The ecosystem integrity of the Simanjiro Maasai steppe rangeland in Tanzania is threatened by the invasive plant Ipomoea hildebrandtii Vatke. However, its invasion status, impact and control techniques are unclear in the country. We conducted a study in Terrat and Sukuro villages in Simanjro District, Tanzania, to assess its invasion status and impact across grassland–woodland habitats using point sampling techniques. Key informant interviews and questionnaires were used to assess techniques used by the Maasai pastoralists to control I. hildebrandtii. A total of 10 plots (70 m2 each) with 9 quadrats (1 m2 each) in the invaded and non–invaded sites were established to study I. hildebrandtii invasions. The impact of I. hildebrandtii on rangelands was investigated by comparing herbage (herbaceous vegetation) species composition, richness, basal cover and biomass productivity between invaded and non–invaded plots. Results revealed that I. hildebrandtii invasion was higher in grass woodland habitats (90%) than in non-invaded plots. Non–invaded plots exhibited higher biomass productivity (0.289 ± 0.03 t DM/ha) than invaded plots (0.202 ± 0.02 t DM/ha). Furthermore, non–invaded plots had a higher basal cover (grasses: 54.71 ± 1.95%, forbs: 45.29 ± 1.95%) compared with invaded plots. We also recorded high native plants abundance in quadrats with low I. Hildebrandtii density (22.00 ± 1.36). Additionally, 81% of Maasai pastoralists reported to manually (uproot) control I. hildebrandtii. Based on the results of our study, we recommend further research and novel control techniques coupled with education to be implemented in the Simanjiro.
Belnap J, Ludwig JA, Wilcox BP, Betancourt JL, Dean WRJ, Hoffmann BD, et al. Introduced and invasive species in novel rangeland ecosystems: Friends or Foes? Rangeland Ecology Management 2012; 65: 569-78. https://doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-11-00157.1
DiTomaso JM, Masters RA, Peterson VF. Rangeland Invasive Plant Management. Rangelands 2010; 32(1): 43-7. https://doi.org/10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-09-00007.1
Adkins S, Shabbir A. Biology, ecology and management of the invasive parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.): Management of Parthenium weed. Pest Management Science 2014; 70(7): 1023-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3708
Dhileepan K. Biological control of Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus) in Australian rangeland translates to improved grass production. Weed science 2007; 55(5): 497-501. https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-07-045.1
Ojija F, Arnold SEJ, Treydte AC. Plant competition as an ecosystem-based management tool for suppressing Parthenium hysterophorus in rangelands. Rangelands 2021; 41(6): 239-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rala.2020.12.004
Axmacher JC, Sang W. Plant invasions in China - challenges and chances. van Kleunen M, editor. PLoS ONE 2013; 8(5): e64173. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064173
Sheil L. Naturalized and invasive plant species in the evergreen forests of the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 2008; 32(1): 66-71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1994.tb00556.x
Chance DP, McCollum JR, Street GM, Strickland BK, Lashley MA. Native species abundance buffers non-native plant invasibility following Intermediate forest management disturbances. Forest Science 2019; 65(3): 336-43. https://doi.org/10.1093/forsci/fxy059
Leweri C, Ojija F. Impact of anthropogenic habitat changes on insects: A case study of mount Loleza forest reserve. International Journal of Entomology Research 2018; 3(4): 36-43.
Masters RA, Sheley RL. Invited synthesis paper: Principles and practices for managing rangeland invasive plants. Journal of Range Management 2001; 54: 502-17. https://doi.org/10.2307/4003579
Ojija F, Manyanza NM. Distribution and Impact of Invasive Parthenium hysterophorus on Soil Around Arusha National Park, Tanzania. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 2021; 6(1): 21-27: 7.
Bajwa AA, Farooq M, Nawaz A, Yadav L, Chauhan BS, Adkins S. Impact of invasive plant species on the livelihoods of farming households: evidence from Parthenium hysterophorus invasion in rural Punjab, Pakistan. Biol Invasions 2019; 21(11): 3285-304. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-019-02047-0Ojija F, Ngimba C. Suppressive abilities of legume fodder plants against the invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae). Environmental and Sustainability Indictors 2021; 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indic.2021.100111
Vilà M, Espinar JL, Hejda M, Hulme PE, Jarošík V, Maron JL, et al. Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Ecology Letters 2011; 14(7): 702-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01628.x
Dawson W, Mndolwa AS, Burslem DFRP, Hulme PE. Assessing the risks of plant invasions arising from collections in tropical botanical gardens. Biodiversity and Conservation 2008; 17(8): 1979-95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-008-9345-0
Didham RK, Tylianakis JM, Hutchison MA, Ewers RM, Gemmell NJ. Are invasive species the drivers of ecological change? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 2005; 20(9): 470-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2005.07.006
Lopezaraiza-Mikel ME, Hayes RB, Whalley MR, Memmott J. The impact of an alien plant on a native plant-pollinator network: An experimental approach. Ecology Letters 2007; 10(7): 539-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01055.x
Ojija F, Arnold SEJ, Treydte AC. Bio-herbicide potential of naturalised Desmodium uncinatum crude leaf extract against the invasive plant species Parthenium hysterophorus. Biological Invasions 2019; 21(12): 3641-53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-019-02075-w
Ojija F, Arnold SEJ, Treydte AC. Impacts of alien invasive Parthenium hysterophorus on flower visitation by insects to co-flowering plants. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 2019; 13(5): 719-34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11829-019-09701-3
Callaway RM, Ridenour WM. Novel weapons: Invasive success and the evolution of increased competitive ability. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2004; 2(8): 436-43. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0436:NWISAT]2.0.CO;2
Bosco K, John MK, Everlyne KC, Robert N, Halima N, William MN. Key informant perceptions on the invasive Ipomoea plant species in Kajiado County, South Eastern Kenya. AFF 2015; 4(4): 195-9. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.aff.20150404.17
Aizen MA, Morales CL, Morales JM. Invasive mutualists erode native pollination webs. Simberloff D, editor. PLoS Biology 2008 Feb 12; 6(2): e31. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060031
Albrecht M, Ramis MR, Traveset A. Pollinator-mediated impacts of alien invasive plants on the pollination of native plants: the role of spatial scale and distinct behaviour among pollinator guilds. Biological Invasions 2016 Jul; 18(7): 1801-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-016-1121-6
Vilà M, Pujadas J. Land-use and socio-economic correlates of plant invasions in European and North African countries. Biological Conservation 2001 Aug; 100(3): 397-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00047-7
Witt ABR, Luke Q. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. Wallingford, CAB International; 2017. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781786392145.0000
CABI. Invasive species compendium: Parthenium hystero-phorus (parthenium weed). https://www.cabi.org/isc/ datasheet/45573. Accessed on 30-10-2019 2019.
