Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Current research is directed towards finding naturally occurring antioxidants of plant origin. Kalanchoe crenata Andr. (Crassulaceae), commonly known as "never die" or "Dog's liver," has been traditionally used for the treatment of ailments, such as, earache, smallpox, headache, inflammation, pain, asthma, palpitations, convulsion, and general debility. The aim of present research deals with phytochemical screening and in-vitro evaluation of antioxidant activities of the leaves & stems of K.crenata.
Method: Successive extracts of leaves & stems was subjected for phytochemical screening. The preliminary screening reports the presence of saponins, phytosterols, flavanoids, phenols and alkaloids in the extracts. Various extracts of K.crenata leaves & stems was studied in-vitro for total antioxidant activity, for scavenging of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, the antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum, reducing power determination and determination of phenolic and flavonoid content in the extracts. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydryzyl (DPPH) scavenging activity or the hydrogen donating capacity was quantified in presence of stable DPPH radical on the basis of Blois method. Nitric Oxide (NO) radical scavenging method was performed in the presence of nitric oxide generated from sodium nitroprusside using ascorbic acid as standard in both methods. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and flavonoid content was determined by aluminum chloride.
Result: The radical scavenging activity was found to dose dependent. Thus extract has been established as an antioxidant. The reducing capacity serves as significant indicator of antioxidant activity. The reducing power was found to increase with the increasing concentration of extract. The 100mg plant powder yielded 0.34, 0.49, 0.72, 0.98%w/wand 0.15, 0.23, 0.39, 0.56%w/w phenolic content in the benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol extracts of leaves and stems respectively using gallic acid as standard. Plant contains about 0.19, 0.29, 0.48, 0.64%w/w and 0.11, 0.17, 0.32, 0.47 %w/w of flavonoid content in the benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol extracts of leaves and stems respectively using quercetin as standard.
Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that different extracts of K.crenata leaves and stems is potential source of antioxidant activity. The extracts were found to contain phenolic compounds which could be responsible for the antioxidant properties. So K. crenata traditional use is justified in the present research work.
Adenike K, Eretan OB. Purification and partial characterization of a lectin from the fresh leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andr.) Haw. J Biochem Mol Biol 2004; 37(2): 229-33.
Kamboj A, Saluja AK. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz; Phytochemical and Pharmacological profile: A Review 2009; 3(6): 364-74.
Ebrahimzadeh MA, Pourmorad F, Bekhradnia AR. Iron chelating activity screening, phenol and flavonoid content of some medicinal plants from Iran. Afr J Biotechnol 2008a; 32: 43-49.
Ebrahimzadeh MA, Pourmorad F, Hafezi S. Antioxidant activities of Iranian corn silk. Turk J Biol 2008b; 32: 43-49.
Gaind KN, Gupta RL. Flavonoid glycosides from Kalanchoe pinnata. Plant. Med.1971; 20(4): 368-373.
Gill LS. In ‘The ethnomedical uses of plants in Nigeria.’ Published by University of Benin Press, University of Benin, Benin city, Edo State 1992; 46: 143.
Gyekyel IJ, Antwi DA, Bugyei KA, Awortwe C. Comparative study of two Kalanchoe species: total flavonoid, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties. AJPAC 2012; 6(5): 65-73.
Hosein HKM, Zinab D. Phenolic Compounds and antioxidant Activity of Henna Leaves Extacts (Lawsonia Inermis). World J Dairy Food Sci 2007; 2 (1): 38-41.
Li XM, Li XL, Zhou AG. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum fruits in vitro. Eur Polym J 2007; 43: 488-97.
Mani RP, Pandey A, Goswami S, Tripathi P, Kumudhavalli V, Singh AP. Phytochemical Screening and In-vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Antimicrobial activity of the Leaves of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr 2011; 1.
Marcocci L, Maguire JJ, Droy-Lefaix MT, Packer L. The nitric oxide-scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994; 201: 748-55.
Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma OG. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem 2005; 91: 571-77.
Molyneux P. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity, Songklanakarin. J Sci Technol 2004; 26(2): 211-19.
Nabavi SM, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Nabavi SF, Hamidinia A, Bekhradnia AR. Determination of antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoids content of Parrotia persica Mey. Pharmacologyonline 2008a; 2: 560-67.
Prieto P, Pineda M. Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex; Specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal Biochem 1998; 269: 337-41.
Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolic with phosphomolybdic acid-phosphotungistic acid reagents. Am J Enol Viticult 1965; 16: 144-58.
Sofowora A. In ‘Medical plants and traditional medicine in Africa.’ Published by Spectrum books Ltd. Ibadan. 1993; 156-158.
Sridharamurthy NB, Yogananda R, Sriniwas U. In-vitro Antioxidant and Antilipidemic Activities of Xanthium strumarium L. Curr Trends Biotechnol Pharm 2011; 5(3): 1362-71.
Theophil D, Agatha FL, Nguelefack TB, Asongalem EA, and Kamtchouing P. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts of Kalanchoe crenata. Indian J Pharmaceut 2006; 38: 115-17.
Yamagishi T, Haruna M, Yan XZ, Chang JJ, Lee KH. Antitumor Agents, 110, Bryophyllin B, A Novel Potent cytotoxic Bufadienolide from Bryophyllum Pinnatum. J Nat Prod 1989; 52(5): 1071-79.
Yen GC, Chen HY. Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J Agri Food Chem 1995; 43(1): 27-32.
Williams HM. Nutrition for health fitness and spot. 5th edition, published by Edward E. Bartell. USA 2003; pp. 209-210.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2012 Manisha Bhatti, Anjoo Kamboj , Ajay Kumar Saluja