Larvicidal Activities of Different Parts of Melia azedarach Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae)

Authors

  • Ikram Ilahi Departmrnt of Biotechnology, University of Malakand, Chakadara, Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Imran Khan Departmrnt of Biotechnology, University of Malakand, Chakadara, Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Mohammad Tariq Departmrnt of Biotechnology, University of Malakand, Chakadara, Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Izhar Ahmad Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.6000/1927‐5129.2012.08.01.27

Keywords:

Aqueous extracts, Culex quinquefasciatus, Mortality, LC50.

Abstract

Melia azedarach is a perennial tree, belongs to the family Meliaceae, and locally known as Tora Shandi in Swat and Dir regions of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (K.P.K). The present study was aimed to evaluate the larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts of different parts of Melia azedrach against Culex quinquefasciatus. Various concentrations (50, 100, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm) of aqueous extracts of leaves, fruits and bark of Melia azedarach were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. There occurred a continuous increase in mortality of 3rd and 4th instar larvae with increase in concentration of the extracts. At 50ppm, the fruit extract caused 1.6 + 2.2 % mortality, leaves extract 17.60 + 6.0 % and bark extract caused 17.60 + 7.3 % mortality. The LC50 value for fruits extract was 2035.13ppm, leaves extract 612.250ppm and for bark extract 368.3ppm. Among the aqueous extracts of fruits, leaves and bark, the aqueous extract of bark was proved to be more toxic and an efficient larvicidal against Culex quinquefasciatus. The findings of the present study indicate that the aqueous extract of the bark of Melia azedarach of Dir region of khyber pakhtunkhwa can serve as a good source of preparations for pest control especially mosquito control.

References

Watt GM, Brandwijk B. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E.S. Livingstone Ltd, Edinburg, London 1962; pp. 745.

Baquar SR. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Pakistan. Printas, Karachi, Pakistan 1989; pp. 279-280.

Vishnukanta AC, Rana. Melia azedarach: A phytopharmacological review. J Pharmacog Rev 2008; 2: 173-79.

Perry LM. Medicinal plants of East and Southeast Asia: Attributed properties and uses. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London 1980; pp: 262-279.

Ahmad M, Qureshi R, Arshad M, Khan MA, Zafar M. Traditional herb remedies used for the treatment of diabetes from district Attock (Pakistan). Pak J Botany 2009; 41(6): 2777-82.

Maciel MV, Morais SM, Bevilaqua CML, et al. Ovicidal and larvicidal of Melia azedarach extracts on Haemonchus contortus. Veterin Parasitol 2006; 140: 98-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.03.007

Wandscheer CB, Duque JE, da Silva, MAN, et al. Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of M. azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Toxicology 2004; 44: 829-35.

Sastry BS, Babu KS, Babu HT, et al. Synthesis and biological activity of amide derivatives of nimbolide. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2006; 16: 4391-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.05.105

Khillare B, Shrivastav TG. Spermicidal activity of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract. Contraception 2003; 68: 225-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-7824(03)00165-3

SaiRam M, Ilavazhagan G, Sharma, SK, et al. Anti-microbial activity of a new vaginal contraceptive NIM-76 from neem oil (Azadirachta indica). J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 71: 377-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00211-1

Ghahreman A. Chromophytes of Iran. 2nd ed. Tehran: Tehran University Publication 1994; pp. 342-4.

Nuyroha BW, Edrade RA, Wray V, et al. An insecticidal recaglamide derivatives and related compounds from Aglali odorata (Mwliaceae). Phytochemistry 1999; 51: 367–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00751-1

Nakatani BW, Abdelgaleil SAM, Saad MMG, Huang RC, Doe N, Iwagawa T. Phragmalin Limonoids from Chukrasia tabularis. Phytochemistry 2004; 65: 833-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.08.010

Schmidt GH, Rembol, H, Ahmed AAI, Breuer AM. Effect of Melia azedarach fruit extract on juvenile hormone titer and protein content in the hemolymph of two species of noctuid lepidopteran larvae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Phytoparasitica 1998; 26: 283-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02981442

Hammad MAF, Zournajian H, Talhouk S. Efficacy of extracts of Melia azedarach L. callus, leaves and fruits against adults of the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J Appl Entomol 2001; 125: 483-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0418.2001.00577.x

Gajmer T, Singh R, Saini RK, Kalidhar SB. Effect of methanolic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and bakain (Melia azedarach L.) seeds on oviposition and egg hatching of Earias vittella (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Appl Entomol 2002; 126: 238-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0418.2002.00649.x

Banchio E, Valladares G, Defago M, Palacios S, Carpinella C. Effects of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) fruit extracts on the leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae): Assessment in laboratory and field experiments. Ann Appl Biol 2003; 143: 187-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2003.tb00285.x

Schmutterer, H. Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica. Ann Rev Entomol 1990; 35: 271-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.35.010190.001415

