Development of Bittergourd Fermented Beverage Using Response Surface Methodology


 Bittergourd, Curd, Fermentation, RSM, Quinine, Vitamins.

How to Cite

C.S. Devaki, & K.S. Premavalli. (2012). Development of Bittergourd Fermented Beverage Using Response Surface Methodology . Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 2(1), 94–103.


Bittergourd (Momordica charantia) is used as a vegetable by the Asian community and is commonly used as an antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic agent. The aim of the present study was to develop nutritionally strengthful, highly acceptable, shelf stable bittergourd beverage by fermented process using statistical software on Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimization of the fermentation process with reference to curd concentration and the period has been attempted by using RSM with more emphasis on nutritional and functional considerations. The statistical design gave 13 formulations, where the fermentation process period varied from 6 to 34 hours and curd concentration was from 6.6 to 16.4%. The standard methodology was followed for the analysis of all the parameters studied. The product varied formulations had quinine range of 119 to 327.5 mg%, antioxidants 40.2 – 64.5%, total phenols 30.5 to 42.5 mg%, water soluble vitamins; B1 – 0.07 to 0.81 mg%, B2 – 0.02 to 0.28 mg%, B3 – 0.4 to 1.08 mg%, B6 – 0.04 to 0.32 mg% and vitamin-C – 17.2 to 34.6 mg%. Fermentation time for 30 hours and curd concentration of 15% was the optimized composition with the best fit of desirability 0.80. The product with the good taste and flavour was acceptable with 6.7 score on 9-pont hedonic scale. The fermented bittergourd beverage was preferred to fresh bittergourd juice.


Zia-ur-Rehman Z, Islam M, Shah WH. Effect of microwave and conventional cooking on insoluble dietary fibre components of vegetables. Food Chem 2003; 237-40.

Zhang D, Hamauzu Y. Phenolics, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of broccoli and their changes during conventional microwave cooking. Food Chem 2004; 88: 503- 9.

Buckenhuskes HJ, Holzapfel W. Genera Leuconostoc, Oenococcus and Weissella. Prokariotes 1997; 267-319.

Steinkraus KH. Indigenous fermented foods involving an acid fermentation: preserving and enhancing organoleptic and nutritional qualities if fresh foods. In: Steinkraus KH, editor. Handbook of indigenous fermented food, 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc 1996; pp. 111-13.

Karovicova Z, Kohajdova E, Hyenova. Chem Paper 2002; 56: 267-74.

Montet D, Loiseau G, Zakhia-Rozis N. Microbial technology of fermented vegetables. In: Ray RC, Ward OP. editors. Micorbial biotechnology in horticulture. Science Publishers Inc, Enfield, NH 2006; pp. 303-43.

McFeeters RF. Fermentation microorganisms and flavour changes in fermented food. J Food Sci 2004; 69: 35-37.

Wadikar DD, Nanjappa C, Premavalli KS, Bawa AS. Development of ginger based ready-to-eat appetizers by response surface methodology. Appetite 2010; 55: 76-83.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 12th ed. Washington, DC: AOAC International 1975.

Jittawan Kubola, Sirithon Siriamornpun. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of bittergourd (Momordica charantia L) leaf, stem and fruit fraction exracts in vitro. Food Chem 2008; 110: 881-90.

Ing H–Knauer. Rapid analysis of water-soluble vitamins using smartline HPLC.

[cited 2010 Apr] Available from: oluble_vitamins_hphp.pdf

Majumdar TK, Vasudish CR. Premavalli KS, Bawa AS. Studies on processing and storage stability of ashgourd-mint leaves juice. J Food Proc Preser 2010; 34(Pt 2): 549-56.

Othman A, Ismail A, Ghani NA, Adenan I. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of cocoa beans. Food Chem 2007; 100: 1523-30.

Lopez-Velez M, Maritinez_Maritinez F, Del Valle-Ribes C. The study of phenolic compounds as natural antioxidants in wine. Crit Rev Fd Sci Nutr 2003; 43: 233-44.

Li BB, Smith B, Hassain M. Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels I.solvent extraction method. Seperation Purification Technol 2006; 48: 182-88.

Govindarajan R, Singh DP, Rawat AKS. High performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of phenolics in chyavanprash a potent ayurvedic drug. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2007; 43: 527-32.

Wu SJ, Ng LT. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of wild bittermelon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbereviata Ser) in Taiwan. LWT – Food Sci Technol 2007.

Kusamran WR, Ratanavila A, Tepsuwan A. Effects of neem flowers, Thai and Chinese bitter gourd fruits and sweet basil leaves on hepatic monooxygenases and glutathione Stransferase activities, and in vitro metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens in rats. Fd Chem Toxicol 1998; 36: 475-84.

Yasui Y, Hosokawa M, Sahara T, et al. Bitter gourd seed fatty acid rich in 9c,11t,13t-conjugated linolenic acid induces apoptosis and up-regulates the GADD45, p53 and PPAR? in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005; 73(Pt 2): 113-9.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2012 C.S. Devaki, K.S. Premavalli