Isolation and Identification of Plant Growth Promoting and Chromium Uptake Enhancing Bacteria from Soil Contaminated by Leather Tanning Industrial Waste


 Maize, chromium, uptake enhancing, rhizobacteria.

How to Cite

Retno Rosariastuti, Irfan Dwidya Prijambada, Ngadiman, Gani Sisca Prawidyarini, & Angry Rosha Putri. (2013). Isolation and Identification of Plant Growth Promoting and Chromium Uptake Enhancing Bacteria from Soil Contaminated by Leather Tanning Industrial Waste. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 9, 243–251.


Hexavalent chromium is considered as a priority pollutant. Phytoremediation has been widely pursued for the cleanup of heavy metal from contaminated area. The success of phytoremediation is depending on two factors: metal accumulating capability and biomass production of the plants. This paper reports on the isolation and characterization of rhizobacteria having ability to promote plant growth and increase its chromium uptake. Thirty nine of bacterial isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere of wild plants (Sida sp., Sida acuta, Sida rhombifolia, Eupatorium sp., Acelypha sp, Acelypha indica, Amaranthus caudatus, Borreria sp., Leucas lavandulifolia, Eleusine indica, Pennisetum purpurium, Imperata cylindrical, and Vigna sinensis) grow well on soil contaminated by leather tanning industrial waste. Three isolates, namely I26, I30, and I37, have an ability to enhance biomass production of maize (Zea mays) by 2.3, 2.6, and 4.0 times higher compare to the uninoculated one, respectively. The isolates also have an ability to increase chromium uptake by the maize from 7 to 14times. All of the isolates increase the accumulation of Cr in the maize root.The 16S rDNA gene sequence of the isolates relates them to Agrobacterium tumefaciens.


Okeke BC. Bioremoval of hexavalent chromium from water by a salt tolerant bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. GS1. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2008; 35: 1571-9.

Krishna KR, Philip L. Bioremediation of Cr(VI) in contaminated soils. J Hazard Mater 2005; B121: 109-17.

Thacker U, Parikh R, Shouche Y, Madamwar D. Hexavalent chromium reduction by Providencia sp. Process Biochem 2006; 41: 1332-7.

Owlad M, Aroua MK, Daud WAW, Baroutian S. Removal of hexavalent chromium-contaminated water and wastewater: a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 2009; 200: 59-77.

Mitsch WJ, Jorgensen SE. Ecological engineering: a field whose time has come. Ecol Eng J 2003; 20: 363-77.

Salt DE, Blaylock M, Kumar PBAN, Dushenkov V, Ensley BD, Chet I, et al. Phytoremediation: a novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants. Biotechnology 1995; 13: 468-75.

Susarla S, Medina VF, McCutcheon SC. Phytoremediation: an ecological solution to organic chemical contamination. Ecol Eng J 2002; 18: 647-58.

Baker AJM, McGrath SP, Sidoli CMD, Reeves RD. The possibility of in situ heavy metal decontamination of polluted soil using crops of metal-accumulating plants. Resour Conserv Recycling 1994; 11: 41-9.

McGrath SP, Zhao FJ. Phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from contaminated soils. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2003; 14: 277-82.

Ghosh M, Singh SP. A comparative study of cadmium phytoextraction by accumulator and weed species. Environ Pollut 2005; 133: 365-71.

Meers E, Ruttens A, Hopgood M, Lesage E, Tack FMG. Potential of Brassica rapa, Cannabis sativa, Helianthus annuus and Zea mays for phytoextraction of heavy metals from calcareous dredged sediment derived soils. Chemosphere 2005; 61: 561-72.

Solhi M, Shareatmadari H, Hajabbasi MA. Lead and zinc extraction potential of two common crop plants, Helianthus annuus and Brassica napus. Water Air Soil Pollut 2005; 167: 59-71.

Szabo L, Fodor L. Uptake of microelements by crops grown on heavy metal-amended soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 2006; 37: 2679-89.

