An Empirical Analysis of a Process Industry to Explore the Accident Causation Factors: A Case Study of a Textile Mill in Pakistan


Empirical analysis, Accident causation, Process industries, Structural equation modelling, Industrial Safety.

How to Cite

Muhammad Ali Bin Manzoor, Salman Hussain, Wasim Ahmad, & Mirza Jahanzaib. (2018). An Empirical Analysis of a Process Industry to Explore the Accident Causation Factors: A Case Study of a Textile Mill in Pakistan. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 14, 72–79.


Industrial revolutions not only improved the general lifestyle of individuals but also brought an increase in the diversity of the manufactured goods. This diversification involved use of advanced technology and complex methods that entailed dangerous conditions. According to international labor organization, occupational accidents cause death of more than two million individuals each year in different industries. Process industries are complex in nature and tend to lead to more accidents. In Pakistan among the process industries, textile mills are the most accident prone industries in recent times. Therefore, an empirical analysis of a textile process industry has been done using structural equation modelling to examine the interactions between the contributory factors of accidents. Results revealed that unsafe acts are a major contributor to human error, equipment error and unsafe environment that in turn lead to the calamities and disasters that can be avoided with proper safety measures in place.


Haghighi, M., et al., Safety Culture Promotion Intervention Program (SCPIP) in an oil refinery factory: an integrated application of Geller and Health Belief Models. Safety science, 2017. 93: p. 76-85.

Pakistan Economic Survey 2015-16. Available from:

Labor Force Survey 2014-15. Available from:

Sarkar, S., S. Vinay, and J. Maiti. Text mining based safety risk assessment and prediction of occupational accidents in a steel plant. in 2016 International Conference on Computational Techniques in Information and Communication Technologies (ICCTICT). 2016. IEEE.

Kannan, P., et al., A web-based collection and analysis of process safety incidents. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2016. 44: p. 171-192.

Reason, J., Human error. 1990: Cambridge university press.

Commission, U.N.R., Technical basis and implemen` `tation guidelines for a technique for human event analysis (ATHEANA). NUREG-1624, Rev, 2000. 1.

Reason, J., Managing the risks of organizational accidents. 2016: Routledge.

Kannapin, O., K. Pawlik, and F. Zinn, The pattern of variables predicting self-reported environmental behavior. Zeitschrift fur experimentelle Psychologie: Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Psychologie, 1998. 45(4): p. 365-377.

Bahr, N.J., System safety engineering and risk assessment: a practical approach. 2014: CRC Press.

Zhang, Y., et al., Analysis 320 coal mine accidents using structural equation modeling with unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations as exogenous variables. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2016. 92: p. 189-201.

Shappell, S.A. and D.A. Wiegmann, The human factors analysis and classification system--HFACS. 2000, US Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine.

Wagenaar, W.A., P.T. Hudson, and J.T. Reason, Cognitive failures and accidents. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 1990. 4(4): p. 273-294.

Kidam, K. and M. Hurme, Analysis of equipment failures as contributors to chemical process accidents. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2013. 91(1): p. 61-78.

Cheng, C.-W., et al., Applying data mining techniques to explore factors contributing to occupational injuries in Taiwan's construction industry. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2012. 48: p. 214-222.

Pennie, D., N. Brook-Carter, and W. Gibson. Human factors guidance for maintenance. in Human factors in Ship Design, Safety and Operation Conference. 2007.

Stanton, N.A., et al., Predicting pilot error: testing a new methodology and a multi-methods and analysts approach. Applied ergonomics, 2009. 40(3): p. 464-471.

Hofmann, D.A. and A. Stetzer, A cross?level investigation of factors influencing unsafe behaviors and accidents. Personnel psychology, 1996. 49(2): p. 307-339.

Heinrich, H.W., et al., Industrial accident prevention: A safety management approach. 1980: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Kidam, K. and M. Hurme, Statistical analysis of contributors to chemical process accidents. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 2013. 36(1): p. 167-176.

Hamid, A.R.A., M.Z.A. Majid, and B. Singh, Causes of accidents at construction sites. Malaysian journal of civil engineering, 2008. 20(2): p. 242-259.

Vinnem, J.E., On the analysis of hydrocarbon leaks in the Norwegian offshore industry. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2012. 25(4): p. 709-717.

Cullen, L., The Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster, Vols. 1 and 2 (Report to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Energy by Command of Her Majesty, November 1990). T ech. Rep. Her Majesty’s Government, London, 1990.

