Effects of Antrodia Camphorata Mycelia Extract Containing Antroquinonol on Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Randomized Double-Blind Study


 Antrodia camphorate, Antroquinonol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL receptor genes, randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.

How to Cite

Miles Chih-Ming Chena, Pei-Ni Chena, Howard Hao-Yu Chenga, Wayne Ching-Cheng Weia, Ryuji Takedab, Mitsuko Moric, & Kiichiro Mochidad. (2017). Effects of Antrodia Camphorata Mycelia Extract Containing Antroquinonol on Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Randomized Double-Blind Study. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 7(3), 73–80. https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2017.07.03.1


Objective: Antrodia camphorata is a type of true fungus that grows only on Cinnamomum camphora trees, also known as Cinnamomum kanehirae (“kashi”) in Taiwan. Antroquinonol is a characteristic component of A. camphorata mycelia extract and was previously shown to exhibit antitumor action and lower blood cholesterol (total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) in cellular and animal models. So, This study examined the ability of A. camphorata mycelia extract to reduce LDL cholesterol in humans.

Methods: We conducted a randomized double-blind trial in 26 subjects with either borderline LDL cholesterol (120–139 mg/dL; n = 11) or mildly elevated LDL cholesterol (140–159 mg/dL; n = 15). Participants ingested tablets containing either 25 mg of A. camphorata mycelia extract (antroquinonol: 0.68 mg; n = 14) or a placebo (n = 12) for 12 weeks.

Results: The test group showed a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol when compared with the placebo group after 12 weeks of tablet ingestion (p < 0.05), demonstrating the effects of A. camphorata mycelia extract on LDL cholesterol. A. camphorata mycelia extract also tended to reduce total cholesterol when compared with the placebo (p < 0.10). The borderline LDL cholesterol and mildly elevated LDL cholesterol subgroups showed a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol in subjects who ingested A. camphorata mycelia extract compared with those who ingested the placebo, again demonstrating the LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of the extract.

Conclusion: A. camphorata mycelia extract lowers LDL cholesterol in individuals with somewhat high LDL cholesterol levels.

This clinical trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN no. # 000019670).



Ross R. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: A perspective for the 1990s. Nature 1993; 362: 801-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/362801a0

Scandinavian. Simvastatin. Survival. Study. Group. Randomized trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Lancet 1994; 344: 1383-9.

Gordon T, Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Dawber TR. Lipoproteins, cardiovascular disease, and death: The Framingham study. Arch Intern Med 1981; 141: 1128-31. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1981.00340090024008

Stamler J, Wentworth D, Neaton JD. Is relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease continuous and graded? Findings in 356, 222 primary screeners of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). JAMA 1986; 256: 2823-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1986.03380200061022

Pooling. Project. Research. Group. Relationship of blood pressure, serum cholesterol, smoking habit, relative weight and ECG abnormalities to incidence of major coronary events: Final report of the pooling project. J Chronic Dis 1978; 31: 201-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681(78)90073-5

Iso H, Naito Y, Sato S, Kitamura A, Okamura T, Sankai T, Shimamoto T, Iida M, Komachi Y. Serum triglycerides and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese men and women. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153(5): 490-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/153.5.490

Imano H, Noda H, Kitamura A, Sato S, Kiyama M, Sankai T, Ohira T, Nakamura M, Yamagishi K, Ikeda A, Shimamoto T, Iso H. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese men and women: the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS). Prev Med 2011; 52(5): 381-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.02.019

Salen G, Ahrens EH Jr., Grundy SM. Metabolism of beta-sitosterol in man. J Clin Invest 1970; 49: 952-67. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI106315

Lees AM, Mok HY, Lees RS, McCluskey MA. Grundy SM, Plant sterols as cholesterollowering agents: Clinical trials in patients with hypercholesterolemia and studies of sterol balance. Atherosclerosis 1977; 28: 325-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(77)90180-0

Kusaba N, Ikeguchi M, Takagaki K. Effect of Tablet Containing Pine Bark Extract on serum Lipid level Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Parallel Study. Pharmacometrics 2015; 89(3/4): 69-73.

USDA. Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee 2015. http://www.health.gov/ dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/

Japan. Atherosclerosis. Society. Opinion of the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Regarding the ACC/AHA Guidelines 2014. homepage: http://www.j-athero.org/outline/ guideline_lifestyle.htm.l

Lee TH, Lee CK, Tsou WL, Liu SY, Kuo MT, Wen WC. A new cytotoxic agent from solid-state fermented mycelium of Antrodia camphorata. Planta Med 2007; 73: 1412-1415. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-990232

Chang WH, Chen MC, Cheng IH. Antroquinonol Lowers Brain Amyloid-? Levels and Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Sci Rep 2015; 5: 15067. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep15067

Yang SM, Ka SM, Hua KF, Wu TH, Chuang YP, Lin YW, Yang FL, Wu SH, Yang SS, Lin SH, Chang JM, Chen A. Antroquinonol mitigates an accelerated and progressive IgA nephropathy model in mice by activating the Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting T cells and NLRP3 inflammasome. Free Radic Biol Med 2013; 61: 285-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.03.024

Tsai PY, Ka SM, Chao TK, Chang JM, Lin SH, Li CY, Kuo MT, Chen P, Chen A. Antroquinonol reduces oxidative stress by enhancing the Nrf2 signaling pathway and inhibits inflammation and sclerosis in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis mice. Free Radic Biol Med 2011; 50(11): 1503-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.02.029

Kumar KJ, Chu FH, Hsieh HW, Liao JW, Li WH, Lin JC, Shaw JF, Wang SY. Antroquinonol from ethanolic extract of mycelium of Antrodia cinnamomea protects hepatic cells from ethanol-induced oxidative stress through Nrf-2 activation. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 136(1): 168-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.030

Tsai PY, Ka SM, Chang JM, Lai JH, Dai MS, Jheng HL, Kuo MT, Chen P, Chen A. Antroquinonol differentially modulates T cell activity and reduces interleukin-18 production, but enhances Nrf2 activation, in murine accelerated severe lupus nephritis. Arthritis Rheum 2012; 64(1): 232-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.33328

Chang JM, Lee YR, Hung LM, Liu SY, Kuo MT, Wen WC, Chen P. An Extract of Antrodia camphorata Mycelia Attenuates the Progression of Nephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Prone NZB/W F1 Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011; 2011: 465894. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nen057

Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) Guidelines for Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012.

Consumer. Affairs. Agency. Government of Japan., 2014. Notification No. 259.

World. Medical. Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. JAMA 2013; 310(20): 2191-4. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.281053

Kuo YH, Lin CH, Shih CC. Dehydroeburicoic Acid from Antrodia camphorate Prevents the Diabetic and Dyslipidemic State via Modulation of Glucose Transporter 4, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Expression and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice. Int J Mol Sci 2016; 17(6): pii: E872. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17060872

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2017 Miles Chih-Ming Chena, Pei-Ni Chena, Howard Hao-Yu Chenga, Wayne Ching-Cheng Weia; Ryuji; Mitsuko Moric , Kiichiro Mochidad