The study was conducted to assess the quality of ground water from different Talukas of district Tando Muhammad Khan for drinking and agriculture purpose. Water samples for determining the water quality were collected in one liter polyethylene bags by observing standard sample collection method. It was ensured that sample collection sites must be at least 500 feet away from each other.Physical and chemical parameters of ground and surface water samples such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Turbidity, Colour, Taste, Odour, Alkalinity as CaCO3, Bicarbonate (HCO3), Carbonate (CO3), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Hardness, Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Chloride (Cl), Phosphate (PO4), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Arsenic (As) were determined.
The study clarified that pH and odour was within the permissible limits in majority of samples whereas, Arsenic (As),Hardness, Sodium (Na),Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Taste, Chloride (Cl) and turbidity were beyond the permissible limits set by WHO.
The groundwater status in Tando Muhammad Khan district, TDS in 50% samples, Chloride in 54.16% samples, Sulphate in 44.8% samples, Calcium in 38.5% samples, Sodium in 54.16% samples, hardness in 21.88% samples were beyond the WHO’s permissible limits for human consumption.
Edmunds WM. Renewable and non-renewable groundwater in semi-arid regions. Develop Water Sci 2003; 50: 265-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5648(03)80023-0
Packialakshmi S, Ambujam NK. A hydrochemical and geological investigation on the Mambakkam mini watershed, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, Environ Monit Assess 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2189-1
Biswas R, Khare D, Shaankar R. Water Management in Delhi: Issues, Challenges and Options. J Ind Water Works Assoc 2007; 39(2): 89-96.
Pesce SF, Wunderlin DA. Use of water quality indices to verify the impact of Cordoba city (Argentina) on Suquia river. Water Res 2000; 34: 2915-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00036-1
Holgate G. Environmental and Waste Management. 2000; 3: 105-12.
Government of Pakistan. Pakistan Millennium Development Goals Report. Planning Commission 2008; 75: 2008.
Government of Pakistan. Global Water Partnership. Draft South Asia - Water Vision 2025, Country Report 2000.
Kahlown MA, Tahir MA, Rasheed H, Bhatti KP. Water Quality Status, National Water Quality Monitoring Programme, Fourth Technical Report. Pakistan Council of Research in water Resources 2006.
Aziz JA. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2005; 11: 1087-98.
PCRWR. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) 2006-2007. Water Quality Report, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad 2007.
WWF. Water & health related issues in Pakistan 2007.
PCRWR. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) 2004-2005. Water Quality Report, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad 2005.
Ravikumar P, Somashekar RK. Multivariate analysis to evaluate geochemistry of groundwater in Varahi river basin of Udupi in Karnataka (India). The Ecoscan 2010; 4(2&3): 153- 62.
Aher KR. Groundwater Quality Studies of Chikalthana area of Aurangabad, Ph.D thesis submitted to Dr. B.A. Marathwada University, Aurangabad (MS) India 2012.
Deshpande SM, Aher KR. Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Drinking and Agriculture use in Parts of Vaijapur, District Aurangabad, MS, India. J Chem Sci 2012; 2(1): 25-31.
Ilyas A, Sarwar T. Assessment of physico-chemical and biological quality of drinking water in the vicinity of Palosi drain Peshawar. Pak J Appl Sci 2003; 3(1): 58-65.
Kaushik A, Kumar K, Kanchan, Tarun, Sharma HR. Water quality index and suitability assessment of urban ground water of Hisar and Panipat in Haryana. J Environ Biol 2012; 23(3): 325-33.
PCRWR. Water quality status in Pakistan, Publication No. 11- 2002, describing permissible limits of various water quality parameters in drinking water by WHO 2012.
Thirumathal K, Sivakumar AA. Ground water quality of Swaminathapuram, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu. J Ecotoxicol Environ Monitoring 2003; 13(4): 279-83.
Chaudhary S, Anuradha, Sastry KV. Ground water quality in Faridabad, an industrial town of Haryana. J Ecotoxicol Environ Monitoring 2005; 15(3): 263-71.
Naeem M, Khan K, Rehman S, Iqbal J. Environmental assessment of ground water quality of Lahore Area, Punjab, Pakistan. J Appl Sci 2007; 7(1): 41-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2007.41.46
Saleh A, Al-Ruwiah FM, Shehata M. Ground-water quality of the Nile west bank related to soil characteristics and geological setting. J Arid Environ 2001; 49(4): 761-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jare.2001.0793
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2014 Benish Nawaz Merani, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Shafi Muhammad Nizamani, Aasia Akbar Panhwar , Mahvish Jabeen Channa