Mehta, P.K. and R.W. Burrows, Building durable structures in the 21 st century. Indian Concrete Journal, 2001. 75(7): p. 437-443.

Arezes, P. and P. Carvalho, Advances in Safety Management and Human Factors. Advances in Human, 2014.

Pranesh, V., et al., Lack of dynamic leadership skills and human failure contribution analysis to manage risk in deep water horizon oil platform. Safety science, 2017. 92: p. 85-93.

Gabriel, P. and M.-R. Liimatainen, Mental health in the workplace: Introduction, executive summaries. 2000.

Majid, N.D.A., A.M. Shariff, and R. Rusli, Process Safety Management (PSM) for managing contractors in process plant. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2015. 37: p. 82-90.

Eckhoff, R., Current status and expected future trends in dust explosion research. Journal of loss prevention in the process industries, 2005. 18(4): p. 225-237.

Chidambaram, P., Perspectives on human factors in a shifting operational environment. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2016. 44: p. 112-118.

Okoh, P. and S. Haugen, A study of maintenance-related major accident cases in the 21st century. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2014. 92(4): p. 346-356.

Moreno, V.C., et al., Analysis of accidents in biogas production and upgrading. Renewable Energy, 2016. 96: p. 1127-1134.

Kvalheim, S.A. and Ø. Dahl, Safety compliance and safety climate: a repeated cross-sectional study in the oil and gas industry. Journal of safety research, 2016. 59: p. 33-41.

Haugen, S., J.E. Vinnem, and J. Seljelid. Analysis of causes of hydrocarbon leaks from process plants. in SPE European health, safety and environmental conference in oil and gas exploration and production. 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Kidam, K. and M. Hurme, Origin of equipment design and operation errors. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2012. 25(6): p. 937-949.

Salminen, S. and M. Heiskanen, Correlations between traffic, occupational, sports, and home accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 1997. 29(1): p. 33-36.

Visser, E., et al., Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2007. 39(3): p. 556-564.

García-Herrero, S., et al., Working conditions, psychological/physical symptoms and occupational accidents. Bayesian network models. Safety science, 2012. 50(9): p. 1760-1774.

Fazi, H.M., et al. Ergonomics study for workers at food production industry. in MATEC Web of Conferences. 2017. EDP Sciences.

Guldenmund, F.W., (Mis) understanding safety culture and its relationship to safety management. Risk analysis, 2010. 30(10): p. 1466-1480.

Turner, B. and M.-m. Disasters, Wykeham Publications. 1978, London.

Willamson, A. and A.-M. Feyer, Behavioural epidemiology as a tool for accident research. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 1990. 12(1-3): p. 207-222.

Høivik, D., et al., An explorative study of health, safety and environment culture in a Norwegian petroleum company. Safety Science, 2009. 47(7): p. 992-1001.

Fernández-Muñiz, B., J.M. Montes-Peón, and C.J. Vázquez-Ordás, Relation between occupational safety management and firm performance. Safety science, 2009. 47(7): p. 980-991.

Vinodkumar, M. and M. Bhasi, Safety climate factors and its relationship with accidents and personal attributes in the chemical industry. Safety Science, 2009. 47(5): p. 659-667.

Kline, R.B., Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. 2015: Guilford publications.

Lomax, R.G. and R.E. Schumacker, A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. 2012: Routledge Academic New York, NY.

Goossens, R.H., Advances in Social & Occupational Ergonomics.

Fabrigar, L.R., R.D. Porter, and M.E. Norris, Some things you should know about structural equation modeling but never thought to ask. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2010. 20(2): p. 221-225.

Litwin, M.S. and A. Fink, How to measure survey reliability and validity. Vol. 7. 1995: Sage.

Netemeyer, R.G., W.O. Bearden, and S. Sharma, Scaling procedures: Issues and applications. 2003: Sage Publications.

Xiong, B., M. Skitmore, and B. Xia, A critical review of structural equation modeling applications in construction research. Automation in Construction, 2015. 49: p. 59-70.

Awang, Z., Structural equation modeling using AMOS graphic. 2012: Penerbit Universiti Teknologi MARA.

Ullman, J.B., Structural equation modeling: Reviewing the basics and moving forward. Journal of personality assessment, 2006. 87(1): p. 35-50.

Wu, C., et al., Core dimensions of the construction safety climate for a standardized safety-climate measurement. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 2015. 141(8): p. 04015018.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences