In this study we investigated the meteorological data comprising temperature, dew point, humidity and mean sea level for four major cities of Pakistan (Karachi, Multan, Lahore and Peshawar) on varying latitudes from 25°N to 34°N. These cities are selected to study the variation of coastal, southern, central and northern parts of Pakistan and different variations are observed in ranges i.e difference between lowest and highest values. A clear variation in ranges of meteorological parameters are investigated for these cities to validate this research. This variation in meteorological parameters is because of climate change due to flow of high moisture laden winds from Arabian sea towards Karachi coast in the south. The results obtained regarding dew point temperature, moisture content and atmospheric pressure in the southern city of Karachi represent low values instead of high. As a result, Karachi has different climatic patterns as a coastal city than other areas which are continental in climatic effects.
Chaudhary QZ, Rasul, G. Agro-Climatic Classification of Pakistan. Science Vision 2004; 9(1-2): 59-66.
Afzaal M, Haroon MA, Zaman UQ. Interdecadal Oscillations and the Warming Trend in the Area-Weighted Annual Mean Temperature of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Meteorology 2009; 6(11): 13-19.
De Scally FA. Relative importance of snow accumulation and monsoon rainfall for estimating the annual runoff, Jhelum basin, Pakistan. Hydrolog Sci J 1994; 39(3): 199-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626669409492738
World Meteorological Organization, Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observations, WMO No. 8, 7th edition, WMO. Geneva; 2008. https://www.wmo.int/pages/ prog/gcos/documents/gruanmanuals/CIMO/CIMO_Guide-7th_Edition-2008.pdf
Krishnan A, Nick B, Simos Y, Szokolay SV. Climate responsive Architecture, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi 2001.
Rasul G, Afzal M, Zahid M, Bukhari AS. Technical report on Climate change in Pakistan, focused on Sindh province, Technical report No. PMD-25/2012: 1-55; 2012.
Salma S, Rehman S, Shah MA. Rainfall Trends in Different Climate Zones of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Meteorology 2012; 9(17): 37-47.
Li-Chung W, Chia Chuen K, Tai-Wen H, Yi-Fung W, Jong-Hao W. Spatial and Temporal Features of Regional Variations in Mean Sea Level around Taiwan. Open Journal of Marine Science 2012; 2: 58-65. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojms.2012.22008
Troy RB, Karen SH, Brian JH, Brandon CM, Von PW. Seasonal and Synoptic Variations in Near-Surface Air Temperature Lapse Rates in a Mountainous Basin, American Meteorological Society 2008; 249-261. doi: 10.1175/2007JAMC1565.1.
Jianping L, Qingcun Z. A unified monsoon index, Geophysical research letters. An AGU Journal 2002; 29(8): 115-1-115-4.doi: 10.1029/2001GL013874.
Richard KJ. Daily spatial and secular variations of atmospheric humidity in a small city. Journal of Applied Meteorology 1973; 12: 639-648. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1973)012<0639:DSASVO>2.0.CO;2
Mortuza R, Selmi S, Khudri M, Ankur KA, Rahman M. Evaluation of temporal and spatial trends in relative humidity and dew point temperature in Bangladesh. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 2014; 7(12): 5037-5050. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-013-1139-3
Mock JC, Bartlein JP, Anderson MP. Atmospheric circulation patterns and spatial climatic variations in beringia. Int J Climatol 1998; 10: 1085-1104. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199808)18:10<1085::AID-JOC305>3.0.CO;2-K
Rimkus E, Kažys J, Bukantis A, Krotovas A. Temporal variation of extreme precipitation events in Lithuania. Elsevier 2011; 53(11): 259-277. doi:10.5697/oc.53-1- TI.259 Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S0078323411500417
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2017 Jahanzeb Qureshi, Amer Masood, Waqas Shafi, M. Abrar Hussain , Syed Amer Mahmood