Purpose: The present study investigated utilisation of Fabaceae species as herbal medicines for respiratory infections and related symptoms in the Limpopo Province, South Africa.
Methods: Information on Fabaceae species used as herbal medicines against respiratory infections was gathered using semi-structured questionnaires during face-to-face interviews with 240 Pedi speaking traditional healers (THs) from May to July 2017. Voucher specimens of utilized plant species were collected and their identities and scientific names authenticated by a plant taxonomist at the University of Limpopo’s Larry Leach Herbarium.
Results: Twenty-five plant species belonging to 16 genera were used by THs in treating 13 respiratory infections. Majority of the species (64.0%, n=16) were multi-used while 36.0% (n=9) treated a single condition each. Plants which showed the highest fidelity level (FL) scores included Acacia senegal (chronic cough=FL; 32.8, chest pain=FL; 32.8, tuberculosis=FL; 32.8), Dichrostachys cinerea (tuberculosis= FL; 100) and Acacia erioloba (pneumonia=FL; 92.7). These species were also characterized by high use value (UV) indices of 2.5, 0.82 and 0.58, respectively.
Conclusion: Some of the plants recorded in this study are reported in literature to have potent biological activities against diverse pathogens which cause respiratory infections and perceived symptoms.
Wojciechowski MF, Sanderson MJ, et al. Molecular phylogeny of the ‘temperate herbaceous tribes’ of papilionoid legumes: a supertree approach. In: Herendeen PS, Bruneau A, editors. Advances in legumes systematics 9. London: Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens 2000; pp. 277-98.
Christenhusz MJM, Byng JW. The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa 2016; 261(3): 201-17. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1
Molares S, Ladio A. The usefulness of edible and medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: environmental availability and other sources of supply. Evidence-Based Complem Altern Med 2012; Volume 2012, Article ID 901918. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/901918
Angagan JS, Buot IEB, et al. Ethnobotany of the plant resources in Conner, Apayao, northern Luzon, Philippines. J Nature Studies 2010; 9(1): 31-38.
Rijal A. Surviving on knowledge: ethnobotany of Chepang community from midhills of Nepal. Ethnobot Res Appl 2011; 9: 181-215.
Aryal PK, Poudel S, et al. Diversity and use of wild and non-cultivated edible plants in the Western Himalaya. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2018; 14: 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0211-1
Oryem-origa H, Kakudidi EKZ, et al. Preliminary ethno-botanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District, Uganda. Bothalia 1995; 25(1): 111-19. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v25i1.720
Bussmann RW. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, south Turkana, Kenya. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2006; 2: 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-2-35
Mekonen T, Giday M, Kelbessa E. Ethnobotanical study of home garden plants in Sebeta-Awas district of the Oromia region of Ethiopia to assess use, species diversity and management practices. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2015; 11: 64. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-015-0049-8
Maroyi A, Rasethe MT. Comparative use patterns of plant resources in rural areas of South Africa and Zimbabwe. Int J Exp Bot Pyton 2015; 84: 288-97.
Mabogo DEN. The ethnobotany of Vhavenda. MSc dissertation. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.
Van Wilgen NJ, Dopolo M, et al. An inventory of natural resources harvested from national parks in South Africa. Koedoe 2013; 55(1): Art. #1096. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v55i1.1096
Rasethe MT, Semenya SS, et al. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2013; 9: 27. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-27
Mphephu TS. Sustainable natural resource utilisation: A case study of ethnobotanically important plant taxa in the Thulamela Local Municipality, Limpopo province. MSc Dissertation. Johannesburg: University of Johanneburg 2017.
Maroyi A. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild and cultivated plants in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2017; 13: 43. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-017-0173-8
Singh A. Bioactive compounds from South African plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PhD Thesis. Durban: Durban University of Technology 2016.
Eldeen IMS, Van Staden J. Antimycobacterial activity of some trees used in South African traditional medicine. S Afr J Bot 2007; 73: 248-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2006.09.004
Madikizela B, Ndhlala AR, et al. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts from plants used traditionally in South Africa to treat tuberculosis and related symptoms. Evidence-Based Complem Altern Med 2013; Volume 2013, Article ID 840719. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/840719
Suliman A. The antimicrobial activity and chemical profile of traditional medicinal plants indigenous to Southern Africa used to treat respiratory tract infections. MSc dissertation. Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand 2010.