Shackleton RT, Witt ABR, Piroris FM, van Wilgen BW. Distribution and socio-ecological impacts of the invasive alien cactus Opuntia stricta in eastern Africa. Biol Invasions 2017; 19(8): 2427-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1453-x
Duncan CA, Jachetta JJ, Brown ML, Carrithers VF, Clark JK, DiTOMASO JM, et al. Assessing the economic, environmental, and societal losses from invasive plants on rangeland and wildlands. Weed Technolog 2004; 18: 1411-6. https://doi.org/10.1614/0890-037X(2004)018[1411:ATEEAS]2.0.CO;2
Pratt CF, Constantine KL, Murphy ST. Economic impacts of invasive alien species on African smallholder livelihoods. Global Food Security 2017; 14: 31-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.011
CABI. Invasive species compendium: Ipomoea hildebrandtii. https: //www.cabi.org/ISC/datasheet/51512130. Accessed 25-09-2020 2020.
Msoffe FU, Kifugo SC, Said MY, Neselle MO, Van Gardingen P, Reid RS, et al. Drivers and impacts of land-use change in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania: an ecological, social and political analysis. Journal of Land Use Science 2011; 6(4): 261-81. https://doi.org/10.1080/1747423X.2010.511682
Nelson F. Natural conservationists? Evaluating the impact of pastoralist land use practices on Tanzania’s wildlife economy. Pastor Res Policy Pract 2012; 2(1): 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/2041-7136-2-15
Pius ZY, a, Christopher W. Livelihoods diversifications and implications on food security and poverty levels in the Maasai plains: The case of Simanjiro district, Northern Tanzania. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 2010; 4(3): 154-66. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJEST09.177
Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM, Nyangito MM, Mwang’ombe W, Ekaya WN, et al. The challenges posed by Ipomoea kituensis and the grass-weed interaction in a reseeded semi-arid environment in Kenya. International Journal of Current Research 2010; 10(12): 1-5.
Mworia JK, Kinyamario JI, John EA. Impact of the invader Ipomoea hildebrandtii on grass biomass, nitrogen mineralisation and determinants of its seedling establishment in Kajiado, Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 2009; 25(1): 11-6. https://doi.org/10.2989/AJRFS.2008.25.1.2.380
Witt A, Beale T, van Wilgen BW. An assessment of the distribution and potential ecological impacts of invasive alien plant species in eastern Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 2018; 73(3): 217-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/0035919X.2018.1529003
Frost WE, Smith EL. Biomass productivity and range condition on range sites in Southern Arizona. Journal of Range Management. 1991; 44(1): 64. https://doi.org/10.2307/4002641
Fan L, Chen Y, Yuan J, Yang Z. The effect of Lantana camara L. invasion on soil chemical and microbiological properties and plant biomass accumulation in southern China. Geoderma 2010; 154(3-4): 370-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.11.010
Ammondt SA, Litton CM. Competition between native Hawaiian plants and the invasive grass Megathyrsus maximus: Implications of functional diversity for ecological restoration. Restoration Ecology 2012; 20(5): 638-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00806.x
Wabuyele E, Lusweti A, Bisikwa J, Kyenune G, Clark K, Lotter WD, et al. A roadside survey of the invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in East Africa. Journal of East African Natural History 2015; 103(1): 49-57. https://doi.org/10.2982/028.103.0105
Li W, Luo J, Tian X, Soon Chow W, Sun Z, Zhang T, et al. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: Selecting valuable native plants to defeat them. Scientific Reports 2015; 5(1): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep11004
Ellison CA, Cock MJW. 10 Classical biological control of Mikania micrantha: The sustainable solution. CAB International 2017; 162-90. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781780646275.0162
Khan Z, Pickett J, Hassanali A, Hooper A, Midega C. Desmodium species and associated biochemical traits for controlling Striga species: present and future prospects. Weed Research 2008; 48(4): 302-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2008.00641.x
Frimpong JO, Ofori ESK, Yeboah S, Marri D, Offei BK, Apaatah F, et al. Evaluating the impact of synthetic herbicides on soil dwelling macrobes and the physical state of soil in an agro-ecosystem. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2018; 156: 205-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.03.034
DiTomaso JM. Invasive weeds in rangelands: Species, impacts, and management. Weed Science 2000; 48(2): 255-65. https://doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2000)048[0255:IWIRSI]2.0.CO;2
Čuda J, Skálová H, Janovský Z, Pyšek P. Competition among native and invasive Impatiens species: the roles of environmental factors, population density and life stage. AoB PLANTS 2015; 7. https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plv033
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.