The Effect of Mulberry Fruits Consumption on Lipid Profiles in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors

  • Anchalee Sirikanchanarod Mahidol University, 420/1 Rajchavithi Road, Rajchathevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
  • Akkarach Bumrungpert Mahidol University, 420/1 Rajchavithi Road, Rajchathevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
  • Wiroje Kaewruang Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 2175 Phahonyothin Road, Lat Yao, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
  • Tipanee Senawong Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 2175 Phahonyothin Road, Lat Yao, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
  • Patcharanee Pavadhgul Mahidol University, 420/1 Rajchavithi Road, Rajchathevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.01.2

Keywords:

Mulberry, Morus alba, Anthocyanin, Lipid profiles, Hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Abstract

Mulberry (Morus alba) fruit is abundant nutrients and phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins. Mulberries have anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects both in vitroand animal models. However, the effect of mulberry fruits on lipid profiles in human is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of mulberry fruit consumption on lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic subjects. This study is an experimental study, with a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-eight hypercholesterolemic subjects (aged 30-60 years) were recruited. The intervention group received freeze-dried mulberry 45 g (325 mg anthocyanins) per day for six weeks. The control group had their usual dietary intake for the same period of time. After six weeks, mulberry consumption significantly decreased the level of total cholesterol (TC) (- 3.73 % vs. 3.33 %, p < 0.001) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (- 6.53 % vs. 0.15 %, p < 0.001) compared to the control group. No change in triacylglycerol (TAG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mulberry consumption ameliorates TC and LDL-C concentrations. The mulberry fruits may be an alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemia patients and a cardiovascular disease protective for people in general.

References

World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommunicable disaeses 2014. Geneva: WHO Press; 2014.

Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 2006; 3: 2011-30.

Hawkins MA. Markers of increased cardiovascular risk: are we measuring the most appropriate parameters? Obes Res 2004; 12(Suppl 2): S107-S14.

Duarte MM, Rocha JB, Moresco RN, Duarte T, Da Cruz IB, Loro VL, et al. Association between ischemia-modified albumin, lipids and inflammation biomarkers in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Clin Biochem 2009; 42: 666-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.01.010

Duachet L, Amouyel P, Dallongeville J. Fruits,vegetables and coronary heart disease. Nat Rev Cardiol 2009; 6: 599-608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrcardio.2009.131

Gan Y, Tong X, Li L, Cao S, Yin X, Gao C, et al. Consumption of fruit and vegetable and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Cardiol 2015; 183: 129-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.01.077

Hall JN, Moore S, Harper SB, Lynch JW. Global variability in fruit and vegetable consumption. Am J Prev Med 2009; 36(5): 402-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2009.01.029

Akepalakorn W, editor. The Thailand National Health Examination Survey IV 2008-2009. Nonthaburi: The Graphico System, 2011.

Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Vinson JA, Bagchi D. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007; 51: 675-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700002

Streppel MT, Ocké MC, Boshuizen HC, Kok FJ, Kromhout D. Dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality over 40 y: the Zutphen Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88(4): 1119-25.

Mink PJ, Scrafford CG, Barraj LM, Harnack L, Hong CP, Nettleton JA, et al. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85: 895-909.

Aramwit P, Bang N, Srichana T. The properties and stability of anthocyanins in mulberry fruits. Food Res Int 2010; 43: 1093-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.01.022

Jeszka JW. Food colorants.In: Sikorski ZE,editor. Chemical and functional Properties of food Components.3rd ed. New York: Taylor & Francis Group; 2007; p. 245-74.

Castañeda-Ovando A, de Lourdes Pacheco-Hernández M, Páez-Hernández ME, Rodríguez JA, Galán-Vidal CA. Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review. Food Chem 2009; 113: 859-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.001

Zhao CL, Guo1 HC, Dong ZY, Zhao Q. Pharmacological and nutritional activities of potato anthocyanins. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 2: 463-8.

Liu LK, Lee HJ, Shih YW, Chyau CC, Wang CJ. Mulberry anthocyanin extracts inhibit LDL oxidation and macrophage-derived foam cell formation induced by oxidative LDL. J Food Sci 2008; 73(6): 113-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00801.x

Ou TT, Hsu MJ, Chan KC, Huang CN, Ho HH, Wang CJ. Mulberry extract inhibits oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation via reduction of lipogenesis and promotion of hepatic lipid clearance. J Sci Food Agric 2011; 91: 2740-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4489

Pansuwan S, Nuipirom W, Apinyanuwat S, Numphanon H, Jomduang S. Study on product of mulberry freeze drying. Annual research report of sericulture 2007, Bangkok; 2008: pp. 285-93.

