Microplastics pollution has been receiving extensive attention globally with its presence felt in both remote and pristine coastal marine environments. Defined as plastics with diameters of 5mm or less and originating from primary and secondary sources, its impact is still not fully understood. Our investigation was conducted along two northern states in Peninsular Malaysia, i.e. Pulau Pinang and Kedah, to quantify microplastics occurrence in the surface waters. Seawater samples were collected from different sampling stations using a 355µm manta net. The plastics was removed from the water samples by density separation, treated with hydrogen peroxide and were identified using a stereo microscope. Microplastics occurred at all sampling stations with numbers varying from 8 to 73 particles/L. Samples were dominated by fragment and filament shapes. Sizes (2 to 3mm) and white colouration were found to be dominant. Future research is suggested to the identification of polymer type and a better understanding of its impact on marine communities.
Fendall LS, Sewell MA. Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: Microplastics in facial cleansers. Mar Pollut Bull 2009; 58: 768-771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.04.025
Zarfl C, Matthies M. Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the Arctic? Mar. Pollut Bull 2010; 60(10): 1810-1814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.05.026
Barra R, Leonard S, Whaley C, Bierbaum R. Plastics and the circular economy. Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel to the Global Environment Facility. Washington, DC 2018.
Jambeck JR, Geyer R, Wilcox C, Siegler TR, Perryman M, Andrady A, Narayan R. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science 2015; 347(6223): 768-771. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1260352
Eriksen M, Lebreton LCM, Carson HS, Thiel M, Moore CJ, Borerro JC, Galgani F, Ryan PG, Reisser J. Plastic pollution in the world's oceans: More than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250,000 tons afloat at sea. PLoS ONE 2014; 9(12): e111913. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913
Rothstein SI. Plastic particle pollution of the surface of the Atlantic Ocean: evidence from a sea bird. The Condor 1973; 5(3): 344-345. https://doi.org/10.2307/1366176
Li J, Green C, Reynolds A, Shi H, Rotchell J. Microplastics in mussels sampled from coastal waters and supermarkets in the United Kingdom. Environ Poll 2018; 241: 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.038
Ibrahim YS, Rathnam R, Tuan Anuar S, Wan Mohd Khalik WMA. Isolation and characterization of microplastic abundance in Lates calcarifer from Setiu wetlands, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences 2017; 21(5): 1054-1064. https://doi.org/10.17576/mjas-2017-2105-07
Diepens NJ, Koelmans AA. Accumulation of plastic debris and associated contaminants in aquatic food webs. Environ Sci Tech 2018; 52(15): 8510-8520. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b02515
Su L, Deng H, Li B, Chen Q, Pettigrove V, Wu C, Shi H. The occurrence of microplastic in specific organs in commercially caught fishes from coast and estuary area of east China. J Hazard Mater 2018; 365: 716-724. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.11.024
Moos MN, Burkhardt-Holm P, Kohler A. Uptake and effects of microplastics on cells and tissue of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. after an experimental exposure. Environ Sci Technol 2012; 46(20): 11327-11335. https://doi.org/10.1021/es302332w
Browne MA, Dissanayake A, Galloway TS, Lowe DM, Thompson RC. Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L) Environ Sci Technol 2008; 42: 5026-5031. https://doi.org/10.1021/es800249a
Collard F, Gilbert G, Compère G, Eppe G, Das T, Jauniaux T, Parmentier E. Microplastics in livers of European anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.) Environ Pollut 2017; 229: 1000-1005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.089
Ding J, Zhang S, Razanajatovo RM, Zou H, Zhu W. Accumulation, tissue distribution, and biochemical effects of polystyrene microplastics in the freshwater fish red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Environ Pollut 2018; 238: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.03.001
Lusher A, Hollman P, Mendoza-Hill J. Microplastics in fisheries and aquaculture: Status of knowledge on their occurrence and implications for aquatic organisms and food safety. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper 2017; pp. 615.
Rochman CM, Hoh E, Kurobe T, The SJ. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress. Sci Rep 2013; 3(3263). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep03263
Johnson NG, Burnett LE, Burnett KG. Properties of bacteria that trigger hemocytopenia in the Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Biol Bull 2011; 221(2): 164-175. https://doi.org/10.1086/BBLv221n2p164
Köhler A. Cellular fate of organic compounds in marine invertebrates. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 2010; pp. 157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.06.020
Jedrychowski MP, Wrann CD, Paulo JA, Gerber KK, Szpyt J, Robinson MM, Nait KS, Gygi SP, Spiegelman BM. Detection and Quantitation of Circulating Human Irisin by Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Cell Metab 2015; 22(4): 734-740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2015.08.001
Porte C, Janer G, Lorusso LC, Ortiz-Zarragoitia M, Cajaraville MP, Fossi MC, Canesi L. Endocrine disruptors in marine organisms: approaches and perspectives. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2006; 143(3): 303-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2006.03.004
Stevenson C. Plastic debris in the california marine ecosystem: A summary of current research, solution strategies and data gaps. University of Southern California Sea Grant, Oakland, USA 2011.
Hurley R, Woodward J, Rothwell JJ. Microplastic contamination of river beds significantly reduced by catchment-wide flooding. Nature Geosci 2018; 11: 251-257. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0080-1
Barasarathi J, Agamuthu P, Emenike C, Fauziah S. Microplastic abundance in selected mangrove forest in Malaysia. Paper presented at Proceeding of the ASEAN Conference on Science and Technology, Bogor, Indonesia 2014.
Noik JV, Tuah PM. A first survey on the abundance of plastics fragments and particles on two sandy beaches in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2015; 78(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/78/1/012035
Ibrahim YS. Microplastics ingestion by Scapharca cornea at Setiu Wetland, Terengganu, Malaysia. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 2016; 24: 2129-2136.
Karami A, Golieskardi A, Ho YB, Larat V, Salamatinia B. Microplastics in eviscerated flesh and excised organs of dried fish. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1): 5473. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05828-6
Tourism Malaysia. Garis panduan pendaftaran Homestay Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur. Ministry of Tourism 2017.
National Higher Education Research Institute. The State of Penang, Malaysia: Self-Evaluation Report, OECD Reviews of Higher Education in Regional and City Development, IMHE 2010. Accessed April 2020. Available from http://www.oecd.org/edu/imhe/regionaldevelopment.
Viršek MP, Andreja K, Špela P, Monika H, Petra KA. Protocol for microplastics sampling on the sea surface and sample analysis. J Vis Exp 2016; 118.
Masura J, Baker J, Foster G, Arthur C. Laboratory methods for the analysis of microplastics in themarine environment: recommendations for quantifying synthetic particles in waters and sediments 2015. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS-OR&R-48.
Rivers ML, Gwinnett C, Woodall LC. Quantification is more than counting: Actions required to accurately quantify and report isolated marine microplastics. Mar Pollut Bull 2019; 139: 100-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.12.024
Holt GJ. Larval fish nutrition. Wiley-Blackwell. Chichester, England 2011. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470959862
Steer M, Cole M, Thompson R, Lindeque P. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel. Environ Pollut 2017; 226: 250-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.03.062
Yufera M. Emerging issues in fish larvae research. Springer International Publishing AG. Cham, Switzerland 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73244-2
Khalik W, Anuar S, Ibrahim Y, Govindasamy S, Baharuddin N. Microplastics analysis in Malaysian marine waters: A field study of Kuala Nerus and Kuantan. Mar Pollut Bull 2018; 135: 451-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.07.052
Amin RM, Sohaimi ES, Anuar ST, Bachok Z. Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton in Terengganu coastal waters, southern South China Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 2020; 150: 110616. ttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110616
Sarijan S, Azman S, Said MIM, Andu Y, Zon NF. Microplastics in sediment from Skudai and Tebrau river, Malaysia: A preliminary study. MATEC Web of Conferences 2018; 250(1): 06012. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201825006012
Song YK, Hong SH, Jang M, Han GM, Shim WJ. Occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the sea surface microlayer in Jinhae Bay, South Korea. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2015; 69: 279-287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-015-0209-9
Qu X, Su L, Li H, Liang M, Shi H. Assessing the relationship between the abundane and properties of miroplastics in seawater and in mussels. Sci Total Environ 2018; 621: 679-686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.284
Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Population distribution by local authority areas and mukims 2010. Accessed May 2020. Available from www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php? (Accessed on April 2020).
Browne MA, Crump P, Niven SJ, Teuten E, Tonkin A, Galloway T, Thompson R. Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines worldwide: sources and sinks. Environ Sci Technol 2011; 45(21): 9175-9179. https://doi.org/10.1021/es201811s
Norizawati MA, Azizul A, Badaruddin M. Spatial distributions of tourist in Langkawi Island. Proceedings of International Conference on Tourism Development. Pulau Pinang, Malaysia February 2013.
