Allelopathic Impact of Sorghum and Sunflower on Germinability and Seedling Growth of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)


 Sorghum, sunflower, allelopathy, cotton, germination, growth.

How to Cite

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Habib-ur-Rehman Memon, Mahmood Laghari, Abdul Wahid Baloch, & Muhammad Ali Ansari. (2016). Allelopathic Impact of Sorghum and Sunflower on Germinability and Seedling Growth of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 12, 98–102.


Sorghum and sunflower are considered as highly allelopathic plants with inhibitory efficacy on plants of other species. In a pot study, the phytotoxic potential of sorghum and sunflower shoot and root on germination and seedling growth of cotton was evaluated through soil incorporation of powders and spray of water extracts. The experiment was conducted at | department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam during Kharif (summer) 2010 and 2011. The analysis of pooled data suggested that all the powders and water extracts of both allelopathic crops caused substantial suppression of germination and related traits of cotton seedlings as compared to control (untreated). Sorghum shoot powder (10 g kg-1 soil) caused highest allelopathic effects and reduced cotton seed germination by 12.8%, root length by 45.4%, shoot length by 51.9%, fresh weight seedling-1 by 41.7% and dry weight seedling-1 by 36.7%, followed by sunflower shoot powder (10 g kg-1 soil) in phytotoxic efficiency for inhibiting seed germination, seedling growth and weight in contrast to control (untreated). Sorghum showed superiority over sunflower in allelopathic efficiency. Powder of both crops was found more allelopathic in contrast to water extract. Among plant parts phytotoxic potential, shoot proved higher in inhibitory effect than root. However, it was concluded from the results of present study that both sorghum and sunflower possess allelopathic compounds with growth suppressing ability which could be utilized for effective weed management in cotton under field conditions as eco-friendly low-cost alternate of herbicides with wise strategy.


GOP. Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2012-13. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Agriculture & Livestock Division (Economic Wing), Islamabad 2013.

Bhoi SK, Lakpale R, Jangre A, Mishra S. Studies on the effect of weed control methods on growth and yield attributes of hybrid cotton. Res J Agri Sci 2010; 1(4): 434-437.

Iqbal N, Cheema ZA, Khaliq A, Iqbal J. Possible reduction of S-metolachlor dose in combination with allelopathic crop water extracts in cotton. Abst, 1st Int Weed Sci Conf 23-26 October 2003; Weed Sci Soci Pak.

Bhowmik PC, Inderjit. Challenges and opportunities in implementing allelopathy for natural weed management. Crop Prot 2003; 22: 661-671.

Muhammad Z, Majeed A. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of sunflower on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). Pak J Bot 2014; 46(5): 1715-1718.

Bashir U, Javaid A, Bajwa R. Allelopathic effects of sunflower residue on growth of rice and subsequent wheat crop. Chilean J Agri Res 2012; 72(3): 326-331.

Mahmood K, Khaliq A, Cheema ZA, Arshad M. Allelopathic activity of Pakistani wheat genotypes against wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Pak J Agri Sci 2013; 50:169-176.

Hozayn M, Lateef EMA, Sharar FF, Monem AAA. Potential uses of sorghum and sunflower residues for weed control and to improve lentil yields. Allelopathy J 2011a; 27 (1): 15-22.

Iqbal J, Cheema ZA. Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) management in cotton with combined application of Sorgaab and S-metolachlor. Pak J Bot 2008; 40(6): 2383-2391.

Duke SO, Baerson SR, Rimando AM, Pan Z, Dayan FE, Belz RG. Biocontrol of weeds with allelopathy: conventional and transgenic approaches. Outlook Pest Manage 2007; 18: 54-58.

Anjum T, Bajwa R. Screening of sunflower varieties for their herbicidal potential against common weeds of wheat. J Sustain Agri 2008; 32(2): 213-229.

Hozayn M, Monem AAA, Lateef EMA. Crop residues, an effective tool for improving growth of wheat and suppression of some associated weeds. Allelopathy J 2011b; 27(2): 237-344.

Narwal SS, Palaniraj R, Sati SC. Role of allelopathy in crop production. Herbologia 2005; 6(2): 1-69.

Nouri H, Talab ZA, Tavassoli A. Effect of weed allelopathic of sorghum (Sorghum halepense) on germination and seedling growth of wheat, Alvand cultivar. Ann Biol Res 2012; 3(3): 1283-1293.

Khaliq A, Matloob A, Cheema ZA, Farooq M. Allelopathic activity of crop residue incorporation alone or mixed against rice and its associated grass weed jungle rice (Echinochloa colonum L.). Chilean J Agri Res 2011a; 71(3): 418-423.

Moosavi A, Afshari RT, Asadi A, Gharineh MH. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of leaf, stem and root of Sorghum bicolor on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata (L.). Not Sci Biol 2011; 3(2): 114-118.

Yarnia M, Benam MBK, Tabrizi EFM. Allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination and growth. J Food Agri Environ 2009; 7 (3&4): 770-774.

Kim SY, Datta SK, Robles RP, Kim KU. Lee SC Shin DH. Allelopathic effect of sorghum extract and residues on selected crops and weeds. Korean J Weed Sci 1993 ;14:34-41.

Cheema ZA, Luqman A, Khaliq A. Use of allelopathic extracts of sorghum and sunflower herbage for weed control in wheat. J Animal Plant Sci 1997; 7(3/4): 91-93.

Randhawa MA, Cheema ZA, Ali MA. Allelopathic effect of sorghum water extract on the germination and seedling growth of Trianthema portulacastrum. Int J Agri Biol 2002; 4(3): 383-384.

Anjum T, Bajwa R. The effect of sunflower leaf extracts on Chenopodium album in wheat fields in Pakistan. Crop Prot 2007; 26(9): 1390-1394.

Khaliq A, Matloob A, Farooq A, Mushtaq MN, Khan MB. Effect of crop residues applied isolated or in combination on the germination and seedling growth of horse purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum). Planta Daninha 2011b; 29(1): 418-423.

Matloob, A, Khaliq A, Farooq M, Cheema ZA. Quantification of allelopathic potential of different crop residues for the purple nutsedge suppression. Pak J Weed Sci Res 2010; 16(1): 1-12.

Asgharipour MR. Inhibitory effects of sunflower root and leaf extracts on germination and early seedling growth of amaranth and purple nutsedge. Adv Environ Biol 2011; 5(11): 3550-3555.

Sadeghi S, Rahnavard A, Ashrafi ZY. Allelopathic effect of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on Solarium nigrum (black nightshade) seed germination and growth in laboratory condition. J Hort Sci Ornamen Plants 2010; 2(1): 32-37.

Tesio F, Ferrero A. Allelopathy, a chance for sustainable weed management. Int J Sustain Develop World Ecol 2010; 17(5): 377-389.

Jamil M, Cheema ZA, Mushtaq MN, Farooq M, Cheema M.A. Alternative control of wild oat and canary grass in wheat fields by allelopathic plant water extracts. Agron Sustainable Dev 2009; 29(3): 472-482.

Alsaadawi IS, Khaliq A, Al-Temimi AA, Matloob A. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba). Planta Daninha 2011; 29(4): 849-859.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2016 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Habib-ur-Rehman Memon, Mahmood Laghari, Abdul Wahid Baloch , Muhammad Ali Ansari