Nathan S, Kalaivani K, Murugan K, Chung PG. The toxicity and physioiological effect of neem limonoids on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guene´ e), the rice leaffolder. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2005; 81: 113-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2004.10.004

Curtis CF.. Should DDT continue to be recommended for malaria vector control? Med Veterin Entomol 1994; 8: 107- 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.1994.tb00147.x

Collins FH, Paskewitz, SM. Malaria: current and future prospects for control. Ann Rev Entomol 1995; 40: 195-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.40.010195.001211

Gubler DJ. Resurgent vector borne diseases as a global health problem. Emerg Infect Dis 1998; 4: 442-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980326

Amer A, Mehlhorn H. Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 2006; 99: 466-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-006-0182-3

Knio KM, Usta J, Dagher S, Zournajian H, Kreydiyyeh S. Larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from commonly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. Bioresour Technol 2008; 99: 763-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.01.026

Rozendaal JA. Mosquitoes and other biting Diptera. In Vector Control; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland 1997; pp. 5-177.

Georghiou GP, Lagunes-tejeda A. The Occurrence of Resistance to Pesticides in Arthropods. Food Agriculture Organization Rome 1991.

Roel AR. Utilização de plantas com propriedades inseticidas: uma contribuição para o desenvolvimento rural sustentável. Interações 2001; 1: 43-50.

Bernhard L, Bernhard P, Magnussen P. Management of patients with lymphodema caused by filariasis in northeastern Tanzania. Alternat Approach Physiother 2003; 89: 743-49.

Borges LMF, Ferri HP, Silva WJ, Silva WC, Silva JG. In vitro efficacy of extracts of Melia azedarach against the tick Boophilus microplus. Med Veterin Entomol 2003; 17: 228-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2003.00426.x

Coria C, Almiron W, Valladers G, et al. Larvicidal and ovipos ition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Adese aegypti (Dipetra: Culicidae). Bioresour Technol 2008; 99(80): 3066-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.06.012

Nathan SS, Savitha G, George DK, Marmadha A, Suganya L, Chung PG. Efficacy of Melia azedarach L. extract on the malarial vector Anopheles stepheni Listone (Dipetra:Culicidae). Bioresour Technol 2006; 97: 1316-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.05.019

Al-Mehmadi RM, Al-Khalaf AA. Larvicidal and histological effects of Melia azedarach extract on Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). J King Saud Univer Sci 2010; 22: 77-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2010.02.004

Baraud PJ. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera Vol. 5, family Culicidae. Tribes Megarhinini and Culicini. Taylor and Francis, London, XXVIII. London 1934; pp. 463.

Harbach RE. The mosquitoes of the Subgenus Culex in South West Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae). Contribution of the American Entomological Institute 1988; pp. 24.

Luo, Lin-Er, van Loon JJA, Schoonhoven LM, Behavioural and sensory responses to some neem compounds by Pierisbrassicae larvae. Physiol Entomol 1995; 20: 134-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3032.1995.tb00809.x

Huang RC, Okamura H, Iwagawa T, Nakatani M. The structures of azedarachins, limonoid antifeedants from Chinese Melia azedarach Linn. Bull Chem Soc Japan 1994; 67: 2468-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.67.2468

Itokawa H, Qiao ZS, Hirobe C, Takeya K. Cytotoxic limonoids and etranortriterpenoids from Melia azedarach. Chem Pharmaceut Bull 1995; 43: 1171-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.43.1171

Bohnenstengel FI, Wray V, Witte L, Srivastava RP, Proksch P.. Insecticidal meliacarpins (C-seco limonoids) from Melia azedarach. Phytochemistry 1999; 50: 977-82.

Xiaodong L. Recent studies on insecticidal activities of limonoids from Meliaceous plants. Entomol Sin 1999, 6(3): 283-88.

Nogueira NFS, et al. Effect of azadirachtin A on the fine structure of the midgut of Rhodnius Prolixus. J Inverteb Pathol 1997; 69(1): 58-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jipa.1996.4635

Kiat T K. Melia azedarach poisoning. Singapore Med J 1969; 10(1).

Nathan SS, Sachoon K. Effect of Melia azedarach L. extract on the teak Defoliator Hyblaea puera Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae). Crop Protect 2006; 25(3): 287-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2005.03.023

Hadjiakhoondia A, Vatandoostb H, Khanavia M, et al. Fatty Acid Composition and Toxicity of Melia azedarach L. Fruits against Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Pharmaceut Sci 2006; 2(2): 97-102.

Downloads

Published

2012-02-28

How to Cite

Ilahi, I., Khan, I., Tariq, M., & Ahmad, I. (2012). Larvicidal Activities of Different Parts of Melia azedarach Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 8(1), 23–28. https://doi.org/10.6000/1927‐5129.2012.08.01.27

Issue

Section

Biotechnology