Mmushi T, Masoko P, et al. Antimycobacterial evaluation of fifteen medicinal plants in South Africa. Afr J Trad Complem Altern Med 2010; 7(1): 34-9.
Bolou GEK, Bagré I, et al. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of 14 medicinal plants in Côte d’Ivoire. Trop J Pharmaceut Res 2011; 10(3): 335-40. https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v10i3.3
Madureira AM, Ramalhete C, et al. Antibacterial activity of some African medicinal plants used traditionally against infectious diseases. Pharmaceut Biol 2012; 50(4): 481-9. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2011.615841
Kahaliw W, Aseffa A, et al. Evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity of crude extracts and solvent fractions of selected Ethiopian medicinal plants. BMC Complem Altern Med 2017; 17: 143. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1563-0
Capricorn District Municipality 2014-2015. Integrated development plant 2014-2015, Capricorn District Municipality, Polokwane. Available from: https://www. polokwane.gov.za/City-Documents/Shared%20Documents/ IDP/2015%20Final%20IDP%20Part%201.pdf.
Limpopo Provincial Government. Greater Sekhukhune Municipal District; 2015. Available from: http://www.ldrt.gov. za/LPFDB/authorities-greater-sekhukhune.html.
Waterberg District Municipality 2014-2015. Integrated development plant 2014-2015. Waterberg District Municipality, Modimolle. Available from: http://www. modimolle.gov.za/docs/MLM%20Final%20Review%202014-15%20IDP%20%20(Autosaved)_docx%20meme_docxnanamaluleka.pdf
Al-Quran S. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 123: 45-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.02.031
Andrade-Cetto A, Heinrich M. From the field into the lab: useful approaches to selecting species based on local knowledge. Front Pharmacol 2011; 2: 1-5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2011.00020
Phillips O, Gentry AH, et al. Quantitative ethnobotany and Amazonian conservation. Conserv Biol 1994; 8: 225-48. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1994.08010225.x
Padal SB, Chandrasekhar P, Vijayakumar Y. Ethnomedicinal uses of some Fabaceae family plants of Narsipatnam Division, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Innovative Res Developm 2013; 2: 808-22.
Mergni M. Factors affecting treatment outcomes in tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. MSc dissertation. Mankweng: University of Limpopo 2013.
National Institute for Communicable Diseases. South African tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey 2012-14. Pretoria: National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Pretoria.
Okoro SO, Kawo AH, Arzai AH. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of Acacia senegal extracts. Bayero J Pure Appl Sci 2012; 5(1): 163-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bajopas.v5i1.29
Njeru SN, Obonyo MA. Potency of extracts of selected plant species from Mbeere, Embu county-Kenya against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Med Pl Res 2016; 10(12): 149-57. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6044
Mazimba O, Pharmacology and phytochemistry studies in Peltophorum africanum. Bull Faculty Pharm Cairo Univ 2014; 52: 145-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bfopcu.2014.01.001
Carovi?-Stanko K, Petek? M, et al. Medicinal plants of the family Lamiaceae as functional foods: a review. Czech J Food Sci 2016; 34: 377-90. https://doi.org/10.17221/504/2015-CJFS
Bhat RB. Medicinal plants and traditional practices of Xhosa people in the Transkei region of Eastern Cape, South Africa. Indian J Trad Knowl 2014; 13: 292-8.
Kipkore W, Wanjohi B, et al. A study of the medicinal plants used by the Marakwet community in Kenya. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2014; 10: 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-10-24
Masevhe NA, McGaw LJ, Eloff JN. The traditional use of plants to manage candidiasis and related infections in Venda, South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 168: 364-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.046
Woldeab B, Regassa R, et al. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhoeal related diseases in Ethiopia. Evidence-Based Complem Altern Med 2018; Volume 2018: Article ID 4630371. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4630371
Ibrahim HM. Pharmacognostic and antibacterial studies of Acacia sieberiana var. woodii (Fabaceae) stem bark. MSc dissertation. Zari: Ahmadu Bello University.
Kirabo I, Mabiki FP, et al. In vitro antibacterial potential of extracts of Sterculia africana, Acacia sieberiana, and Cassia abbreviata ssp. abbreviata used by yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) for possible self-medication in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Int J Zool 2018; Volume 2018: Article ID 9407962. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9407962
Jain R, Sharma P, et al. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Acacia senegal root heartwood. J Pharm Res 2012; 5(9): 4934-8.
