex G. Don, popularly known as the African locust bean tree, is a perennial tree legume that belongs to Mimosoïdeae sub-family and family of Fabaceae. This study is aimed at reviewing the botany, nutritional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of P. biglobosa and the information was undertaken using electronic databases such as Scopus, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Science Direct, Web of Science, Pubmed, SciFinder, BMC and Open-thesis. Parkia biglobosa is a very important multipurpose tree that is used essentially for food, medicinal, cultural, economic and magico-therapeutic purposes. Due to its socio-economic and cultural importance, P. biglobosa species are vulnerable to unsustainable harvesting and are declining in numbers because they remain semi- or undomesticated in some west Africa countries. Different aqueous and organic extracts of P. biglobosa indicate that the species are rich in saponins, tannins, flavonoids, resins, carbohydrates, terpenoids, phenols, sterols, and cardiac glycosides. The nutritional and pharmacological benefits of P. biglobosa has been associated with its physicochemical properties. Pharmacological studies on P. biglobosa exhibited antimalarial, anti-helminthic, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-trypanosomic activities and antioxidant properties. Threats to the survival of this multipurpose species are also highlighted.

Keywords: African locust bean tree, botany, agroforestry, medicinal, phytochemistry, pharmacology, threats.