Qin Y, Xia M, Ma J, Hao Y, Liu J, Mou H, et al. Anthocyanin supplementation improves serum LDL- and HDL- cholesterol concentrations associated with the inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in dyslipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90: 485-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.27814

Zhu Y, Ling W, Guo H, Song F, Ye Q, Zou T, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of purified dietary anthocyanin in adults with hypercholesterolemia: A randomized controlled trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2013; 23: 843-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2012.06.005

Basu A,Wilkinson M, Penugonda K, Simmons B, Betts NM, Lyons TJ. Freeze-dried strawberry powder improves lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in women with metabolic syndrome: baseline and post intervention effects. Nutr J 2009; 8: 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-8-43

Basu A, Fu DX, Wilkinson M, Simmons B, Wu M, Betts NM, et al. Strawberries decrease atherosclerotic markers in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res 2010; 30: 462-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2010.06.016

Curtis PJ, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ, Walls R, Jenkins G, Kay CD, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers and liver and kidney function are not altered in postmenopasausal women after ingesting an elderberry extract rich in anthocyanins for 12 weeks. J Nutr 2009; 139(12): 2266-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.113126

Numphanon H, Nuipirom W, Apinyanuwat S, et al. Production development of retort pouch mulberry in syrup. Annual research report of sericulture 2007, Bangkok; 2008: pp. 572-604.

de Pascual-Teresa S, Moreno DA, Garcia-Viguera C. Flavanols and anthocyanins in cardiovascular Health: A review of current evidence. Int J Mol Sci 2010; 11: 1679-703. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms11041679

Koca I, Tural S. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.) grown in Turkey. Sci Hort 2008; 116: 362-6.

Hassimotto NM, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM. Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted from wild mulberry (Morus nigra L.) in rats. Nutr Res 2008; 28: 198-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2007.12.012

Valenti L, Riso P, Mazzocchi A, Porrini M, Fargion S, Agostoni C. Dietary anthocyanins as nutritional therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2013; 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/145421

Yang X, Yang L, Zheng H. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit in hyperlipidaemia rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48: 2374-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.05.074

Duangjai A, Ingkaninan K, Limpeanchob. Potential mechanisms of hypocholesterolemic effect of Thai spices/dietary extracts. Nat Prod Res 2011; 25(4): 341-352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786411003754249

Liu LK, Chou FP, Chen YC Chyau CC, Ho HH, Wang CJ. Effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) extracts on lipid homeostasis in vitro and in vivo. J Agric Food Chem 2009; 26(57): 7605-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9014697

Liang L, Wu X, Zhu M, Zhao W, Li F, Zou Y, et al. Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China. Pharmacogn Mag 2012; 8(31): 215-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.99287

Ma KY, Yang N, Jiao R, Peng C, Guan L, Huang Y, et al. Dietary calcium decreases plasma cholesterol by down-regulation of intestinal Niemann–Pick C1 like 1 and microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein and up-regulation of CYP7A1 and ABCG 5/8 in hamsters. Mol Nutr Food Res 2011; 55: 247-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201000161

Ozguven MG, Ozcelik B. Dried mulberries:phytochemicals and health effects. In: Alasalvar C, Shahidi F, editors. Dried fruits phytochemicals and health effects. Oxford, John Wiley & Sons; 2013; pp. 145-60.

de Castro TG, Gimeno SG, Ferreira SR, Cardoso MA; Japanese-Brazilian Diabetes Study Group. Association of dietary fiber with temporal changes in serum cholesterol in Japanese-Brazilians. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2006; 52: 205-10.

Marlett JA, McBurney MI, Slavin JL; American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc 2002; 102: 993-1000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90228-2

Downloads

Published

2016-01-05

How to Cite

Anchalee Sirikanchanarod, Akkarach Bumrungpert, Wiroje Kaewruang, Tipanee Senawong, & Patcharanee Pavadhgul. (2016). The Effect of Mulberry Fruits Consumption on Lipid Profiles in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 6(1), 7–14. https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2016.06.01.2

Issue

Section

Articles