Said MAL, Hossain MA, Ahmed AA. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic comparative study of different extracts of Omani and Sudanese gum acacia. Beni-Suef Uni J Basic Appl Sci 2018; 7: 22-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjbas.2017.10.007
Kubmarawa D, Khan ME, Shuaibu A. Comparative phytochemical screening and biological evaluation of n-hexane and water extracts of Acacia tortilis. Res Pharmaceut Biotechnol 2012; 4: 18-23. https://doi.org/10.5897/RPB11.029
Abubakar MNA, Majinda RRT. Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of Albizia adianthifolia. Res Reviews J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2015; 3: 46-51.
Nawinda TN. Antibacterial, antioxidant and phytochemical investigation of Albizia anthelmintica leaves, roots and stem bark. MSc dissertation. Windhoek: University of Namibia.
Kareru PG, Gachanja AN, et al. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants used by herbalists in Eastern province, Kenya. Afr J Trad Complem Altern Med 2008; 5(1): 51-5.
Amom T-AT, Vershima AJ. Phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial activity: a comparison of various extracts from some Nigerian trees. Peak J Med Pl Res 2013; 1: 13-8.
Mongalo N, Mafoko B. Cassia abbreviata Oliv. a review of its ethnomedicinal uses, toxicology, phytochemistry, possible propagation techniques and Pharmacology. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 7(45): 2901-6. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP12.1017
Anita A, Malar RA. A study on the bioactive compounds present in leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea. Green Chem Technol Letters 2016; 2: 20-5. https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2015.214
Maroyi A. Elephantorrhiza elephantina: traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of an important medicinal plant species in southern Africa. Evidence-Based Complem Altern Med 2017; Voulume 2017: Article ID 6403905. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6403905
Maroyi A. Phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review of Elephantorrhiza goetzei (Harms) Harms. Asian Pacific J Trop Med 2017; 10: 107-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.01.014
Juma BF, Majinda RRT. Three new compounds from Erythrina lysistemon and their antimicrobial, radical scavenging activities and their brine shrimp lethality. 11th NAPRECA Symposium Book of Proceedings, Antananarivo, Madagascar 2005.
Machaba TC, Mahlo SM. Antifungal activity of medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of fungal infections and related ailments in South Africa. Technical Report, University of Limpopo 2017.
Mazimba O, Masesane IB, et al. GC-MS Analysis and antimicrobial activities of the non-polar extracts of Mundulea sericea. S Afr J Chem 2012; 65: 50-2.
Ntsoelinyane PH, Mashele SS, Manduna IT. The anticancer, antioxidant and phytochemical screening of Philenoptera violacea and Xanthocercis zambesiaca leaf, flower and twig extracts. Int J Pharmacol Res 2014; 4: 100-5. https://doi.org/10.7439/ijpr
MacGaw LJ, Jager AK, van Staden J. Isolation of antibacterial fatty acids from Schotia brachypetala. Fitoterapia 2002; 73: 431-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00120-X
Hailu T, Bachheti RK, Dekebo A. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Senna didymobotrya seed extracts. Der Pharma Chemica 2016; 8(1): 111-6.
Jeruto P, Arama PF, et al. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial investigations of crude methanol extracts of Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby. J Appl Biosci 2017; 114: 11345-56. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v114i1.9
Odeja O, Obi G, et al. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Senna occidentalis (L.) leaves extract. Clinical Phytosci Int J Phytomed Phytoth 2015; 1: 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40816-015-0007-y
Laher F, Aremu AO, et al. Evaluating the effect of storage on the biological activity and chemical composition of three South African medicinal plants. S Afr J Bot 2013; 88: 414-8.
Chingwaru W, Duodu G, et al. Antibacterial and anticandidal activity of Tylosema esculentum (marama) extracts. S Afr J Sci 2011; 107(3-4): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajs.v107i3/4.366
Abdalla WE, Abdalla EM. Promising Sudanese medicinal plants with antibacterial activity: a review article. Biol Forum An Int J 2016; 8(1): 299-323.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2018 Sebua Silas Semenya , Alfred Maroyi