Martin J, Lusher A, Thompson RC, Morley A. The deposition and accumulation of microplastics in marine sediments and bottom water from the Irish Continental Shelf. Sci Rep 2017; 7: 10772. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11079-2
Andrady AL. Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 2011; 62(8): 1596-1605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.05.030
Gok KY. Sustainable solid waste policies and practice. The Penang Island Municipal Council Experience 2007.
Pariatamby A, Periaiah, N. Waste management challenges in sustainable development of islands 2007. Accessed on April 2020. Available from www.iswa.org/fileadmin/galleries/ General%20Assembly%20and%20WC%202010%2011%20Hamburg/Presentations/Pariatamby.pdf
Nel HA, Hean JW, Noundou XS, Froneman PW. Do microplastic loads reflect the population demographics along the southern African coastline? Mar Pollut Bull 2017; 115(1-2): 115-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.11.056
Nel HA, Froneman PW. A quantitative analysis of microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa. Mar Pollut Bull 2015; 101: 274-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.043
Marti E, Martin C, Cozar A, Duarte CM. Low abundance of plastic fragments in the surface waters of the Red Sea. Front Mar Sci 2017; 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00333
Sun X, Liang J, Zhu M, Zhao Y, Zhang B. Microplastics in seawater and zooplankton from the Yellow Sea. Environ Pollut 2018; 42(A): 585-595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.014
Alomar C, Estarellas F, Deudero S. Microplastics in the Mediterranean Sea: Deposition in coastal shallow sediments, spatial variation and preferential grain size. Mar Environ Res 2016; 115: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2016.01.005
Browne MA. Sources and pathways of microplastics to habitats. In: Bergmann M, Gutow L, Klages M, (Eds). Marine Anthropogenic Litter. Springer. Cham, Switzerland 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16510-3_9
Zhao S, Zhu L, Li D. Microplastic in three urban estuaries, China. Environ Pollut 2015; 206: 597-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.08.027
Liebezeit G, Dubaish F. Microplastics in beaches of the East Frisian Islands Spiekeroog and Kachelotplate. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2012; 89(1): 213-217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0642-7
Hays H, Cormons G. Plastic particles found in tern pellets, on coastal beaches and at factory sites. Mar Pollut Bull 1974; 5(3): 44-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(74)90234-3
Matsuguma YT, Hideshige K, Hidetoshi K, Hirohide S, Shigeaki S, Tokuma I, Maki O, Yohei B, Ruchaya Z, Mohamad W, Steven NB. Microplastics in sediment cores from Asia and Africa as indicators of temporal trends in plastic pollution. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2017; 73: 230-239. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0414-9
Nuelle MT, Dekiff JH, Remy D, Fries E. A new analytical approach for monitoring microplastics in marine sediments. Environ Pollut 2014; 184: 161-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.027
Gewert B, Ogonowski M, Barth A, MacLeod M. Abundance and composition of near surface microplastics and plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago, Baltic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 2017; 120 (1-2): 292-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.04.062
Martin EC, Sorell C, Avila J, Behrens S, Berry D, Cona L, Feldmann A, Ghanchi K, Hall E, Hinderliter J, Lane T, LeMay S, Loar M, Loewen K, Museousky Z, Nelson S, Ohlfs A, Ortega B, Ryan C, Seidel H, Straub A, Stucky K. Assessment of microplastics in the great plains: Comparing densities in water and benthic sediment across Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 2017; 122(3-4): 281-287. https://doi.org/10.1660/062.122.0315
Jang YC, Lee J, Hong S, Lee JS, Shim WJ, Song YK. Sources of plastic marine debris on beaches of Korea: More from the ocean than the land. Ocean Sci J 2014; 49(2): 151-162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12601-014-0015-8
Murphy M. Microplastics expert workshop report. Trash Free Waters Dialogue Meeting, USA 2017.
City Council of Georgetown, Penang: Past and Present 1786-1963. The Ganesh Printing Works. Supplementary Map, Penang, Malaysia 1966.
Dr. Nik & Associates Sdn. Bhd. The proposed reclamation and dredging works for the Penang South Reclamation (PSR): Environmental impact (2nd. schedule) study, Volume 2: Main report. Kerajaan Negeri Pulau Pinang 2017.
Ab Rahman F, Hassan NA, Ismail A, Baharudin BA. Dredging impact towards marine ecosystem and fisheries activity at Penang coastal area. IJRTE 2019; 8(1S): 415-421.
JRC (Joint Research Centre). Marine Litter: Technical recommendations for the implementation of MSFD requirements. European Union, Luxembourg 2011.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences