Effect of Different Techniques on Germination Efficacy and Antioxidant Capacity of Indigenous Legumes of Pakistan


 Legumes, germination methods, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity.

How to Cite

Dur-e-Shahwar Sattar, Tahira Mohsin Ali, & Abid Hasnain. (2015). Effect of Different Techniques on Germination Efficacy and Antioxidant Capacity of Indigenous Legumes of Pakistan. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 11, 348–353. https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2015.11.50


The present study investigated five different strategies for germination, utilizing distinctive substrata like jute bag, separating funnel, muslin cloth, filter paper and aluminum foil followed by evaluation of percent germination, radicle size, weight gain, total phenols and antioxidant activity of eleven indigenous legumes. The results revealed that jute bag displayed the most elevated percent germination in all legumes (84-96) % with the exception of kabuli chick pea, desi chick pea, garbanzo bean and cow pea which demonstrated improved percent germination when filter paper was utilized as substrata. The longest root length (3.1cm) was seen in cow pea when filter paper was used as substrata. It was additionally observed that jute bag demonstrated the highest increment in total phenolic compounds after germination in soy bean i.e. 6.3 mg gallic acid/gram. Among all germinated legumes, cowpea demonstrated the most elevated amount of total antioxidant activity (98.1%) when either filter paper or separating funnel was utilized. The results revealed that every bean requires optimum sprouting technique/conditions inorder to enhance its antioxidant capacity to maximum extent.



Salunke B, et al. Efficacy of flavonoids in controlling Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a post-harvest pest of grain legumes. Crop Protection 2005; 24(10): 888-893. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2005.01.013

Oke J, Hamburger M. Screening of some nigerian medicinal plants for antioxidant activity using 2, 2, diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl radical. African Journal of Biomedical Research 2002; 5(1-2).

Honke J, et al. Changes in quantities of inositol phosphates during maturation and germination of legume seeds. Zeitschrift für Lebensmitteluntersuchung und-Forschung A, 1998; 206(4): 279-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002170050257

Ismail HA, Fawzy AM. Effect of salicylic acid and propylgallate on antinutritional factors in pea(pisum sativum L.) seed. Minia Journal of Agriculture Research an Development 2001; 17: 139-158.

Martín-Cabrejas MA, et al. Influence of germination on the soluble carbohydrates and dietary fibre fractions in non- conventional legumes. Food Chemistry 2008; 107(3): 1045-1052. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.020

Rasha Mohamed K, et al. Effect of legume processing treatments individually or in combination on their phytic acid content. Afr J Food Sci Technol 2011; 2: 36-46.

Kestring D, et al. Imbibition phases and germination response of Mimosa bimucronata(Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) to water submersion. Aquatic Botany 2009; 91(2): 105-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2009.03.004

Duenas M, et al. Germination as a process to increase the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Food Chemistry 2009; 117(4): 599-607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.051

Nout M, Ngoddy P. Technological aspects of preparing affordable fermented complementary foods. Food Control 1997; 8(5): 279-287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(97)00001-7

Uwaegbute A, Iroegbu C, Eke O. Chemical and sensory evaluation of germinated cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and their products. Food Chemistry 2000; 68(2): 141-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00134-X

Aguilera Y, et al. Changes in Nonnutritional Factors and Antioxidant Activity during Germination of Nonconventional Legumes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2013; 61(34): 8120-8125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf4022652

Herken EN, et al. Effect of storage on the phytic acid content, total antioxidant capacity and organoleptic properties of macaroni enriched with cowpea flour. Journal of Food Engineering 2007; 78(1): 366-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.10.005

B?aszczak W, et al. Microstructural and biochemical changes in raw and germinated cowpea seeds upon high-pressure treatment. Food Research International 2007; 40(3): 415-423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2006.10.018

Hallén E, ?bano?lu ?, Ainsworth P. Effect of fermented/germinated cowpea flour addition on the rheological and baking properties of wheat flour. Journal of Food Engineering 2004; 63(2): 177-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00298-X

Perveen A, et al. Comparative germination of barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare) soaked in alkaline media and effects on starch and soluble proteins. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 2008; 12(3).

Waterhouse AL. Determination of total phenolics. Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry 2002.

Marinova G, Batchvarov V. Evaluation of the methods for determination of the free radical scavenging activity by DPPH. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 2011; 17(1): 11-24.

Mbithi S, et al. Effects of sprouting on nutrient and antinutrient composition of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris var. Rose coco). European Food Research and Technology 2001; 212(2): 188-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002170000200

Patel M, Venkateswara Rao G. Effect of Untreated, Roasted and Germinated Black Gram (Phaseolus mungo) Flours on the Physico-chemical and Biscuit (Cookie) Making Characteristics of Soft Wheat Flour. Journal of Cereal Science 1995; 22(3): 285-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcrs.1995.0065

Ghavidel RA, Prakash J. The impact of germination and dehulling on nutrients, antinutrients, in vitro iron and calcium bioavailability and in vitro starch and protein digestibility of some legume seeds. LWT-Food Science and Technology 2007; 40(7): 1292-1299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2006.08.002

Khattak AB, et al. Influence of germination techniques on phytic acid and polyphenols content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts. Food Chemistry 2007; 104(3): 1074-1079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.022

Labaneiah M, Luh B. Changes of starch, crude fiber, and oligosaccharides in germinating dry beans [Kidney beans, cowpeas, nutritive value of bean sprouts

Lin P-Y, Lai H-M. Bioactive compounds in legumes and their germinated products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2006; 54(11): 3807-3814. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf060002o

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2015 Dur-e-Shahwar Sattar, Tahira Mohsin Ali , Abid Hasnain