Use of Geospatial Techniques in Monitoring Urban Expansion and Land Use Change Analysis: A Case of Lahore, Pakistan


 Urban Expansion, Land use, Landsat 8, Remote sensing, Lahore.

How to Cite

Muhammad Nasar-u-minAllah Bhalli, & Abdul Ghaffar. (2015). Use of Geospatial Techniques in Monitoring Urban Expansion and Land Use Change Analysis: A Case of Lahore, Pakistan. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 11, 265–273.


Rapid urban expansion and resultant temporal land use changes have a profound effect on the city’s environment and its surroundings. Due to its significance, it is essential to evaluate the urban expansion patterns and land use change analysis of mega cities of the world. For land use change detection, multi-source & multi-temporal satellite images along with GIS & remote sensing (RS) techniques are significant aspects in analyzing urban expansion all over the world. In present study, two image data sets of the Landsat system in 7/ETM+ and 8/OLI modes, along with ground truthing data were utilized to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use changes and assess the spatial patterns of urban expansion in Lahore, Pakistan from the year 2000 & 2014. Supervised classification using maximum likelihood algorithm has been carried out for land use classification andPost classification change detection technique was used to produce change detection map of the study area. The output land use and change detection map revealed that the areal expansion has been attributed due to loss of agricultural land and urban sprawl while major change in land use has taken place in built-up and agricultural areas. The results indicated that 40.81% of built-up area increased, while agricultural land has decline by -12.98% during the study period (2000-2014). Due to this the observed expansion of the city has been toward the South-east, South and South-west along with major roads. The results infer can provide better understanding and information about the past and current spatial dynamics of land use change in Lahore, Pakistan.


Eckert S. Urban expansion and its impact on urban agriculture–remote sensing based change analysis of Kizinga and Mzinga valley–DAR ES SALAAM, Tanzania. EARSeL Proceedings 2011; 10(1): 46

Soffianian A, Nadoushan MA, Yaghmaei L, Falahatkar S. Mapping and analyzing urban expansion using remotely sensed imagery in Isfahan, Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal 2010; 9(12): 1370-1378.

Xiao J, Shen Y, Ge J, Tateishi R, Tang C, Liang Y, et al. Evaluating urban expansion and land use change in Shijiazhuang, China, by using GIS and remote sensing. Landscape and Urban Planning 2006; 75(1): 69-80.

Pabi O. Understanding land-use/cover change process for land and environmental resources use management policy in Ghana. Geo Journal 2007; 68(4): 369-383.

Bhardwaj P, Kumar S. Urban Expansion and Land Use Change Analysis of Karnal City in Haryana: A Study Based on Open Source Satellite Data. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 2012; 2(12): 182-186.

Long H, Wu X, Wang W, Dong G. Analysis of urban-rural land-use change during 1995-2006 and its policy dimensional driving forces in Chongqing, China. Sensors 2008; 8(2): 681-699.

Jat MK, Garg P, Khare D. Monitoring and modelling of urban sprawl using remote sensing and GIS techniques. International journal of Applied earth Observation and Geoinformation 2008; 10(1): 26-43.

United Nations. World urbanization prospects: The 2009 revision: United Nation, Department of Economic Social Affairs. Population Division 2010.

Un-habitat. State of the world's cities 2010/2011: bridging the urban divide: Routledge 2010

GOP. Pakistan economic survey 2010-2011. Islamabad: Finance Division Islamabad, Govt. of Pakistan 2011.

GOP. District Census Report of Lahore 1998. Islamabad, Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Govt. of Pakistan 2000.

Almas AS, Rahim C, Butt M, Shah TI, editors. Metropolitan Growth Monitoring and Land use Classification using Geospatial Techniques. Proceedings of International Workshop on Service and Application of Spatial Data Infrastructure, Hangzhou, China 2005.

Mandal RB. Urban Geography: A text book. Concept Publication Company, New Delhi 2000.

McIntyre NE, Knowles-Yánez K, Hope D. Urban ecology as an interdisciplinary field: differences in the use of “urban” between the social and natural sciences. Urban Ecosystems 2000; 4(1): 5-24.

Sudhira H, Ramachandra T, Jagadish K. Urban sprawl: metrics, dynamics and modelling using GIS. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 2004; 5(1): 29-39.

Yang X, Liu Z. Use of satellite-derived landscape imperviousness index to characterize urban spatial growth. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 2005; 29(5): 524-540.

Dewan AM, Yamaguchi Y. Land use and land cover change in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh: using remote sensing to promote sustainable urbanization. Applied Geography 2009; 29(3): 390-401.

Green K, Kempka D, Lackey L. Using Remote Sensing to Detect and Monitor Land-Cover and Land Use Change. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 1994; 60(3): 331-337.

Abd El-Kawy OR, Rød JK, Ismail HA, Suliman AS. Land use and land cover change detection in the western Nile delta of Egypt using remote sensing. Applied Geography 2011; 31(2): 483-494.

Mundia CN, Aniya M. Analysis of land use/cover changes and urban expansion of Nairobi city using remote sensing and GIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing 2005; 26(13): 2831-2849.

Batisani N, Yarnal B. Urban expansion in Centre County, Pennsylvania: spatial dynamics and landscape transformations. Applied Geography 2009; 29(2): 235-249.

Singh N, Kumar J. Urban Growth and Its Impact on Cityscape: A Geospatial Analysis of Rohtak City, India. Journal of Geographic Information System 2012; 4(1): 12-19.

GOP. Development Statistics. Bureau of Statistics, Govt. of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan 2013.

Veldkamp A, Fresco L. CLUE-CR: an integrated multi-scale model to simulate land use change scenarios in Costa Rica. Ecological Modelling 1996; 91(1): 231-248.

Ifatimehin OO. Remote sensing and GIS applications in urban expansion and loss of vegetation cover in Kaduna town, northern Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 2008; 2(2): 117-124.

Bhatta B. Analysis of urban growth pattern using remote sensing and GIS: a case study of Kolkata, India. International Journal of Remote Sensing 2009; 30(18): 4733-4746.

Jensen JR. Introductory digital image processing: a remote sensing perspective: Prentice-Hall Inc. 1996.

Jensen JR. Remote Sensing of the Environment: An Earth Resource Perspective 2/e: Pearson Education India 2009.

Shalaby A, Tateishi R. Remote sensing and GIS for mapping and monitoring land cover and land-use changes in the Northwestern coastal zone of Egypt. Applied Geography 2007; 27(1): 28-41.

Weng QA. Remote sensing? GIS evaluation of urban expansion and its impact on surface temperature in the Zhujiang Delta, China. International Journal of Remote Sensing 2001; 22(10): 1999-2014

Lillesand TM, Kiefer RW, Chipman JW. Remote sensing and image interpretation: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2004.

Fan F, Wang Y, Qiu M, Wang Z. Evaluating the temporal and spatial urban expansion patterns of Guangzhou from 1979 to 2003 by remote sensing and GIS methods. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 2009; 23(11): 1371-1388.

Anderson JR, Hardy EE, Roach JT, Witmer RE. A land-use and land-cover classification system for use with remote sensor data. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, Washington, DC. 1976.

Lins KS, Kleckner RL. Land cover mapping: An overview and history of the concepts. In Scott JM, Tear TH, Davis F, Eds., Gap analysis: A landscape approach to biodiversity planning 1996; 57-65.

Alsaaideh B, Al-Hanbali A, Tateishi R. Assessment of Land Use/Cover Change and Urban Expansion of the Central Part of Jordan Using Remote Sensing and GIS. Asian Journal of Geoinformatics 2012; 11(3).

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2015 Muhammad Nasar-u-minAllah Bhalli , Abdul Ghaffar