Cui YS, Wang QR, Dong YT, Li HF, Christie P. Enhanced uptake of soil Pb and Zn by Indian mustard and winter wheat following combined soil application of elemental sulphur and EDTA. Plant Soil 2004; 261: 181-8.

Turgut C, Pepe MK, Cutright TJ. The effect of EDTA and citric acid on phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from soil using Helianthus annuus. Environ Pollut 2004; 131: 147-54.

Lasat MM. Phytoextraction of toxic metals: a review of biological mechanisms. J Environ Qual 2002; 31: 109-20.

van Steenis CGGJ, den Hoed G, Eyma PJ. Flora for indonesian schools, 2nd ed. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff N.V. 1951.

Garrity GM, Brener DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT. Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Michigan: Springer 2005.

Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA, et al. Short protocols in molecular biology, 5th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2002.

Brosius J, Dull TJ, Sleeter DD, Noller HF. Gene organization and primary structure of a ribosomal RNA operon from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol 1981; 148: 107-27.

Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ. 16S rDNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol 1991; 173: 697-703.

Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T. Molecular cloning, 2nd ed. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press 1989.

Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, et al. Gapped BLAST and PSIBLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 1997; 25: 3389-402.

Lasat MM. Phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soil: a review of plant/soil/metal interaction and assessment of pertinent agronomic issues. JHSR 2000; 2: 1-25.

Chehregani A, Malayeri BE. Removal of heavy metals by native accumulator plants. Int J Agric Biol 2007; 9: 462-5.

Lee S, Usman ARA, Abd El-Azeem SAM, Awad YM, Kim M, Ham K, et al. Risk assessment and phytoremediation potential of native plant species for soils contaminated with Cr, Cu and As in Gangwon Province, Korea. J Agric Life Environ Sci 2011; 23: 22-33.

Agyarko K, Darteh E, Berlinger B. Metal levels in some refuse dump soils and plants in Ghana. Plant Soil Environ 2010; 56: 244-51.

Pinzon MSS, Pacheco AC, Quiceno CA, Guerrero RDT, Mejía AMG, Rosales RB. Botanical diversity and heavy metal content in the residue matrix and plants at the Moravia Dump in Medellin, Colombia. Rev Fac Nal Agr Medellín 2010; 63: 5209-24.

Amora-Lazcano E, Guerrero-Zuniga LA, Rodriguez-Tovar A, Rodriguez-Dorantes A, Vasquez-Murrieta MS. Rhizospheric plant-microbe interactions that enhance the remediation of contaminated soils. In: Mendez-Vilas A, Ed. Current research, technology and education topics in applied microbiology and microbial biotechnology, Vol. I. Badajoz: Formatex 2010; pp. 251-6.

Nouri J, Lorestani B, Yousefi N, Khorasani N, Hasani AH, Seif F, et al. Phytoremediation potential of native plants grown in the vicinity of Ahangaran lead–zinc mine (Hamedan, Iran). Environ Earth Sci 2011; 62: 639-44.

Prijambada ID, Wahjuningrum D, Soedarsono J. Effect of fluorescent pseudomonads-rhizospheric colonization on cadmium accumulation by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). J Biosci 1999; 10: 42-6.

Wu SC, Cheung KC, Luo YM, Wong MH. Effect of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea. Environ Pollut 2006; 140: 124-35.

Ma Y, Rajkumar M, Freitas H. Inoculation of plant growth promoting bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain Ax10 for the improvement of copper phytoextraction by Brassica juncea. J Environ Manage 2009; 90: 831-7.

Luo S, Xu T, Chen L, Chen J, Rao C, Xiao X, et al. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2012; 93: 1745-53.

Saharan BS, Nehra V. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: a critical review. LSMR 2011; 21: 1-30.

Prijambada ID, Proklamasiningsih E. Effect of organic acids amendment on the growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max) in Ultisol. Int J Agric Biol 2010; 12: 566-70.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2013 Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences